George Nugent Grenville Nugent.

Some memorials of John Hampden : his party and his times online

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TO 1625.

Ancestry and Family of Hampden His Education and early Life Intro-
ductory Matter Posture of Public Aflairs Advance of general
Information and the spirit of Liberty James the First Disputes
with his first Parliament concerning Privileges and Supply
Disgusts the Nobility, and persecutes the Puritans Dissolution
Second Parliament Undertakers Dissolution Third Parliament
Hampden takes his Seat His Mother urges him to seek a Peerage
First Parliamentary Party Proceedings against Delinquents
Remonstrances Answers of the King Protestation Dissolution
Commitments of Members Villiers, Duke of Buckingham His
influence over the Prince Disasters of his Administration A new
Parliament On better terms with the King Buckingham's influence
declines Death of the King


FROM 1625 TO 1628.

Accession of Charles the First His Character Appearance of a Reform-
ation in the manners of the Court Renewal of arbitrary Measures
Project of the Popular Party for extending the Representation Right
of Election restored to several Boroughs Ilampden elected for Wen-
dover Two Subsidies granted Votes of Censure and Enquiry


Further Supplies refused Dissolution Forced Loans Ships lent to
France to serve against the Huguenots Failure of the Expedition to
Cadiz, and; blockade of Dunkirk Second Parliament Buckingham
impeached Elected Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
Seizure of Members Dissolution Hampden imprisoned Oppressive
Imposts Members released A new Parliament Petition of Right
Further attempts at Redress of Grievances Activity and industry of
Hampden Prorogation Merchants' Goods seized Failure of the
Expedition to Rochelle Death of Buckingham Failure of a second
Expedition Surrender of Rochelle . 32


FROM 1628 TO 1629.

Eminent Persons of the Country Party won over by the Court Wentworth
Saville Noy A new Session A Bill proposed to legalise Tonnage
and Poundage The Speaker refuses to put a Resolution of Privilege
The Commons' Protest Dissolution Hampden on Divers Commit-
tees of the House Members committed to the Tower Removed to
prevent their Appearance to a Writ of Habeas Corpus Sir John Eliot
Certain unjust Aspersions on his Memory Letters to him from
Hampden concerning his Sons Hampden retires into Private Life
Violences of Laud, and Sufferings of the Puritans Dr. Morley, Dr.
' Hales, and Dr. Heylin Star Chamber, and High Commission Court
Hampden's first Wife dies First Writ for the Levy of the Ship-
Money . 58


FROM 1635 TO 1640.

Ship-Money The Levy extended to Inland Places Motives lately im-
puted to Hampden for his Opposition to it The Grounds of that
imputation examined Hampden, and Thirty other Freeholders of the
Parish of Great Kimble, in Buckinghamshire, refuse Payment Sir
Peter Temple, the High Sheriff, summoned to answer for Arrears
Disconsolate Letter from him to his Mother Proceedings against
Hampden Judges declare for the Crown General Discontent of the
Country Emigration of Puritans Prohibited Hampden and others
detained Independents and Presbyterians begin to separate Insur-
rection in Scotland, and First Episcopal War Treaty of Berwick -
Short Parliament summoned Hanip'k'ii 'luits, fnr Hie last time, his
retirement in Buckinghamshire . . . . . 93



FROM 1640 TO 1641.

Short Parliament Industry of Hampden Hampden marries his second
wife Bishop Williams solicits his assistance in a case of Privilege
with the Lords Vane announces a message from the King con-
cerning Ship-Money and Supply Opposite Resolutions moved by
Hampden and Hyde Vane's angry declaration Dissolution Votes
of Convocation, and renewed Resolutions of Grievances Second
Scotch War Scots pass the Tweed and Tyne Treaty of Ripon
Meetings of the Country party, and correspondence with the Scots
Opening oT the Long "Parliament Committees of Grievances
PrisTHienrof the Star-Chamber liberated Strafford, Laud, and others
committed Trial of Strafford Bill of Attainder Conduct of
Hampden respecting that measure examined Perfidy of the King . 126


Triennial Bill Corruptions of the Churchmen Bill to restrain the Clergy
from secular offices Missions of Panzani and Rosetti Temporising
of the High Church Party in England with the Romish Discipline
Ground of Clarendon's Imputation against Hampden examined Lord
Say Nathaniel Fiennes Lord Kimbolton Lord Digby Sir Harry
Vane, the Younger Strode Hazelrigge Sir Edward Deering Oliver
Cromwell Pym Root-and-Branch Bill for rendering Parliament
indissoluble but with its own consent Proceedings against Finh,
Windebanke, and others Result of the changes in Government
Great Seal given to Sir Edward Littleton Army Plot . . .167


FROM 1641 TO 1642.

The King's project of visiting Scotland Opposed by the Commons
Encouraged by the Scots The King arrives at Edinburgh
Cultivates Popularity with the Covenanters Hampden, and others,
Commissioners to attend upon the King Intrigues and Violences of
MoSlrose The Scottish Incident Irish Insurrection The King
returns to London Grand Protestation Defections from the Country
Party Demand of the King for the Surrender of Kimbolton and the


IFivu MrniU-i-.-, - CiiimiiiUi f rrivilf.'r.-, r.'tirc t<i the City I
iii Triumph to Westminster Petition of the Buckinghamshire Men
King leaves London Departure of the Queen King goes to York
Summons of Hull Declaration of his Cause Is joined by Lords
Raises his Standard Hampden' s motives and Falkland's compared
Breaking out of the Great Civil War 201



Posture of the two parties Their motives and objects Falkland, and
others who take part for the King Sir Bevill Grenvil His letter
to Sir John Trelawney Formation of the Parliament Armies Loans,
and Contributions of Money and Plate The Fleet declares for the
Parliament King's conditions from Nottingham rejected Hampden
captures the King's Oxfordshire Commissioners at Ascot Conflicts
in divers parts Siege and surrender of Portsmouth Coventry and
Northampton attacked by the King's troops Lord Brook Brook
and Hampden repulse the King's troops at Southam Conditions of
submission proposed to Lord Brook before Warwick His Answer
He assembles his levies, and harangues his ofiicers, at Warwick Castle 244



Defence of Warwick Castle by Sir Edward Peto Of Caldecot Manor-
House by Mrs. Purefoy Lord Essex advances to Worcester His
Speech to his Army Skirmish at Powick Bridge -Parliamentarians
enter Worcester Parliament's Petition for Peace Rejected by the
King Essex advances his Army Hampden and Holies defeat a party
near Aylesbury and pursue them into Worcestershire The King
puts himself in march towards London Edge Hill fight March
through the Midland counties Action between Balfore and Rupert at
Aylesbury Battle of Brentford Retreat of the King . . . 276


FROM 1642 TO 1643.

Haulpden and Urrie take Reading by assault Hampden arranges the pkn

uf uiiinii ..f tin- <i\- .isM.,-i;itt.'<l counties- I'.-irliniii'.-nt's tnjoj.s pivs upuu
the King's quarters at Oxford Lord Wentworth attacks High
Wycombe, and is repulsed Essex retires King's successes in divers


parts Queen lands in England Reading re-entered by the King's
troops Hampden and Mr. Richard Grenvil repulsed from Brill Sir
Bevill Grenvil in Cornwall Bradock Down, and Stratton Hill Lans-
down Trelawney's letter to the Lady Grace Grenvil, announcing Sir
Be vill's death Siege of Lichfield Lord Brook slain Warder Castle
twice taken Overtures of peace, and cessation of arms Broken off
Reading besieged by Lord Essex Surrenders Defections from the
Parliament's cause Waller's Plot Rupert's expeditions against the
Parliament's quarters Attacks Chinnor and Postcombe Chalgrove
fight Hampden wounded His last moments and death Conclusion
of the Memorials. . . .315



Page 173, for "Appendix B" read "Appendix E."

Page 237, for "Appendix C" read "Appendix F.'

,, for "Appendix D" read "Appendix G.'



THE readers of the Memorials of Hampden will perhaps
not think it unbecoming that a brief outline of the principal
incidents of Lord Nugent' s life should be prefixed to a revised
edition of the book which he most desired should be connected
with his name. Though highly born, endowed with talents
and tastes that would have distinguished him in any condition,
and devoted to public affairs, Lord Nugent failed to exercise
any marked influence in political life ; but he has left behind
him the example, always well worthy of being placed on record,
of a man faithful to opinions which he believed to be just,
displaying them without regard to personal consequences, pre-
ferring them to his interests, and always ready to make sacrifices
for them. He was a steady, courageous, and consistent
politician ; and no man was more endeared to his friends by
delightful social qualities.

Lord George Grenville, born on the 31st December 1789,
at Kilmainham Hospital, Dublin, during his father's Lord-
Lieutenancy of Ireland, was the second son of that second Earl
Temple who was created Marquis of Buckingham in 1 7 84. But,
as he drew the title by which he is now best known, he seems
also to have derived his more marked traits of character, from
the family of his mother, the Lady Mary Elizabeth Nugent. His
maternal grandfather was Goldsmith's friend, Viscount Clare,
afterwards Earl Nugent.* His mother in her childhood and girl-

* On the dispersion of the contents of Stowe, Lord Nugent was ex-



hood was Goldsmith's playfellow, and one of her harmless prac-
tical jokes is given to Tony Lumpkin. In right of this lady, whom
his father married in 1775, the year after Goldsmith's death, and
on whom, at the close of 1800, was conferred the Irish barony
of Nugent with remainder to her second son, Lord George
Grenville took the title of the barony. His birthright may
thus be said to have included something higher than mere
rank. He inherited a genial nature and humour, as well as
cordial tastes, and most respectable talents in literature.
Tor, Goldsmith's patron and friend, whose reported portliness
of person had also descended to his grandson, was a writer not
at all of mean mark, and there are verses in his Ode to
Pulteney which Akenside or Pope might have written. One
of them is quoted by Gibbon to illustrate his character of

There was a difference of thirteen years between the eldest
and the second son of Lord Buckingham ; and when, on the
death of the latter in February 1813, Ei chard became second
Marquis, his brother George had been not .many months
second Lord Nugent, having succeeded to the title on his
mother's death, in March 1812.

ceedingly anxious to obtain, for his relative Sir George Nugent, a portrait
of his grandfather which had belonged to Lady Buckingham, and on
expressing his wish to Lord Lansdowne, who was reported to have given
a commission for its purchase at the sale, received the subjoined note.
'Bo wood, Sept. 10. Dear Lord Nugent, You will easily believe that if I
' had given any commission for the purchase of Lord Nugent's portrait at
' Stowe, I should instantly have withdrawn it, on receiving your letter :
' but the fact is that I never had any thought of purchasing it.

' Your inquiry on the subject recalls to my recollection, that, standing in
'the presence of a great crowd before the picture, I said to Lord Granville,
'who was with me, "That is an interesting portrait, for I have heard from
' " those who recollected him that he was a person of singular humour and
' " talent for conversation, and the face shows it," which may have reached
' the bystanders, and led to a report, with about as much foundation as
' ninety-nine reports in a hundred have.

' I sincerely hope Sir George will attain his object.

' Believe me very faithfully yours,



He had passed with some distinction through his under-gra-
duate course at Oxford, and he left it, as he continued to the
close of his life, a fair classical scholar. He was a member
of Brazenose, at which College the date of his matriculation
was the 25th April 1804 ; * and in 1807 he contended success-
fully for the prize in English prose composition, though it was
afterwards found that he had not completed the four years'
residence necessary to qualify him for receiving the prize
awarded. I have not seen this Essay,t but the subject was
' Duelling/ and we may well believe that the feeling of the gen-
tleman, as well as the scholar's accomplishments, were conspi-
cuous in a composition which on such a theme could bear away
the palm from many high-spirited competitors. The Principal
and Fellows of Brazenose testified their sense of his merit on
the occasion, and their sympathy with the accident that diverted
its due reward from himself to another member of their college,
Mr. Allen, by voting him, out of the college funds, a magnifi-
cently bound copy of the three splendid quartos of Musgrave's
Euripides, which to the last day of his life occupied the most
conspicuous place in his little library at Lilies, and from which
I copy the following inscription :

' Honoratissimo Domino, GEORGIO GRENVILLE, cui in Cancel-
' larii Oxoniensis certamiue Palrnam ob ingenii splendorem
'Academia lubenter adjucavit, earn tamen reportaudam ob
1 Quadriennium nondum exactum victori invita denegavit, hoc
' munusculum ut ejus merita et suain ipsorum comprobationem
' testentur, D.D., Principalis et Socii Collegii JSnei Nasi,

* I inferred, from observing among Iris papers letters addressed to him
at Christchurch, that he had afterwards changed his college ; but on appli-
cation to my friend the Rev. Christopher Erie, the Rector of Hardwicke,
in Bucks, whose learning and scholarship not less than his generous and
kindly nature made him Lord Nugent's valued neighbour and intimate
friend in all the latter years of his life, he informs me that he never be-
longed to Christchurch.

f It was printed in the same year at Buckingham as ' written by Lord
' George Grenville.'

6 2


It will further mark the character of Lord George Grenville's
pursuits and tastes at this time, to record the fact of his
intimacy with Reginald Heber. This distinguished scholar,
who was six years his elder, took his Bachelor's degree
at Brazenose, in the second year of Lord George's under-
graduateship ; carried off the Chancellor's prize for the
English Essay, the year before Lord George successfully
contended for it ; and, after an interval of two years' foreign
travel, returned to Oxford and graduated Master of Arts in
1808. Among the few letters of his youth which Lord Nugent
had preserved, is one from Heber to his ' dear Grenville/
which is dated in the latter year, and the subject of which is
the TToXireta of Aristotle. The composition of a Treatise
on the Grecian Republics was now occupying Lord George ;
and Heber had been ' rummaging that code of slavery and
'prejudice (for such I begin to think it') for anything he
could find to assist his friend. 'There is nothing,' he
continues, ' which I think can be very useful to you, except
' you may observe, in confirmation of your assertion that the
' Republics of Greece were only a very extended aristocracy,
'that Aristotle always excludes from a well-ordered govern-
' ment, both bourgeois and peasants, whom he does not even
' account parts of the REPUBLIC ; and though he dissuades from
' the appointment of magistrates from one single family, he
' says their race, however, must be ou TO rvypv. You should,
' however, point out the main fault in the Grecian Republics,
' that their nobility or citizens, for they are the same thing,
' were too numerous ; which engendered a most intolerable
'bondage of those who were ordinibus adscripti. Aristotle
' declares that the peasants should be all attached to the soil,
' and slaves. I think I mentioned to you that he defines the
' authority of a father as monarchical ; the situation of his wife
' and children as answering to the aristocracy in a state and
' the slaves to the subjects, or helots ; without such unfortunate
' drudges, neither a state nor a family are perfect/ Another


allusion in the letter, in which he recites some authorities for ' the
' black and white bones of the Calmucks/ touches upon the scene
of his recent travels, and marks his friend's interest in them.
Some part of the next two years, Lord George Grenville passed
with the British army in the Peninsula, where war was raging ;
and at his return, in 1810, Lord Grenville having meanwhile
defeated Lord Eldon and the Duke of Beaufort in a contest
for the Chancellorship of Oxford, he received the degree of
D.C.L. on the occasion of his uncle's installation. The war
of liberation had now let loose as many pens as tongues, in
commemoration of the wrongs and struggles of Portugal and
Spain ; Heber, in the preceding year, had written some graceful
verses on that theme ; and very early in 1812, Lord George
Grenville' s Portugal, a poem in two parts, was published in a
goodly quarto. Youth has had worse sins to answer for, and
indulged them in ways less easily forgotten. For though we
have more reason to laugh now, than the author of the Two-
penny Post Bag had then, at the 'patriot monsters from
' Spain ' whose decline in popularity he was somewhat
prematurely predicting

' Whether the Ministers paw'd them too much

(And you know how they spoil whatsoever they touch),

Or whether Lord George, the young man about town,
Has, by dint of bad poetry, written them down,

One has certainly lost one's peninsular rage.'*

this peninsular rage implied yet a high and manly feeling,
of which the 'young man about town' had no call to be ashamed.
His poem had no immortal stanzas in it, certainly, and may
have had some absurd ones ; but without any thoughts that
were not generous, and without any sympathies that were not
large and just on the side of public principles and national
struggles, it expressed such feelings,- upon the whole, in no
unpleasing or unbecoming form, and still remains, even for

* Intercepted Letters of Thomas Brown the Younger, Letter V.


us, a not uninteresting record of that hearty admiration for
our great leader in the memorable conflict, which, thus early
awakened in Lord Nugent's mind by the lines of Torres
Vedras, and the victories of Busaco, Badajoz, and Salamanca,
was never afterwards weakened by the party fidelities or poli-
tical enmities of later life.

The hero himself received it not ungratefully. He was at
Nevada, when, towards the end of 1812, the present Duke of
Richmond placed it in his hands. ' My dear Lord/ he writes
to Lord Nugent, ' many thanks for your letter of the 22nd
' October and your poem, which March delivered to me. I had
' already read the latter with the greatest pleasure ; and I am
' highly flattered by your dedication of it to me. You will
' have seen/ continues Lord Wellington, ' that we have had a
'terrible collection of troops upon us; and it was quite
' impossible that we could hold all the ground we had taken
'in consequence of our success in July. The enemy have
'treated us with great respect, and have done us but little
' mischief. The most severe weather, however, that I have
' ever known at this season of the year in any country, has
' done us some/ In the same letter Lord Wellington refers
to the death of Lord Nugent' s mother. ' I am happy to find/
he says, ' that Lord Buckingham is recovering in some
' degree. I have been always a little anxious respecting his
' return to Stowe. But you will all be about him ; and as he
' must return at some time or other, it is best that it should be
'early. Pray present my most affectionate respects to him,
' your brother, and Lady Temple/

Pretty nearly at the time when this letter was written, Lord
Nugent had himself been expressing to his father the same
feeling of anxiety and hope in regard to his return to Stowe,
and Lord Buckingham was thanking ' his dearest George ' for
that affectionate sympathy. ' I dread,' he continues, ' the first
' encounter of scenes that will recall so much of what will make
< my wounds bleed afresh ; but every delay adds to my


' reluctance, and unless I was determined to abandon the
' struggle, I feel that I ought not to defer it/ The letter
may be further quoted for the pleasing way in which it
marks Lord Nugent' s entrance into public life. The year in
which it was written, and in which Lady Buckingham's death*
bequeathed him the title by which he was always afterwards
known, was also that of the general election which followed
within a few months after Mr. Perceval's death, and the
reconstruction of his cabinet under the lead of Lord Liverpool.

* In the Second Edition of my Life of Goldsmith (ii. 364, 365) I have
printed a letter of Lord Nugent's written only a few months before his
own death, in which he speaks of his mother, as he recollected her a
few weeks before she died, with the grateful affection which to the last
accompanied every mention of her name. She divided his thoughts with
his wife (' the two highest-minded creatures and the ablest, that I ever
' knew '), and a very delightful crayon sketch of her, by Sir Joshua
Reynolds, hung always over the fire-place in the library at Lilies, as
happily it does to this day, Lord Nugent's brother-in-law, Doctor Connel,
still possessing both. It may not be out of place to subjoin another
striking proof of the way in which her virtues lived in the memory of those
who had felt their influence, in this letter of the late Field Marshal Sir
George Nugent, dated Westhorpe, July 22, 1837, and written to Lord
Nugent on the occasion of his contesting Aylesbury in that year.
Sir George was the illegitimate son of Lady Buckingham's father.
' My dear Friend,' he writes, ' I thank you for your affectionate letter.
' Although I promised to give my vote to Mr. Praedatthe ensuing election
' for Aylesbury, not having the least notion at the time that you were
' likely to become a candidate for the borough, yet as I had determined
' long ago, with my son George, never to oppose you again, I shall not
' attend the election there. I have passed too many happy days in your
' cheerful society and that of your dear wife, and have too strong an
' affection for you, from various heart-felt recollections, ever to do other-
' wise than love you sincerely. The debt of gratitude I owe to your
' dearest mother, for her affectionate attention to me throughout a long
' and eventful life ; and especially for her devotion to my dear children,
' when their parents were at so great a distance from them ; and the
' motherly interest she took in acquainting their dearest mother and me
' of their welfare, to the last moment of her existence ; affect me deeply,
' whenever I reflect upon her virtues. I cannot describe what we both felt,
' when we were suddenly informed of her death ; it dwelt upon our minds
' during the remainder of our stay in India, and we could never mention
' her name without tears in our eyes. I have always regretted that wa


In this general election Lord Nugent was returned member of
parliament for Aylesbury ; and, the failure of the attempt con-
sequent on Mr. Perceval's death, to form a government more
favourable to the Roman Catholics by the junction of Lords
Grenville and Grey with Lord Wellesley and Mr. Canning,
having left the Grenville family in a moderated opposition to
the court, Lord Buckingham thus writes of the elections to the
new member for Aylesbury. ' Every one whom I have heard
' speak upon it seems to think that we have certainly gained,
' at least, in the county elections. Canning and Gascoigne
' appear safe at Liverpool ' (this was the election in which
Canning defeated Brougham), 'and I conclude that he and

Online LibraryGeorge Nugent Grenville NugentSome memorials of John Hampden : his party and his times → online text (page 1 of 45)