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LIBRARY OF
WELLESLEY COLLEGE




BEQUEST OF



Helen Sard Hughes




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The Standard Operas



By GEORGE P. UPTON

MUSICAL HANDBOOKS
THE STANDARD OPERAS
THE STANDARD ORATORIOS
THE STANDARD CANTATAS
THE STANDARD SYMPHONIES
THE STANDARD LIGHT OPERAS
i2mo. Yellow edges. Per volume, $1.50



WOMAN IN MUSIC

i6mo. $1.00

MUSICAL PASTELS: A Series of
Essays on Quaint and Curious Musical
Subjects.

Large 8vo. 'With ten full-page illustrations from
rare wood engravings. $2.00 net.

A. C. McCLURG & COMPANY . CHICAGO




Lilli Lehmann as Isolde

Copyright, Aimd Dupont



The Standard Operas

Their Plots, Their Music, and
Their Composers



By George P. Upton

Author of

*' Standard Handbooks on Music/ ' " Life of Theodore

Thomas," etc., etc.



New Edition, Enlarged and Revised
Profusely Illustrated



Chicago

A. C. McClurg & Co.

1906







Copyright



By Jansen, McClurg & Co., 1885
By A. C. McClurg & Co., 1896, 1906

Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England



All rights reserved

This edition, published October 20, 1906, is the
nineteenth printing of this book






THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.



TO THE MEMORY

OF

THEODORE THOMAS

MASTER OF MUSIC



PREFACE

THE object of the compiler of this Handbook is to
present to the reader a brief but comprehensive
sketch of the operas contained in the modern repertory.
To this end he has consulted the best authorities, adding
to the material thus collected his own observations, and in
each case has presented a necessarily brief sketch of the
composer, the story of each opera, the general character
of its music, its prominent scenes and numbers, — the
latter in the text most familiar to opera-goers, — the date
of first performances, with a statement of the original cast
wherever it has been possible to obtain it, and such histori-
cal information concerning the opera and its composition
as will be of interest to the reader. As many new operas
have been produced since "The Standard Operas" was first
published, these have been included in the new edition,
although it is as yet uncertain whether some of them will
become "standard" in the strict sense of the word. In a
work of this kind, indeed, the selection of " standard "
operas must be somewhat arbitrary. It is difficult to say
where the line should be drawn. The writer's aim has
been to acquaint his reader with the prominent operas of
the past and the present, assuming that it may be well to
know their story and musical construction whether they
retain their places upon the stage or not. The work has



viii PREFACE

been prepared for the general public rather than for musi-
cians; and with this purpose in view, technicalities have
been avoided as far as possible, the aim being to give
musically uneducated lovers of opera a clear understand-
ing of the works they are likely to hear, and thus heighten
their enjoyment. To add to their pleasure and recall
delightful memories, the new edition has been illustrated
generously with portraits of leading artists in their most
favorite roles. In a word, the operas are described rather
than criticised, and the work is presented with as much
thoroughness as was possible, considering the necessarily
brief space allotted to each opera. In the preparation of
the Handbook the compiler acknowledges his indebtedness
to Grove's "Dictionary of Music," Baker's "Biographical
Dictionary of Musicians," Champlin and Apthorp's "Cyclo-
pedia of Music and Musicians," and Ramann's " Opern
Handbuch " for dates and other statistical information ;
and he has also made free use of standard musical works
in his library for historical events connected with the per-
formance and composition of the operas. He has sought
to obtain accuracy of statement by verification after consul-
tations of the best authors, and to make "Standard Operas"
a popular reference for opera-goers. It only remains to
submit this work to them with the hope that it may add
to their enjoyment and prove a useful addition to their
libraries.

G. P. U.

Chicago, June, 1906.



CONTENTS



Page

ADAM i

The Postilion of Longjumeau 2

AUBER .... 5

Fra Diavolo 6

Masaniello 9

The Crown Diamonds 12

BALFE 17

The Bohemian Girl 18

The Rose of Castile 22

BEETHOVEN 25

Fidelio 26

BELLINI 30

Norma 31

La Sonnambula 34

I Puritani 36

BENEDICT 39

The Lily of Killarney . 39

BIZET 43

Carmen 44

BOIELDIEU 48

La Dame Blanche 49

BOITO S 2

Mephistopheles . 53

BRULL 56

The Golden Cross 56



x CONTENTS

Page

CHERUB1NI 59

The Water Carrier (Les deux journees) .... 59

DAMROSCH 62

The Scarlet Letter 62

DE KOVEN 64

Robin Hood 64

Maid Marian 66

DELIBES 69

Lakme 69

DONIZETTI 73

The Daughter of the Regiment 74

La Favorita 76

Don Pasquale 79

Lucia di Lammermoor 81

L'Elisir d'Amore 84

Lucrezia Borgia 86

Linda de Chamouni . 88

FLOTOW 91

Martha 92

Stradella 95

GENEE 98

Nanon 98

GLUCK 101

Orpheus 102

GOETZ 106

The Taming of the Shrew 106

GOLDMARK no

The Queen of Sheba no

Merlin 113

GOUNOD 117

Faust 118

Romeo et Juliette 121

Philemon and Baucis 123



CONTENTS xi

Page

HALEVY 126

The Jewess 127

L'Eclair 129

HEROLD 132

Zampa 132

Le Pre aux Clercs 135

HUMPERDINCK 137

Hansel and Gretel 138

JAKOBOWSKI 142

Erminie 142

LECOCQ 144

Girofle-Girofla 144

La Fille de Madame Angot 147

LEONCAVALLO 150

I Pagliacci 151

LORTZING 154

Czar and Carpenter 154

MARSCHNER 157

Hans Heiling 158

MASCAGNI 161

Cavalleria Rusticana 162

Iris 165

L'Amico Fritz 166

MASSE 169

Paul and Virginia 169

La Reine Topaze . 171

The Marriage of Jeanette 17 2

MASSENET 174

Le Roi de Lahore 175

Le Cid . 177

Manon 180

Esclarmonde . 182



xii CONTENTS

Page

MEYERBEER 185

The Huguenots 186

The Star of the North 190

Robert the Devil 194

Dinorah 198

The Prophet 201

The African 205

MILLOCKER . . . .._ 209

The Beggar Student 209

MOZART 212

The Marriage of Figaro 213

Don Giovanni 218

The Magic Flute 223

NESSLER 229

The Trumpeter of Sakkingen 229

NICOLAI 233

The Merry Wives of Windsor 233

OFFENBACH 236

The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein 237

La Belle Helene 239

Orphee aux Enfers 241

PADEREWSKI 244

Manru 244

PLANQUETTE 248

The Chimes of Normandy 248

PONCHIELLI , 251

La Gioconda 251

PUCCINI 256

La Boheme . . . 256

La Tosca 259

REYER 262

Sigurd 262



CONTENTS xiii

Page

RICCI 266

Crispino 266

ROSSINI 269

The Barber of Seville 270

Semiramide 273

William Tell 277

RUBINSTEIN , 281

Nero 282

The Demon 285

SAINT-SAENS 287

Samson and Delila 288

Henry VIII 290

Proserpine 293

STRAUSS, JOHANN 296

The Merry War 297

The Bat (Die Fledermaus) 298

The Queen's Lace Handkerchief 299

The Gypsy Baron 301

STRAUSS, RICHARD 303

Feuersnot 304

SULLIVAN 308

The Sorcerer 309

H. M. S. Pinafore 311

The Pirates of Penzance 314

Patience 316

Iolanthe 319

Princess Ida 321

The Mikado 324

ruddygore 326

The Yeomen of the Guard 328

The Gondoliers 330

SUPPE 333

Fatinitza 233

Boccaccio 336

The Beautiful Galatea ....;....... 337



xiv CONTENTS

Page

THOMAS 340

MlGNON 34O

Hamlet 345

TSCHAIKOWSKY 347

Eugen Onegin , 347

VERDI 350

Ernani 351

Rigoletto 354

La Traviata 358

II Trovatore 361

The Masked Ball 365

Aida 368

Othello 372

Falstaff 375

WAGNER 379

RlENZI 380

The Flying Dutchman 386

Tannhauser 389

Lohengrin 393

Tristan und Isolde 398

The Mastersingers 401

The Ring of the Nibelung 406

Das Rheingold 414

Die Walkure 417

Siegfried 422

Die Gotterdammerung 426

Parsifal 430

WAGNER (SIEGFRIED) .437

Der Barenhauter 437

Der Kobold 439

WALLACE 441

Maritana 442

Lurline 446



CONTENTS xv

Page

WEBER 449

Der Freischutz 450

Oberon 456

euryanthe 460

preciosa . 463



APPENDIX 467

INDEX 47 1



LIST OF PORTRAITS



Lilli Lehmann as Isolde Frontispiece



ADAM Page

The Postilion of Longjumeau : Wachtel, creator of the
title-role 2

AUBER

Fra Diavolo : Santley as Fra Diavolo 8

BELLINI

Norma : Grisi as Norma «... 32

BIZET

Carmen : Calve as Carmen 44

Journet as Escamillo 46

Caruso as Don Josi 46

BOITO

Mephistopheles : Marie Roze as Helen 54

DONIZETTI

The Daughter of the Regiment : Jenny Lind as Marie 74

Lucia di Lammermoor : Saleza as Edgardo 82

L'Elisir d'Amore : Sembrich as Adina ....... 84

Lucrezia Borgia : Mme. de Moschi as Lucrezia Borgia . 86

FLOTOW

Martha: Sembrich as Martha 94

GLUCK

Orpheus : Schalchi as Orpheus . . . . . . . . . . 104



xviii LIST OF PORTRAITS

GOUNOD Page

Faust: Melba as Marguerite 118

Saleza as Faust 120

Plan 9011 as Mephistopheles 120

Romeo et Juliette: Geraldine Farrar as Juliet . . . . 122

HALEVY

The Jewess: Falcon as Rachel 128

LECOCQ

La Fille de Madame Angot : Soldene as Mdlle. Lange 148

LEONCAVALLO

I Pagliacci: Fritzi Scheff as Nedda 152

Alvarez as Canio 152

MASCAGNI

Cavalleria Rusticana : Calve as Santuzza 164

MASSENET

Le Cid: Breval as Chimlne 178

MEYERBEER

The Huguenots : Nilsson as Valentin 186

Jean de Reszke as Raoul 190

Plancon as St. Bris 190

The Prophet : Schumann-Heink as Fides 202

Alvarez as The Prophet 202

L'Africaine : Dippel as Vasco di Gama 206

MOZART

The Marriage of Figaro: Sigrid Arnoldson as Cherubino 214

Don Giovanni : Sontag as Donna Anna 218

Scotti as Don Giovanni 220

Edouard de Reszke as Leporello 220

The Magic Flute : Gadski as Pamina 224

Dippel as Tamino 224

OFFENBACH

The Grand Duchess of Gerolstein : Hortense

Schneider as La Grande Duchesse 238

Orphee aux Enfers : Jeanne Granier as Eurydice . . . 242



LIST OF PORTRAITS xix

PADEREWSKI Page

Manru : Sembrich as Ulana 246

Bispham as Urok .. 246

Bandrowski as Manru 246

PONCHIELLI

La Gioconda : Louise Homer in " La Gioconda "... 252
Caruso as Enzo 252

PUCCINI

La Boheme : Saleza as Rodolfo 256

Group of Rodolfo, Colline, Marcel, and Schaunard . . 256

La Tosca : Adelaide Norwood as Tosca 258

Scotti as Scarpia 260

ROSSINI

The Barber of Seville : Sembrich as Rosina .... 270

Campanari as Figaro 270

Semiramide : Group of Semiramide, Arsace, and Assur . 276

SAINT-SAENS

Samson and Delila : Tamagno as Samson 288

STRAUSS, JOHANN

The Bat : Sembrich as Rosalind 298

THOMAS

Mignon : Ambre as Mignon 340

Hamlet: Calve as Ophelia. 340

VERDI

Ernani: Sembrich as Elvira 352

Rigoletto : Louise Homer as Gilda 354

Caruso as The Duke 354

La Traviata : Geraldine Farrar as Violetta 358

II Trovatore : Campanini as Manrico 362

The Masked Ball : Eames as Amelia 366

A'iDA : Gadski as A'ida 368

Marie Brema as Amneris 370

Othello : Tamagno as Othello 374



xx LIST OF PORTRAITS

WAGNER Page

The Flying Dutchman : Hiedler as Senta 386

Muhlmann as The Flying Dutchman 386

Tannhauser : Ternina as Elizabeth 390

Adams as Tannhauser 390

Lohengrin : Eames as Elsa 394

Kraus as Lohengrin 394

Schumann-Heink as Ortrud 396

Tristan und Isolde: Lehmann as Isolde (frontispiece)

Jean de Reszke as Tristan 400

Edouard de Reszke as King Mark 400

Bispham as Kurwenal 400

Die Meistersinger : Van Rooy as Hans Sachs .... 402

Bispham as Beckmesser 402

Winklemann as Walter 404

Das Rheingold : Mme. Materna 414

Louise Homer as Erda 416

Die Walkure : Nordica as Briinnhilde . 418

Gadski as Briinnhilde 418

Fremstad as Sieglinde 420

Burgstaller as Siegmund 420

Van Rooy as Wotan - . . 422

Siegfried: Alvary as Siegfried 424

Bispham as Alberich , 426

Reiss as Mime 426

Die Gotterdammerung : Jean de Reszke as Siegfried . 428

Parsifal: Dippel as Parsifal (First Act) ...... 434

Dippel as Parsifal (Third Act) 434

Fremstad as Kundry 436

Perron as Amfortas 438

Goritz as Klingsor 438



The Standard Operas



THE

STANDARD OPERAS

THEIR PLOTS, THEIR MUSIC,
AND THEIR COMPOSERS



ADAM



ADOLPHE CHARLES ADAM was born in Paris,
k July 24, 1803, and died in that city, May 3, 1856.
He entered the Conservatoire in 18 17, where he studied
the organ and harmonium with Benoit. His success as
composer, however, was largely due to Boieldieu, with
whom he was not only a favorite pupil but close friend.
Boieldieu's confidence in his ability is shown by the
fact that Adam wrote the overture to the latter's " La
Dame Blanche." It was upon his advice also that he
devoted himself to the composition of light operas, some
of which proved very successful. His first production
was a one-act operetta, "Pierre and Catherine" (1829),
which was followed by many others, the best of which are
" Le Chalet" (1834) ; " Le Postillion de Longjumeau,"
the most successful of his works (1836); " Le Brasseur
de Preston" (1838); " Le Roi d'Yvetot " (1842), and
" Cagliostro " (1844). In 1847 ne started a new theatre,
called the "Theatre Nationale," which proved a disastrous
undertaking and involved him heavily in debt. He re-
covered his losses, however, by composition and contri-
butions to literary and musical periodicals, for he was a
ready and very attractive writer. His life of Boieldieu, for
instance, is a notable addition to musical biographies. His



2 THE STANDARD OPERAS

music, though not of the highest order, is always bright
and gay, and some of his melodies have attained a wide-
spread popularity.

The Postilion of Longjumeau

" The Postilion of Longjumeau," opera comique, in
three acts, text by De Leuven and Brunswick, was first
produced at the Opera Comique, Paris, October 13, 1836.
This sprightly opera is characterized by grace and elegance
of treatment, fascinating rhythm, and odd contrasts in
effects. Its plot is very dramatic, and affords ample scope
for humorous action. The opening scene of the first act,
which is laid in Longjumeau, a French village, time of Louis
the Fifteenth, introduces us to the wedding of Chapelou, the
postilion, and Madeleine, mistress of the inn. During the
merriment which follows, the Marquis de Courcy, superin-
tendent of the Paris Grand Opera, whose carriage has
broken down, makes his appearance, seeking the aid of
a wheelwright. He hears Chapelou singing, and is so
pleased with his voice that he offers him a position in the
opera. Chapelou, after some persuasion, accepts, entreats
Bijou, the village blacksmith, to look after Madeleine, and
goes off with the Marquis in quest of artistic glory. Bijou
informs Madeleine of Chapelou's baseness, and the act
closes with her denunciations of him, in which she is
enthusiastically assisted by the female members of the
wedding- party.

The second act opens in Paris. Madeleine has in-
herited a fortune from an aunt, and makes her appearance
in the gay city as a rich and noble lady, under the assumed
name of Madame de la Tour. The Marquis de Courcy,
who is in love with her, at her request brings Chapelou,
who is now a famous tenor known as St. Phar, Bijou, the
Longjumeau blacksmith, who is primo basso under the name
of Alcindor, and the operatic chorus to her chateau for a




Herr Wachtel

Famous as the creator of The Postilion of Longjumeau



ADAM 3

rehearsal. St. Phar not wishing to sing, pleads a cold, but
when he learns that he is in the apartments of Madame
de la Tour he consents, and the rehearsal goes off finely.
Left alone with his hostess, he proposes to her and is
accepted, but as he is already married he arranges that
Boudon, the chorus leader, shall play the part of priest.
The Marquis, who overhears the conspiracy, informs
Madame de la Tour, who sends for a real priest and
accompanies St. Phar to the altar, where they are mar-
ried for the second time.

In the third act, St. Phar, who fears that he will be
hanged for committing bigamy, finds a happy escape from
his troubles. The Marquis, furious because he has been
rejected by Madame de la Tour in favor of an opera
singer, seeks revenge, but his plans are thwarted. A
humorous scene ensues, in which St. Phar is tormented
by Alcindor and the wedding-party, as well as by the
Marquis, who is now reconciled. Finally, upon being
left alone in a darkened room with Madame de la Tour,
she also aggravates him by personating two characters,
singing from different sides of the apartment in the voice
of the Madame and that of Madeleine. The denouement
ensues when she appears to him as the veritable Madeleine
of Longjumeau, whither the joyous pair return and are
happy ever after.

The principal music of the first act is a romanza for
soprano, " Husband ever dear," leading into a dance
chorus ; the famous Postilion's Song with whip-snapping
accompaniment; and a balcony serenade by Madeleine.
The second act opens with a long and well-written aria
for soprano, which is followed by the rehearsal scene, — a
clever bit of humorous musical writing. In the course of
this scene the tenor has a characteristic aria, preceded by
a clarinet obbligato, and the basso also has one running
down to G, in which he describes with much gusto the



4 THE STANDARD OPERAS

immunities of a basso with a " double G." A duet follows
for soprano and tenor with a cadenza of extraordinary
length, the act closing with a finale in the conventional
Italian style.

The third act opens with a long clarinet solo, the
refrain of which is heard in the close of the act. This
is followed by a " Good Night " chorus in mazurka time.
The tenor then has an aria followed by a comic trio,
which in reality is a duet, as the soprano is personating
two singers with different voices. A duet and finale close
the opera, the music of which is of just the class to be
popular, while the action is so sustained in its humor
as to make the bright little opera a favorite wherever
heard. The success of the " Postilion of Longjumeau "
in the United States was largely due to WachtePs re-
markable dramatic as well as vocal presentation of the
role of Chapelou.



AUBER

DANIEL FRANQOIS ESPRIT AUBER, one of
the most prominent representatives of the opera
comique, was born at Caen, in Normandy, January 29, 1 784.
He first attracted attention in the musical world by his
songs and ballads, written when a mere boy. Young as
he was, they were great favorites in French and English
drawing-rooms, and their success diverted him from his
commercial intentions to that profession in which he was
destined to achieve such popularity. His debut was
made as an instrumental composer in his twentieth year,
but before he had reached his thirtieth he was engrossed
with operatic composition. His first two works were un-
successful ; but the third, " La Bergere Chatelaine," proved
the stepping-stone to a career of remarkable popularity,
during which he produced a large number of dramatic
works, which not only secured for him the enthusiastic
admiration of the Parisians, with whom he was always
a favorite, but also carried his name and fame through-
out the world, and obtained for him marks of high dis-
tinction from royalty, such as the office of Director of
the Conservatoire from Louis Phillippe, and that of Im-
perial Maitre de Chappelle from Louis Napoleon. He
died May 13, 1871, amid the fearful scenes of the Paris
Commune. His best-known operas are : " Masaniello "
(1828) ; "Fra Diavolo " (1830) ; "The Bronze Horse "
(1835); "The Black Domino" (1837); "The Crown
Diamonds" (1841); and " Zerline " (1851), — the last-
named written for the great contralto, Mine. Alboni. Of
these, " Fra Diavolo," " Masaniello," and " The Crown



6 THE STANDARD OPERAS

Diamonds " are as fresh as ever in their French and
Italian settings, though their finest successes in this coun-
try have been made in their English dress.

Fra Diavolo

" Fra Diavolo," opera comique, in three acts, words by
Scribe, was first produced at the Opera Comique, Paris,
January 28, 1830; in English, at Drury Lane, London,
November 3, 1831 ; in Italian at the Lyceum, London,
July 9, 1857, for which occasion the spoken dialogue was
converted into accompanied recitative. The composer
himself also, in fitting it for the Italian stage, made some
changes in the concerted music and added several mor-
ceaux. The original Italian cast was as follows :

Zerlina Mme. Bosio.

Lady Allcash Mile. Marai.

Fra Diavolo Sig. Gardoni.

Lord Allcash Sig. Ronconi.

Beppo Sig. Tagliafico.

Giacomo Sig. Zelger.

The original of the story of " Fra Diavolo" is to be found
in Lesueur's opera, " La Caverne," afterwards arranged as
a spectacular piece and produced in Paris in 1808 by
Cuvellier and Franconi, and again in Vienna in 1822 as a
spectacle-pantomime, under the title of " The Robber of
the Abruzzi." In Scribe's adaptation the bandit, Fra
Diavolo, encounters an English nobleman and his pretty
and susceptible wife, Lord and Lady Allcash, at the inn of
Terracina, kept by Matteo, whose daughter Zerlina is loved
by Lorenzo, a young soldier, on the eve of starting to cap-
ture Fra Diavolo when the action of the opera begins.
In the first scene the English couple enter in great
alarm, having narrowly escaped the robbery of all their
valuables by Fra Diavolo's band. The bandit himself, who
has followed them on their journey in the disguise of a



AUBER 7

marquis, and has been particularly attentive to the lady,
enters the inn just as Lord Allcash has been reproving his
wife for her familiarity with a stranger. A quarrel ensues in
a duet of a very humorous character (" I don't object " ).
Upon the entrance of Fra Diavolo, a quintet (" Oh, Rap-
ture unbounded ! ") occurs, which is one of the most
effective and admirably harmonized ensembles Auber has
ever written. Fra Diavolo learns the trick by which they
saved the most of their valuables, and, enraged at the
failure of his band, lays his own plan to secure them. In
an interview with Zerlina, she, mistaking him for the
Marquis, tells him the story of Fra Diavolo in a romanza
("On yonder Rock reclining"), which is so fresh,
vigorous, and full of color, that it has become a favorite
the world over. To further his schemes, Fra Diavolo
makes love to Lady Allcash and sings an exquisitely
graceful barcarole to her ("The Gondolier, fond Pas-
sion's Slave"), accompanying himself on the mandolin.
Lord Allcash interrupts the song, and the trio, "Bravi,
Bravi," occurs, which leads up to the finale of the act.
Fra Diavolo eludes the carbineers, who have returned, and
they resume their search for him, leaving him unmolested
to perfect his plans for the robbery.

The second act introduces Zerlina in her chamber about
to retire. She first lights Lord and Lady Allcash to their
room, a running conversation occurring between them in a
trio ("Let us, I pray, good Wife, to rest"), which by
many good critics has been considered as the best number
in the work. Before Zerlina returns to her chamber, Fra
Diavolo and his companions, Beppo and Giacomo, conceal
themselves in a closet, and, somewhat in violation of
dramatic consistency, Fra Diavolo sings the beautiful sere-
nade, " Young Agnes," which had been agreed upon as a
signal to his comrades that the coast was clear. Zerlina
enters and after a pretty cavatina (" 'T is To-morrow ") and



8 THE STANDARD OPERAS

a prayer, charming for its simplicity (" Oh, Holy Vir-
gin "), retires to rest. The robbers in attempting to cross
her room partially arouse her. One of them rashes to
the bed to stab her, but falls back awestricken as she
murmurs her prayer and sinks to rest again. The trio
which marks this scene, sung pianissimo, is quaint and
simple and yet very dramatic. The noise of the carbineers
returning outside interrupts the plan of the robbers. They
conceal themselves in the closet again. Zerlina rises and
dresses herself. Lord and Lady Allcash rush in en des-
habille to find out the cause of the uproar. Lorenzo
enters to greet Zerlina, when a sudden noise in the closet
disturbs the company. Fra Diavolo, knowing he will be
detected, boldly steps out into the room and declares that
he is there to keep an appointment with Zerlina. Lorenzo
challenges him, and he promises to give him satisfaction in
the morning, and coolly effects his escape. One of his
comrades, however, is captured, and to secure his own
liberty agrees to betray his chief.

The third act introduces Fra Diavolo once more among
his native mountains, and there is the real breath and
vigor of the mountain air in his opening song (" Proudly
and wide my Standard flies"), and rollicking freedom
in the rondeau which follows it (" Then since Life glides
so fast away"). He exults in his liberty, and gleefully
looks forward to a meeting with Lord and Lady All-
cash, which he anticipates will redound to his personal
profit. His exultation is interrupted by the entrance of



Online LibraryGeorge P. (George Putnam) UptonThe standard operas: their plots, their music, and their composers → online text (page 1 of 37)