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I



TABULAR VIEWS



OF



UNIVERSAL HISTORY



A SERIES OF CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES PRESENTING, IN PARALLEL

COLUMNS, A RECORD OF THE MORE NOTEWORTHY EVENTS

IN THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD FROM THE

EARLIST TIMES DOWN TO 1907



COMPILED BY

GEORGE PALMER PUTNAM, A.M

AND CONTINUED TO DATE BY

LYNDS E. JONES AND SIMEON STRUNSKY




G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK LONDON

27 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET 24 BEDFORD STREET, STRAND

Cbe "Rnfcfeerbocfcer
1907



COPYRIGHT, 1890, BY
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS

COPYRIGHT, 1907, BY
G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS



Ube TKnicfccrbocftcr press, flew Jfforft




PUBLISHERS' NOTE

IN 1832, the late George P. Putnam published, under the
title of The World's Progress, a cyclopaedia of facts and events
that had been compiled by himself, and that had originated
in notes taken as a guide for his own historical reading. The
work was reprinted in successive editions during the ensuing
forty years, and the entries were added to and expanded
until the three hundred pages of the original issue had
developed into a portly volume of twelve hundred pages.
A demand continuing through more than a third of a century
may be accepted as evidence that the plan of The World's
Progress and the material presented in it had been found of
service by students of history and by readers generally.
The cyclopaedia portion of the compilation came, necessarily,
to be superseded by works of reference of later origin, and
The Worlds Progress was, therefore, allowed to go out of
print. There continued, however, to be demand for the
historical tables (the plan of which was, it is believed, original
with Mr. Putnam), and since 1870 this division of the work
has, with material corrections and additions, been issued in
successive editions under the title of Tabular Views of
Universal History.

In the edition now presented, while the scheme and arrange-
ment of the original editor have been left unchanged, the
entries have been carefully revised and in part rewritten,
and the record has been brought down to date. The changes



.



iv PUBLISHERS' NOTE

decided upon were in fact so considerable as to necessitate the
resetting of the entire volume.

Under the scheme devised by Mr. Putnam (a scheme
which made his volume practically unique) , the events occur-
ring throughout the world at the same period of time are
recorded in parallel columns. This arrangement calls in the
powerful assistance of association in enabling the memory to
grasp and to retain a hold of important dates by showing at a
glance simultaneous occurrences in different countries. It
also helps in teaching the lesson that the history of any one
nation is only a part of the history of the world, and that
the proper way to study history is to trace the relations with
each other of the peoples scattered over the face of the globe.

As the wisejLjnstructors_ do not fail to emphasize, the
precise date of an event is in itself a detail of minor impor-
tance, which has value chiefly in serving to trace its relations
to other events and in indicating the influence of one upon the
other. The student, for instance, who reads that, in 1492,
under the patronage of Isabella of Spain, Columbus accom-
plished his historic voyage to the Western Hemisphere,
may properly be interested in noting, by carrying his eye
across the columns of two pages, what rulers were at that
time in control of other European States, some one of whom
might possibly have secured for his own realm the prestige
of the great discovery. In like manner, it is essential for a
right understanding of the Protestant Reformation of the
sixteenth century, for the student to keep before him the
personalities of the monarchs and other leaders of men who
were contemporary with Pope Leo X. and with the Emperor
Charles V.

The Tabular Views may, therefore, be safely commended



PUBLISHERS' NOTE v

to teachers as valuable in the practical work of historical
instruction. The tables will also be found of distinctive
service for the general reader. The writer of these lines has
for many years found an advantage in keeping the volume
at his elbow for constant reference in connection either
with reading or with writing.

It has been the intention of the revisers, in the several
instances in which events or dates have become a matter of
controversy, to follow the authorities most generally accepted.
It may easily, of course, be the case, however, that an oc-
casional date or statement has been retained which some
reader may find ground to question; such a critic can only be
referred back to the latest investigators for the authoritative
decision that seems to him to be important, and that can
not be attempted in a condensed summary such as that in the
present volume.

The study of history is, as stated, a study of the relations
of events to each other, made with the view of securing, as far
as practicable, an^mderstanding of the causation of these
events and of the influence exercised upon them by historic
characters. For such a study it is believed that The
Tabular Views will continue to be found of service by
instructors and students, and also by the more painstaking
and thorough of the so-called general readers.

NEW YORK, August, 1907.



OF -HE

UNIVERSITY




PART I
ANCIENT CHRONOLOGY

FROM THE EARLIEST RECORDS TO THE CHRISTIAN ERA



TABULAR VIEWS



5000 B.C.-



PROGRESS OF SOCIETY.ETC.



ASIA.



AFRICA.



5000



about). At this date
flourishing city states
appear in the Mesppo-
tamian region, indicat-
ing an antiquity for
Babylonian civilization
that may be carried
back approximately to
the eighth or ninth
millennium B. c. In
Egypt the latest re-
search has brought the
sixth millennium B. c.
within the scope of his-
tory.



5000 (about). The rule of
pre-dynastic kingswhose
tombs at Abydos reveal
an advanced state of
civilization (De Morgan,
Ame'lineau, Flinders- Pe-
trie).



4500 (about). Struggle
among the kings of
Kengi, Kish, Shirpurla,
and Gishban, in Baby-
lonia.



3800 (about). Sargon I. of
A kkad extends his power
over the Mediterranean
coast and Elam.



3700 The Great Pyramid at Gi-
zeh, erected by Khufu
(Cheops).



2300 [The Code of Khammurabi,
in Babylon, one of the
most important bodies
of ancient legislation.



3000 (about). The kings of
Ur extend their sway
over Akkad and Shu-



2450 (about). Beginning
of Arabian and Elam-
itic irruptions into Baby-
lonia.

2400 (about). Baby km first
appears as a city of
prominence.

2300-2250 (about). Kham-
murabi, ruler of Baby
Ion, unites Babylonia
under his sway and en-
acts a code of laws.



4400 (about). Menes, the
first king of united
Egypt (Brugsch; Budge,
1902).



3733. Reign of Khufu
(Cheops), pyramid
builder.



3666. Reign of Khafra

(Chephren) . pyramid

builder.
3633. Reign of Menkaura

(Mycerinus), pyramid

builder.



2500 Reign of Seankh-
kara, who despatches an
expedition to the land
of Punt for spices.



2300. Amenemhat III. re-
claims the province of
Fayyum by diking off
Lake Mceris, and builds
the celebrated Laby-
rinth.



IIOO B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



3



B.C. PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC.



ASIA.



AFRICA.



4000



2000



-2000. Babylonian Ian
guage, commerce, and in
stitutions predominant
in the Mediterranean re
gions of Asia.

Industry nourishes in
Babylonia under the
Kassite kings; manu-
factures largely in the
hands of Phoenicians.



The Tell-el-Amarna Let-
ters reve&l the close con-
nection between Egyp-
tian and Babylonian
civilization, and show
the latter language to
have been the common
medium of commerce
and diplomacy in the
lands of the Mediter-
ranean.



The epic poem of Pentaur
celebrates the exploits
of Rameses II. in Asia.
Erection of the Ra-
messeum and the temple
at Luxor (in part).



2000-1700 (about). Baby
Ionia conquered by the
Kassites ; Assyria ap
pears under its priest
kings.



1450-1300. Height of the
Hittite power in Asia
Minor and Syria.



1300 (about). Shalmaneser
I. reigns in Assyria, with
Calah as the capital.

1250. The Phoenicians ap-
pear as a race of colo-
nizers.

1140 (about). The Kass-
ites expelled from Baby-
lonia.

1100 (about). Tiglathpil-
eser I. of Assyna wages
war successfully against
Babylonia, Elam, and in
Syria..

Tyre rises to primacy
among the Phoenician
cities.



2200-1700. Egypt ruled
by the Hyksos, or
"shepherd" kings.



1700. Aahmes I. expels
the Hyksos and begins
series of conquests in
Asia.

1600. Queen Hatshepset
(Hatasu) despatches an
expedition to Punt.
Thothmes III. conquers
Palestine, Phoenicia, and
part of Asia Minor.

1466. Amenhotep IV.
(Amenophis) attempts
to substitute the worship
of the sun for the old re-
ligion of the country;
he fails.



1333. Rameses II. carries
on war against the Hit-
tites; greatest of royal
monument builders.



TABULAR VIEWS



1582 B.C.-



B.C. PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC



THE JEWS.



WESTERN ASIA.



1270 (about). The Exodus
(Budge).



1100 (about). The Mycenean
art flourishes in Greece
and the



r,

(about) The temple of
Solomon built with the
aid of Phoenician work-
men.



1055 1 (1080 3 ). Saul be-
comes king.

1033 1 (1047 2 ). Accession
of David.

993 (1017 8 ). Accession of
Solomon.



930



(about) . The beginning of
the Homeric poems.



953 l ,(978 a , 930 3 ). Sepa-
ration of Judah and
Israel.



949 1 (973 2 ). Shashank I
of Egypt plunders Je
rusalem.



929 (958 3 ). Asa be
comes king in Judah.

899 1 (931. a ). . Omri be
conies king in Israel.



950 (about). Tiglathpileser
II., beginning of Assyr-
ian greatness.



880



(about). The Lycurgan
legislation in Sparta.



-885. Accession of Asshur-
nasirpal, who wages suc-
cessful campaigns in the
north and the east and
advances to the Medi-
terranean.



1 Duncker, History of Antiquity. * J. Oppert, " Chronology " in the
paedia. 3 Karl Marti, " Chronology " in Cheyne's Encyclopedia Bibltca.



in the Jewish Encyclo-



88o B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE AND ROME.



THE WORLD ELSEWHERE.



1250



Egypt: reign of Meneph-
thah the supposed Pha-
raoh of the Exodus.
The country is invaded
by pirates from the
north whose names
would indicate a possible
Grecian origin.



1100. Age 9f the Doriai^j 1100
migration into the Pelo-
ponnesus, and the plant-
ing of Dorian and ^Eolian
colonies in Asia Minor.



Accession of Shashank I
(Sheshonk, Shishak),
who invades Palestine
in the time of Reho-
boam.



1582. The earliest date in
the Parian chronicle
preserved in the Arun-
delian marbles.



1123. The beginning of the
Chow dynasty in China,
which retained the
throne for nearly nine
hundred years.



. Cadiz (Gadir) found-
ed by the Phoenicians.



880. The age of Lycurgus



TABULAR VIEWS



873 B.C.-



PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC



THE JEWS.



WESTERN ASIA.



873 l (917 a ). Jehoshaphat
becomes king in Judah



853 (900 s ). Death of
Ahab of Israel.



843* (887, 841 s ). Jehu
seizes power in Israel.

792 (811, a 789 3 ). Uzziah
begins rule in Judah.

790 l (825, 2 782 s ). Jero-
boam II. succeeds in
Israel.



747



Beginning of the Babylon-
ian Chronicle and the
Canon of Ptolemy.



700 (about). In Greece lyric
poetry flourishes: Kal-
linus, Archilochus, Si-
mpnides of Samos.
Nineveh beautified and
strengthened by Sen-
nacherib ; it becomes the
most celebrated capital
of Assyria.



728 (727, 3 720 3 ). Heze-
kiah succeeds in Judah.



722 (721 2 - 3 ). Samaria
taken by Sargon II. of
Assyria; end of king
dom of Israel.



701 3 (700 2 ). Sennach-
erib's failure in Pales-
tine.



860. Accession of Shal-
maneser II., who con-
tinues the process of
conquest.



747. Nabonassar ruler in
Babylon.

745. Accession of Tiglath-
pileser III. of Assyria,
who wages war against
Chaldeea, Syria, and the
kingdom of Israel.



727. Accession of Shal-
manesec IV., who be-
sieges Samaria (722).

722. Assyria attains its
highest development
under Sargon II.

705. Accession of Sen-
nacherib, who makes
his capital at Nineveh.



1 Duncker, History of Antiquity. a J. Oppert, "Chronology" in the Jewish Encyclo-
paedia. 3 Karl Marti, "Chronology" in Cheyne's Encyclopedia Biblica.



700 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE AND ROME.



THE WORLD ELSEWHERE.



850



(about). Foundation of
Carthage by the Phoeni-
cians.



776. The First Olympiad,
accepted starting point
for the period of au-
thentic history.

770. Sinope on the Black

Sea founded.
753 (754). Foundation of

Rome (legendary).



743-724. First Messenian
War; Sparta triumph-
ant.

734. Foundation of Syra-
cuse.



TABULAR VIEWS



693 B.C.-



B.C. PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC. THE JEWS.



WESTERN ASIA.



610 Alcaeus, Sappho, Stesicho-
rus, Greek poets. Necho
II. of Egypt attempts to
connect the Nile and the
Red Sea by a canal; his
sailors circumnavigate
Africa.



600 Thales, first of Ionian
philosophers.



622. 1 Reformation of Jo-
siah in Judah.



681. Accession of Essar-
haddon; who conquers
Egypt in 670.



668. Assyrian Empire di-
vided between sons o
Essarhaddon ; Asshur-
banipal rules in Assyria;
Shamashshumukin, ia
Babylonia.



648. Assyrian Empire re-
united.

645. Elam conquered by
Assyria.

626. Babylon independ-
ent under Nabopolassar,
founder of the Chaldaean
dynasty.



606 (607). Nineveh de-
stroyed by Nabopol-
assar and Cyaxares, king
of the Medes.

605. Nebuchadrezzar II.,
king of Babylonia; he
overthrows the Egyp-
tians at Carchemish.



1 Duncker, History of Antiquity.



600 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE AND ROME. THE WORLD ELSEWHERE.



693



670



Taharka (Tirhaka) en-
gages in conflict with
Assyria.



Essarhaddon of Assyria
conquers Egypt.



663' (666). Psammetichus I.
liberates Egypt from
the Assyrians and unites
the country under his
sway.



650



61C



Naucratis founded.



(612). Necho II.; invades
Syria and defeats Josiah,
king of Judah, at Me
giddo (609).



585. Outbreak of Second
Messenian War.



560. Foundation of By<
zantium.

555. Cypselus, tyrant of
Corinth.



625. Periander, tyrant of
Corinth.



620. (about). Traditiona
legislation of Draco in
Athens.



600. Foundation of Mas
salia (Marseilles) by the
Phocaeans.



560. Jimmu Tenno, first
Mikado of Japan, leader
of the invading forces
that conquered the isl-
ands.



10



TABULAR VIEWS



597 B.C.-



B.C. PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC.



THE JEWS.



WESTERN ASIA.



594



580



570



560



Solon noted as a writer o
political elegies and gno
mic poetry.



The philosophers Anaxi
mander, Anaximenes,
and the sage Cleobulus



about}. First comedy
acted at Athens on a
cart, by Stisarion and
Dolon (traditional).



abouf). Birth of Gau-
tama (Buddha), founder
of Buddhism.



597 1 (598 ). First takin.
of Jerusalem by Nebu
chadrezzar II.



586 3 (587 a ). Final de
struction of Jerusalem
by Nebuchadrezzar II
and end of kingdom o
Judah.



586. Nebuchadrezzar sup-
presses the Palestinian
uprising and destroys
Jerusalem.



573. Tyre taken by Nebu-
chadrezzar after a siege
that is said to have
lasted thirteen years.



561. Evil-Merodach, king
of Babylon.

>60. Croesus, king of Ly-
dia. Solon at his court.



56. Neriglissar succeeded
by Labashi Marduk at
Babylon.

Asia Minor subjected to
Crcesus.

55. Nabonidus overthrows
Chaldaean dynasty in
Babylon.



1 Duncker, History of Antiquity. 2 J. Oppert, "Chronology" in the Jewish Encyclo-
3 Karl Marti, "Chronology" in Cheyne's Encyclopaedia Biblica.



pcedia.



555 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



II



AFRICA.



GREECE.



ROME, ETC.



589 (591). Apries (Hophra
joins with the king o
Judah against Nebuch
adrezzar, but he does
not succeed in prevent
ing the destruction o
Jerusalem.



570



570



568



(572). Amasis II. over-
throws Apries.

-530 (about). Amasis es-
tablishes close connec-
tion between Greece and
Egypt, and grants the
Greeks living in Egypt
extensive privileges.

Egypt invaded by Nebu-
chadrezzar.



594. Legislation of Solo
in Athens.



585. Death of Periander
tyrant of Corinth.

584. Corinth overthrow;
tyranny of the Cypsel
idae.



560. Pisistratus, tyrant of
Athens.



578. Servius Tullius, king
of Rome (legendary).
To him is ascribed the
introduction of the cen-
sus and the division of
the citizens into cen-
turies.




12



TABULAR VIEWS



5 50 B.C.-



PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC.



THE JEWS.



WESTERN ASIA.



550



530



(about). Thespis performs
the first tragedy at
Athens, (.traditional)
Pythagoras, his travels
and emigration to Mag
na Graecia.

Learning encouraged at
Athens by Pisistratus,
who makes a large col-
lection of Greek authors.



520



515



510



505



500



Simonides,
poets.



Anacreon,



Confucius, the Chinese
philosopher.



(509). Abolition of the
Regal Government, and
establishment of Repub-
lic at Rome.



Heraclitus of Ephesus and
Parmenides of Elea, phi-
losophers.

(about). The Carthagin-
ians make voyages of
exploration and coloni-
zation down the western
coast of Africa.



538. Edict of Cyrus for
the RETURN of the
JEWS.

Joshua, Zerubbabel.



546. Sardis taken, by Cy-
rus. Crcesus made pris-
oner. THE LYDIAN
KINGDOM ENDED.



538. BABYLON TAKEN
by Cyrus. PERSIAN
EMPIRE founded.



529. Cambyses,
Persia.



king of



520 (519). Rebuilding of
the temple begins.
Zechariah, Haggai.

516 (515). Dedication of
the second temple.



525 (527). Cambyses in-
vades Egypt.



521. Darius Hystaspes,
king of Persia.



508. (about) . Darius leads a
vast expedition into
Scythia and accom-
plishes the subjection of
Thrace in the following
years.



500. The lonians revolt
from Persia and burn
Sardis (499).



500 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE.



ROME AND ITALY.



525



Psammetichus III., last
king of Egypt. Inva-
sion of Cambyses, who
defeats the Egyptians at
Pelusium, and takes
Memphis.

EGYPT BECOMES APERSIAN
PROVINCE.



548. Temple of Apollo at
Delphi burnt.

546. The Spartans over-
throw the Argives.
The Greeks in Asia Mi-
nor are subjected by the
Persians.



534 (about). Polycrates,
tyrant of Samos.



527. Pisistratus dies.



534. Tarquinius Superbus,
king of Rome (legend-
ary).



514. Hipparchus, son of
Pisistratus, killed by
Harmodius and Aris-
togiton.

510. The Pisistratidae ex-
pelled. Democracy es-
tablished at Athens.



510 (509). The Tarquins
expelled from Rome.

BRUTUS AND COLLATINUS,

first CONSULS of Rome.

508. War against the Tar-
quins and their ally Por-
senna (legendary).



500



(about). Voyage of Hanno
the Carthaginian down
the western coast of
Africa, related in the
"Periplus."



500. The Athenians and
Eretrians give aid to the
Greeks of Asia Mino
against Persia, and
thereby arouse the hos-
tility of that power.



TABULAR VIEWS



500 B.C.-



PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC



THE JEWS.



ASIA.



500



Beginning of historica
writing in Greece in the
persons of Hecataeus anc
Dionysius of Miletus.



480



Phrynichus. ^Eschylus
Pmdar.and Bacchylides,
dramatic and lyric poets.



492. Persian army de-
spatched against Greece ;
its failure.



490. Darius sends a second
army against Greece.



486. Xerxes, king of Per-
sia.



481. The expedition of
Xerxes into Greece.



478



468



History of Herodotus ends,



478. Death of Confucius.
China distracted by
internal wars.



Sophocles defeats

lus for the tragic prize.



466. Persians defeated by
sea and land at the
Eurymedon.

465. Xerxes assassinated;
Artaxerxes I. (Longima-
nus) king of Persia.



460 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE.



ROME AND ITALY.



480



Hamilcar Barca invades
Sicily at the head of a
Carthaginian army; de-
feated by Gelo in battle
of Himera, and slain.



460



Egypt, under Inarus, re-
volts from Persia.



494. Miletus reduced by
the Persians.



490. Invasion of the Per-
sians under Datis and
Artaphernes.

Battle of -MARA-
THON.

489. MiltJades disgraced.



483. Aristides banished.



480. Battle of Thermopy-
lae.

Athens burnt by
Xerxes.

Battle of Salamis.
479. Mardonius a second
time takes Athens.

Defeat of the Persians
at Platea and Mycale on
the same day.
478-477. Athens rebuilt.
The Piraeus fortified.

477-449. The campaigns
of Cimon, son of Milti-
ades.

471. Themistocles ban-
ished.



466. The Persians twice
defeated at the Eury-
medon by Cimon.



464. 3d Messenian War.
461. Ostracism of Cimon.

PERICLES rises to

power.



496. Victory of Lake Re-
gillus gained over the
Latins with the aid of
Castor and Pollux.

494 (493). The secession of
the Plebs and the crea-
tion of the tribunate.



491. Coriolanus banished
(legendary).



486. Spurius Cassius
arouses the hostility of
the Patricians by his
agrarian agitation, and
on the expiration of his
consulate is put to death .

485. Gelo becomes tyrant
of Syracuse.



480. The Carthaginians de-
feated by Gelo at Hi-
mera in Sicily.



478. Hiero becomes ty-
rant of Syracuse.

477 (about). The legendary
war against Veii and the
fall of the Fabii.

471. The Publilian Laws
vest the election of the
tribunes in the comitia
of the tribes.



465. Democracy in Syra-
cuse.



16



TABULAR VIEWS



458 B.C.-



PROGRESS OF SOCIETY, ETC.



THE JEWS.



ASIA.



4581 (3982). Ezra goes to
Jerusalem.



450



Callimachus, traditional
inventor of Corinthian
order of architecture.



445



Zeno, Anaxagoras Prota-
goras, and Empedocles,
philosophers: Phidias,
the finest sculptor of an-
tiquity; Euripides, tra-
gic poet; Crates and
Cratinus, comic poets;
Herodotus, father of
Greek history; Polygno-
tus, painter.



445. Walls of Jerusalem
built by Nehemiah.
Sect of Samaritans.



449. Persians defeated at
Salamis in Cyprus, and
in the peace of Callias
recognize the indepen-
dence of the Asiatic
Greeks.

447. Revolt of Megabyzus,
satrap in Syria, forces
Artaxerxes to conces-
sion.



435
432



Socrates, the greatest of

ancient moralists.
433). Meton begins his
lunar cycle.

Thucydides, historian.



425. Xerxes II., king of

Persia.
424. Darius II., king of

Persia.



Uraetz.



Op pert.



421 B.C.



OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY.



AFRICA.



GREECE.



ROMR, ETC.



454



Greeks in Egypt defeated
by Megabyzus.



458. War between Athens

and Corinth.
456. Cimon recalled.

Completion of the

Long Walls of Athens.
454. Achaia joins the

Athenian alliance.



458. Cincinnatus, Dictator.



451. The Decemvirs and
the laws of the 1 2 tables.
The legend of Vir-
ginia.



449. Renewal of war 449
against Persians, who are
defeated at Salamis in
Cyprus.



447. Athenians defeated
at Coroneia by the
Boeotians.



\. Quaestorship estab-
lished.



440. Pericles takes Samos.



437. Amphipolis in the
Thracian Chersonesus
founded by Athenians.

435. Corinth at war with
Corcyra.

432. Revolt of Potidaea
from the Athenian con-
federacy.



431. The Peloponnesian

War.

Invasion of Attica.
430. The Plague at Athens
429. Pericles dies, after

enjoying power for more

than 30 years.



424. Exile of Thucydides

Brasidas invades

Thrace with a Spartan

force.

421. Peace of Nicias be-
tween Athens a
Sparta.



445. Lex Canuleia permits
intermarriage between
Patricians and Ple-
beians.



444. Military Tribunes and
office of Censor insti-
tuted.

439. Spurius Maelius killed
because suspected of
royal ambitious.



431. The JEqnians and
Volscians defeated at
Mount ^Egidus.



426. Fidenae revolts, is
taken and destroyed.



i8



TABULAR VIEWS



420 B.C.-



B.C. PROGRESS OF SOCIETY.ETC.



ASIA.



420



415



411



Hippocrates, of Cos, the

father of medicine.
Democritus, the laughing
philosopher.

Aristophanes, prince of
Ancient Comedy.



Thucydides* history ends
and Xenophon's begins.



405



399



Plato, comic poet.



From Socrates proceed the
great schools of Greek
philosophy, the Megaric
school founded by Eu-
clid, the Cynic by Antis-
thenes, the Cyrenaic
(Hedonistic or Epicu-
rean) by Aristippus,
and the Academic by
Plato.



Plato flourishes.

The historians Xenophon
Ktesias of Knidus, and
Philistus of Syracuse.



408. Medes make an un-
successful attempt to
throw off Persian yoke.



405. Persians driven out
of Africa for a time.



404. Artaxerxes II. (Mne-
mon), king of Persia.



Online LibraryGeorge Palmer PutnamTabular views of universal history; a series of chronological tables → online text (page 1 of 27)