George Pratt.

A grammar and dictionary of the Samoan language: with English and Samoan ... online

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Tbe following form the plural by a leduplioatioii of two syUableB,
or the entire word ; —

una, to pinch.
fiti, to fillip.

matavalBf to look cowardly.
fdnau, to bring forth.



There are seyeral monosyllabic verbs which make the plural by
reduplication, such as /a, to doctor ; pi. /of 6 ; pa, to explode ; pi. papa ;
tu, to stand ; pi. tutu.

In forming the plural the following verbs drop a syllable. But it
will be seen that the singular form is reduplicated : —

Singular, Plural,

fa^aitiiti, to make smaller. fa^aiti,

fa^ahaloa, to stretch out. ^ fa^aloloa.

fa^amalimali, to speak with familiarity, fa^amamali,

fa^anevaneva, to walk about idle. fa^aneneva,

\ fa^ataavalevale, to roll round. ^ fa^atcuivavaJe,

lagilagiy to warm. Udagi.

li^oli% to surround. lili*a.

matamata, to look at. mamata,

pilipUi, to be near, to approach. pimli,

tatala, to untie. tatd.

mulumulu, to rub mumulfL

These verbs form the plural by lengthening the vowel in the first
syllable, but without otherwise altering the word : —

faitau, to read.
faitala, to give news
va^ai, to look at.
valu>, to scratch.
palutu, to beat.
eaHli, to seek.
eavali, to walk.
tauivi, to wrestle.
manqiu, to think,



by Google



Some Terbe form the plural by taking the prefix /a, and tunially by
taking a suffix, which is either i,fi^ m, 6i^fa% ma% na% va% or torn.
In one case a is inserted between the usual prefix and the root (sogt,
feasogi), in some the reduplication of the singular form is dropped,
and in one n is ioserted in the root (tulei,fettdeni).

*aa, to kick.
*aau, to swim.
*a'e, to ascend.
aofa% to collect together.
alcLf to scratch.
dhy to paddle.
*ato, to laugh.
inu, to drink.
ita, to be angry.
ot, to groan.
«, to bite.
utti, to fill.
filo, to mix.
gagana, to speak.
lata, to be near.
lele, to fiy.
mea, to do.
mili, to rub.
misay to quarrel.
momo% to run.
pupvla, to shine.
«ogfe, to salute.
8usuy to suck (the breast).
tagiy to cry.
fa^o, to ta]ke hold of.
totoo, to press,
to/tt, to dive.
togiy to throw.
<o«o, to drag.
totoy to bleed.
<oto2o, to crawl.
tvlei, to push.
paohsauni, to connect by


felataH and lalaia.
femili and mimUi,

femo^ei and taufetulu

fetoio, toso, and totoso.
marriage. pa^lofesauniaH.

Taufai prefixed to some verbs makes the plural intensive, as,
Taufaioso, to continue jumping ; Taufaipepese, to continue singing.


aaUf to come.
alu, to go.
momo% to run.


taufetuU axLdfemo'ei.


by Google


SimgtUar. Plural.

IMPOO, to tie. wxUi,

pU^fLio drop down. pSkm,

fatfaliXo abuse. /afdi,


The Terb itself imdeigoeB no change to denote the person. The
present tense either takes the pronoun first with the euphonic particle
to* between it and the Terb, or else the verbal particle e precedes^ and
the proDOon follows the verb.


(and also used as a future).
Singular. Dual,

1. •OttfejpMZe.IruIa - — -

2. Epule 'oe, then rulest.

3. EpuU 'o iOf he rules..

1. Ma te pule, or |

e pule i mduGj me two rale.
j& pule i tdua, I


1. Matou tepuU, or e pule i matou, \ ,
Jmou tepule, or epuU i tatou, j^® ^^®'

2. Tou te pule, ot e pule ^outou, you nde.

9. Lalou^ tepuU, or e pule % Idtou, they rule.

*Ua, though generally past, also sometimes designates the present ;
thus, *ua maH *o id, he is sick.

E sometimes denotes what now is» and always was so : e nHsili le
Atua, GM is very great.


1. JVd *Ott alofa, I loved.

2. Na *6 alofa, thou lovedst.
S. Na ia alofa, he loved.

etc. etc. etc.

8a differs bat little from na; 8a*ou nofo, I sat or was sitting.


1. *Ua Vm aoo, I have escaped.

2. *Ua *e 800, thou hast escaped.
8. ^Ua sao ia, he has escaped.
Also ^Ua ia 8ao, and ^Ua na sao.

etc. etc. etc

The PLtJPBRFEOT is expressed by the imperfect, or by adding *uma :
*UA ^uma ana ta^eU ina Hta o mai i latou, they had batiied when they


***n\BA fbtnre particle. "—Codsikoton,


by Google



l« *Ole a a*« afu, or a a*u aZu, I am about to go.

2. *Olei ^4 aln, or ole a alu 'oe, thou art about to go.

3. *Olei<du*o »a, be is about to go.

etc. etc. etc

1. Md teo,Gredi\

mducky (we two will

Tate o, 01 e oil go.
tdua.^ ]

etc. etc.


Singular, Dual.

1. <0a te alu, or tdte dlu, I shall


2. E alu *oe, or *e te alu, thou

sbalt go.

3. E alu 'o ia, or ia te alu, or na

te alu, he shall go.


1. 8e^i *ou sa^Ui, let me seek.

2. Ina *e saHli, or saHli, or mHH ia oe, seek thou.
Ia *e saHli, do thou seek.

3. Ia sa^Ui *o ia, let him seek.

In poetry •* is used sometimes for ia : 8au if ale i ta ga^use. Come
iuto the house that we may die together. — Fagono.


E saHli, to seek.

An inflnitlYe appears as a noun : Ou te musu i galue, I am unwilling
to work.


The subjunctive is expressed by the particles ina ia, ina im, ma ua^
before the verb ; thus —


1. Ina ia o^u alu, that I should go.

2. Ina ia e alu, that you may go.

3. Ina ia alu o ia, that he should go.

etc. etc.
Ex. E lelei ina ia o*u alu. It is good that I should go.


1. Ina ua o'u alu, or ona ua o^u alu, that I went.

2. Ina ua e alu, that he went.

3. Ina ua alu o ia, that he weni

etc. etc.

Ex. E lelei ina ua e alu. It is good that you went.

*0 lo*o saHli^ seeking.
*0 ^*o*tta «a*tKa, being sought*
A saHli, about seeking.



by Google



Ona ifl used before verbs to form a participle : E tuai <ma sau. His
coming is delayed.


The passive is formed by suffixing to the root one of the following
particles : ina, ia, a, fia, gta, lia, mia, sia^ tia. Euphony regulates
the choice of the particle in each particular word. If the word will
admit of it, it is shortened ; thus, muinat to be burnt ; tuluia, from
tutulu, to be leaked upon ; ea^ilia, to be sought ; inofia^ from inoino, to
be demanded of ; alofagic^ to be beloved ; toii2ia, to be fought ; si^omia,
to be surrounded ; Hnosia, from HnoHno, to be hated ; jp^utia, from
pupulu, to be mediated with.

The formation of the passive, like the formation of the plural, is
very complicated. No rule can be given to guide the learner.
Euphony alone seems to regulate the choice of the particle in each
word. And euphony may be one thing to a native, and another thing
to a European learning the language. In order to help learners, I give
below lists of many of the moat common verbs, except those which
form the passive in irui, which are the most numerous. In the diction-
ary, where the passive form of a verb is not given, it may, as a rule,
be taken for granted that it is in ina. The gpreater part of the verbs
which take the causative prefix (see next section) also form the passive
in ina. In the following lists those forms which are most largely used
come first.

I. Verbs which form the Passtvb in a.

leU, to fly, lelea.

lemafaiy to be unable, lemafaia.

liaH, to pull up, lia^ia and liaHina.

manatUt to think, manatua.

manino, to be clear, mdninoa,

moBf to sleep, moea.

muimui, to grumble, muia and

numif to be involved, numia.
paH to touch, paHa.
palu, to mix, palua.
pipisif to be infected, pisia.

^aamij to fetch, *amia.

a% to ascend, a*-ed.

uu, to cany away, 5t*a.

o/e, to call at, afea.

ave, to take, avea.

^oomiy to squeeze, ^omia.

^oosi, to scratch, ^osia.

osii to make, osia.

fa^a^i, to shoWf fa^axdia.

fai, to do, faia.

fdifai, to abuse, /aia.

fao, to rob, faoa.

fafao, to pack in basket, /ooa and ^M*e, to seize, pu^ea.

fafagth to waken, /agftfa.
fdnau, to bring forth, /auaMa.
/cwi, to beat, /a««a.
fati, to break, fatia.
file, to beat, fuea.
fusi, to tie, fu»ia.
full, to pluck feathers, /tt^ta.
gaui, to break, gauia.

^ali^ to gnaw, galia.

kigVagiy to warm, la^ia.


saHli, to seek, saHlia.

solo, to repeat over and over, saloa.

sapaeapai, to take in the arms,

sasa^j to tear, saea.
eegi, to snatch, segia.
aili, to question, sUia.
$oli, to trample on, scHia.
808olOf to creep, eoloa.
8U% to search, su^ea.
sufif to choose, sufia.


by Google



ta*e2e, to batiie, tardea.

too, to bake, taoa and taoina,

ta*u, to tell, ta^tta and ta*uin(U

tatisif to take care of^ tausia,

tafef to flow, tafea.

tali, to receive, talia,

teu, to adorn, teua.

tinei, to extinguish, tineia,

togi, to throw, tegia.

toto, to bleed, totoa.
tuH, to thump, tu*ia.
tuu, to place, tuua and ^uutna.
tiUi, to drive away, ^uZio.
va^aiy to see, va^aicu
vdgavdgai, to snrround, vagaia,
valu, to scrape, voZua.
vavoe, to divide^ vaea.

n. Tebbs which fobm the Passive ik f ta.

»nt, to pinch, initia,

0% to arrive at, o^otia.

u, to bite, utia.

fonoy to hold a council, fonotia.

lamalamaf to watch for, lamatia,

maia% to fear, maia^tUia,

no, to conceal, natia.

nau, to desire, nauticu

nonoa, to tie, noatia.

pa% to fall, pa*utia,
puptdu, to intercede for, ptUutia.
pupuni, to shut, jwrnita.
saisaiy to bind, saisaitia.
sati, to bedew, sautia.
81% to lift, iiHtia.
sola, to escape, solaticu
«Ma, to grub up, auatia.
taumafa, to eat, taumafaUa.


a*a, to kick, a'aafa,
e2o, to stink, elosia.
MnoHno, to hate, Hnosia.
and, to be drunk, onasia,
fa*afo% to bring back, fa^afo'isia.
fauy to tie together, faima.
folo, to swallow, /oio«ia.
fidi, to capsize, /wZma.

yau, to break, gausia.
la% to step over, la*a8ia,
mtlOi to twist, mUosia,
motUy to break, mo^U8ta.
tagi, to cry, ta/gisia.
tatalo, to pray, taXosia.
tofu, to have a portion, iofusia.
veU), to dart, vdosia.

IV. Verbs which form the Passive ik gia.

alofa, to love, alo/agia.
'ata, to laugh, *atagia.
tto, to be angry, itagia.
*dle, to deceive, ^olegia,
^ote, to scold, *ofegfia.
ula, to joke, t«Zagfta.
uZi, to steer, tUiaia,
malulUf to cool, mcHugiay


no, to borrow, nogia.
pala, to rot, palagia,
pepelo, to lie, pelogia,
po, to be benighted, pogia.
popole, to be anxious, polegia.
pvsa, to send up smoke, pusa^ia.
savilif to blow (wind), mviligia.
tautala, to talk, tautalagia.

V. Verbs which form the Passive in ia.

(ua, to be lacking, asaia,
U8U, to go to a fono, usuia.
fa^agala, to desire earnestly,

fo, to doctor, foia^ ~'
ganagana, to converse, ganaia.
motOf to strike with the fist,


by Google


midumtduy to rub, mtHuia, tetegay to be dim, »egaia.

nOfoy to sit, nofoia. BtainOy to dfop, Hnaia.

nutif to crash, nuHia, MiZti, to light, ttduicL

j90, to slap, poia, $u8tdu, to shine, suluia.

sasay to beat, soUl vavao, to forbid, vaoia.


aloj to paddle, aXofia. mo, to escape, saofia,

inoinoy to demana, inofia, stsiloj to look, sUafia.

080, to jump, o9ofia. ta>efi, to bold, taqm*

via, to smoke, uLafia. tagOf to take hold of, tagofia,

una, to pinch, wno/ia. tihtUo, to spy, et?o/Ja.

t(/u, to draw water, utufia, totolo, to creep, tdofia.
loloy to overflow, lofia.

yil. Ykibs which FOBM THE Passiyx qt mia.

inu, to drink, inumia. fa^cmno, to point out, /a*a«»nom»a.

'utt, to giasp, *umia. logo, to lean against, lagomia,

fa^alanu, to wash off salt water, m'o, to surround, si^omia.

fa^cUanumia. tanu, to bury, tanumia.

Yin. Yebxs which form the Passiye dt Zux.

au, to reach to, atiZia. tau, to fight, tonZ/a.

mdtau, to consider, mM<wlia. tautau, to hang up, tautotiZia.

^uTia, to spring up, punalia tau, to buy or sell, tavlia,

As far as I can remember, only those verbs which end in tau form
the passive in Oct, But all verbs thus ending do not thus form the
passive: faatau, to buy or sell, is faatauina; faitau, to read, is
faitauLia, but more oommonly faitauiiM.


8a8a% to capsize, sa^ena. t€te*e, to reject, Ae*e«a.

8u% to lift up, iu^ena, tu% to leave, tu*una»

The following verb lengthens the last vowel to form the passive : —
tatala, to untie, tola.

These two combine the directive particles mat and atu, and add the
passive form a/—

Aumai (au and mat), to bring, aumaia. Avatu (ave 4itv\ to take,

In declension, the pronoun follows the verb in the paasiye.


by Google

Jl samoak gbahmab. 123

Presmt Tense
(abo used as fatnre).


1. E dhfagia a*«, I am belored.

2. E dlefcLgia *oe^ thon art beloved.
8. E alofagia V> to, he is Moved.


etc etc.

Intransitiye as weU as transitive verbs take a passive; as *ua nqfoia
le fale, tiie honse is inhabited.

The Caueative^ like Hiphil in Hebrew.

This is formed by prefixing /a*a to the root ; as tupu, to ^w ;
fa*(Uupu, totsause to grow. 1. Fa% like /a, also denotes a diminished
degree ; as lata, to feel at home ; le tatd, not feeling at home ; fa^ale-
lata, to be not quite at home. 2. It is also used to maik compadison ;
as fa^aiamaitiilU to act like a child. 3. Some of this class of verbs are
used intransitively; as fa*amalo8i, to strengthen oneself. 4. It
changes the noun to a verb, as %u, a handle ; fa^a^au le to% to put a
handle to the axe. 5. It changes the adjective to a verb, by making
the thing to be what is expressed by the adjective ; as Uva^ IcOig ;
fa^aleUvOy to make long. 6. It changes intransitive verbs to transitive,
as cla, to live ; fa*adla, to deliver. 7. Sometimes it Is prefixed to
verbs apparently without altering the meaning, aS pot^tOf fa^a-
potopoto, to ^tber together.

This and Sie following form are declined just as the simple, active,
and passive forms of the verb : —

1. Ou tefa*€Uupu, 1 cause to grow.

2. E te/a^atupu, you cause to grow.

3. Na tefa^atupu, he causes to grow.

* The Inteneivey like Piel.

Continued action is denoted by prefixing tau; as tawau, to
endeavour to come ; taufa*atupu, to continue to cause to grow.

Intensity is also indicated by reduplication ; as mu, to bum ; mumii,
to bum brightly. On the contrary, reduplicatii^ is also used to
indicate diminished action ; galu, to be rough ; galugdlu, to be some-
what rough (of the sea). The simple root only is doubled, as 9u^e9u%
aHaai, but not a prefix ; savilivUi, ma*anuminumi, ma*e*a*e*a.

The suflBx aHnd also denotes intensity of action; fataHna, to be
overcome, surpassed; tdeaHne^t to hurry on ; <«2»a*tfUi, to drive on.


by Google


The Bedproedlf Hiihpael.

This is fonned by prefizmg/s to the root, and affixing, acooiding to
the requirement of euphony, some one of the partides ni, a% faHy «a*t,
ta% maH, naH; h&fealofani, root, alofa^ to love mntaally ; femdliua%
root, mdliUf to go aoout from place to place ; fdavMia% root, lamalamot
to watch for one another ; fetadlafa% root, da, to make a fire bum
brightly ; fecUvmaH, root, alu, to go &om place to place ; fetuana% root,
twi, to sit ba<^ to back.

To take along with a person is expressed by suffixing <aH\ or saH;
as mo^€ta% to run with a thing ; *au8a% to swim with a thing. Also
by l^e preposition ma, with, as a a*u alu ma a^u ; lit, I will go with
me, for, I will go with it.

The suffix aH (interposing a consonant when euphony requires)
makes the meaning emphatic; as nofoaH, lafoa% leoleosaH, uLiga%

Ma prefixed to an active verb makes it neuter ; as sasa'a, to pour
out, to spill; ma8a*a, spilt. Or it denotes ability; as ma/at, to be
able ; *ua mS mdrtava, he can breathe. The full form, however, is
much better, *Ua mafaiona mdnava.*

The prefix gd expresses equality or companionship ; as gatusa, to be
equal ; gdtasi, to be together ; gdsolo, to glide along. It occurs only in
the dual and plural numbers.

All these forms are declined in the same way as the simple
primitive verb.

The Yebb **To Be."

The verb to he is expressed by the verbal particles : —
'0 a*u *o le tagata^ I am a man.
*Ooe^ole tamo, You are a boy.
*Oia*ole teine. She is a girl.
*0 i mdua *ofafine. We two are women.
*0 i tdua *o tatddea, We two are young men.
*0 ovltta *o aliH, You two are chiefs.
*0 i Idua ^ofaipuLe^ They two are councHlors.
*0 i matou 'o tufuga. We (exclusive) are carpenters.
*0 1 taJtou *o le ^auva^a^ We (inclusive) are the crew.
*0 <mtou *o le 'au^oso. You are the food-gatherers.
*0 i latou *o tagata ^ese, They are strangers.



1. Ott <e t a^ I will be there.

2. Etei ai, thou wilt be there.

3. E i ai oia,h.e will be there.

Ma te i ai, we two (exclusive)

will be there.
Ta te i ai, we two (inclusive) will

be there.
Jjua te i ai, you two will be there.
Latei ai, they two will be there.

* " ifi» is a prefix of condition."— OoDfiiKGiON, p. 137.


by Google




1. Matou te i at, we (exclusive) will be there.
Tatou te i at, we (inclusive) will be there.

2. Tou te i at, you will be there.

3. Latou te i at, they will be there.



1. Na a*tt i ai, I was there.

2. Na e i at, thon wast there.

3. Na i at *o ia, he was there.

Na ma i ai, we two (exclusive)

were there.
Na ta i at, we two (inclusive)

were there.
Na lua t at, you two were there.
Na la i at, they two were there.


1. Na matou i aij we (exclusive) were there.
Na taiou i at, we (inclusive) were there.

2. Na outou i at, you were there.

3. Na latou i at, they were there.

*0 loo i ai *o ta, he is there, etc., etc.
The Interrogative is formed by adding the particle 'ea : as, 'Ou te se
teine 'eaf Am I a girl? *0 ta <ea leneif Is this he? And so on
through the different persons. In asking the question, Is there ? the
relative particle ai is used with the verl^l particle, as, ^ at se va^a f
Is there a canoe ? Pe ai ea sou va^a ? Have you a canoe ? lit, whether
is there your canoe.

On Tutuila, isi is used for to he and to have : E isi sau avd. Have
you a wife ?


1. Verbs compounded from two verbs; as, ^Ai-taoto, to eat lying

down ; Moetu, to sleep standing ; Fasiotij to strike dead.

2. Verbs composed of a noun and ac^ective ; as, LotoUaga^ to be of

a bad disposition.

3. A verb, noun, and preposition; as, Mateima*alili, to be dead

with cold.

4. Verb and noun ; as, Falecla, to be a thriving family ; Soloalofa,

to pine from affection.

5. Verb with particle ; as Te^a^eseina, to be away &om ; Avatua, to

have it given.

6. Verb and adjective ; as, Fa^atelevave, to cause to make haste.

Deponent Vebbs.

These are in very frequent use, and are distinguished from the
passive by the pronoun being placed before the verb; thus, O^u te
alofaina o to, I love him ; Ma te manatua oe, We two will remember you.


by Google


Impebsonal Yebbs, Fa, QtAo.

1- fO'%Ja ita,fa a*u mat, I thought (enoneoaflly).

2. fa *op, fa te *oc, you thought

3. fa te ia, he thought.


1. fa te H mdua, we two thought, etc.
GcUoy to forget.

1. *ua gaU) ia te a% I forgot

2. *ua galo ia te *oe, you forgot.

8. *ua galo ia te ia, he forgo^ etc. '

Particles directives to Verbs,

mai, direction towards the speaker.

atu, direction from.

a*e, above ; *ua alu a% it is gone up.

ifo, b^ow, down.

ane, a more indirect motion, along, aside.


^ua savali mai 'o ia, he walks this way.

^ualao atu, they two are gone away,

*ua alu a*e le la, the sun has gone up.

Hta alu ifo o ia, he has gone down.

*ua alu ane i le cda, he has gone along in the road.

^ua alu ane i lefale, be has gone aside to the house.

6. Adyebbs.

Some adverbs are formed from adjectives; as mulia*i, last, from
mulimuli; muaH, first, from mu^imua; matua*i, exceedingly, from
matua. Adjectives themselves are used as adverbs; as *ua maH teU *o
«a, he is very ill.

i*inei, here ; o iHnei le tamo, the boy is here.

i'Hd, there ; o lo^o iHla le mea, the thing is there.

»^d, yonder; mated i% we go yonder.

net, now ; ua o*u sau nei, I have come now.

to, ioe, e, yes.

e leai, i*ai, no.

M^o, often ; tta maH 8t>% he is often sick.

oi, yes (to a call).

afea 1 when f eteoHu afea ? whrai will you go ?

anafea ? when ? (past) ; na oti anafea o ia, when did he die ?

*ofeai ifeal where?

analeHa, just now ; namao mai andUHa, we came just now.

nanei, presently.

ialu, since ; talu amaiMfi, Hmi no, it has rained since yesterday.

a/nd, by-aiMl-by ; aim e le mafait by-and-by he wili iK>t.


by Google

Jl. sauoah obamhab.


vavBf quickly ; e ita vave o to, he is quickly angry.
fa^apefeaf how? pe na mauu''a fa^apefeai how

wounded ?
fa^apea, thus; ia faia fa*apea, do it fhus.
With many others.

was he

7. Prepositionb.

o and a, of.

mo and ma, for, on account of.

ma, with; sau ma ia, come

with him.
ta (to proper names), to.
t, in, at, to.*
mat, from.
i totonUf within.
i loto, within ; o loot hio fale,

he is within the house.

if of Of ynthoat; alu i fafo, go

% luaa, above.
% laio, under.
i UUa aiu, beyond ; olooi fo7-a

atu o le vaif it is beyond the

i' tola mat', on this Bide.
i tua, behind.
• lumoy before.

The last six of these take the plural form of the pronoun. In the
case of the last two it serves to distinguish them from the noun ; alu i
o*u tiM, go behind me. Mu % lo*u tua would mean, to get up on my


^fai, if.

anaj if (past).

e ui lava ina, although.

peitaH and pmaH, but.

*«, but.

faitaHy but.

peUeax, like as, as though.

•a, if (future).

ma 9sAfo% also, likewise.

ana le se aruxi, except

aud, because.

*atoa ma, together with, and also.

neH, lest.

e ui ina mea, notwithstanding.

amaise, togetiier with.


oil oh !

oi,oi,oil <Ai\ ohl

*ue I exclamation of delight.

isa I of contempt Get out t

fa^oMtal behold 1

tafefe 1 lit, I fear. Alas !

wiaumau 1 what wastel

ma*eu! excellent I

da I wonderful!

ena I well done !

alilil atiti! XnahsLwl

*e*enu I 'mu'enu l] P*^^ *

taHnoHno, lit, I hate, abominable !

96 pagd I what a pity 1

• **A taeaoy at to-«ioTrow.**— Codbikotoh. It is also used to denote the tnstrament
by which something is done, and answers to with; as, Nafasia o iaile la*au, B»
was beaten with » stick.


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The Abtiole.

Every noun in the singular, except proper names, must take the
article, because its omission makes the noun plural ; m *o le tagata^
the man ; 'o tagata, men.

Nouns of multitude take the article ; as 'Ua tele le i*a i U mea net.
There are many fish in this place ; *Ua tu*ua le fa^apotopotoga^ The
assembly is dismissed.

The article, with the name of a country, indicates a man of that
country ; as *o Ze /Samoa, a Samoan.

The definite article is used when the noun has been previously
mentioned: Exod. ii. 7, 9, *0w te alu *ea e *a*ami se fafinei . . .
Ona ave lea *o le tama e le fafine. Shall I go and fetch a woman ? . . .
then the child was taken by the woman.

The article is used as a pronoun ; as *o fe *fwi alofaj the one who
loves. It is often used where the English would put the indefinite
article ; as, 8a i ai le taaata ^ua gase lona lima. There was there a
man who had a withered, hand. It was not any man, but one par-
ticular individual, definitely marked by his withered hand.

An appellative, used to signify a whole class, takes the definite
article : Ps. 144, 3, Seaeale tagatai What is man? So in describing
different fishes, etc., as, *o 26 atyie, *o le atule, 'o le malavli, etc., the
mullet, the herring, the schnapper. Abstract nouns are used in the
same way ; as, *0 & inata^u ma tefefe^ Fear and dread.
' The article is used with a verb to form a participial noun : *0 le

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