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his careful discrimination in the selection of
foremen for the various departments of the
establishment, all being men who are masters
of the various mechanical operations con-
ducted under their superintendency. The
characteristic motto of the concern is : "Per-
fection attained, success assured." This has
been adhered to in the smallest details, and its
promises of cause and effect fully realized.

From the time of Mr. Farquhar's removal
to York his name has always been synonymous
with progress, and the present conspicuous
position the place holds as a manufacturing
center is in no small degree owing to his efforts
in the line of general progress, to which he
may be said to have devoted as much time as
he has to the furthering of his personal inter-
ests. For though a thorough business man,
Mr. Farquhar is best known throughout the
nation and among the statesmen of foreign
lands as a student of and authority upon ques-
tions of political economy, with special refer-
ence to finance and tariff legislation. Perhaps
this has been the result of intimate association
with business affairs upon a man of his tenden-
cies. At any rate, with a mind thoroughly
practical and well disciplined, and evidencing
highest intellectuality, he has brought his

forces to bear upon the great economic ques-
tions of the day, and as a cogent and forceful
writer upon such topics has gained the atten-
tion of thinking minds throughout the world.
He has established his points by well-taken
tenets, enforced by wide and discriminating
observations, careful study of minute details
and cognizance of statistical values. His essays
along these lines have been published in the
New York and Philadelphia papers, Boston
papers and magazines, and have commanded
pronounced recognition for their wisdom and
freedom from partisan bias, while his pamph-
lets on finance — notably the silver question — -
have been circulated by the thousands. On
Feb. 14, 1890, in response to a request from the
Reform Club of New York City, Mr. Far-
quhar delivered an address upon the great
economic question of the day, and subsequently
this was embodied in a publication of nearly
five hundred pages, bearing the title of "Eco-
nomic and Industrial Delusions," the same be-
ing a discussion of the case for protection.
The titles of the several chapters give an idea
of the scope of the work : The Case for Pro-
tection Examined, Abuse of Party Allegiance,
Balance of Trade and Currency Supply, Pa-
ternal Governments and Industrial Progress,
Foreign Countries as Commercial Rivals,
Prices versus Wages, the Home Market, the
Ideal Revenue with Incidental Protection, Pro-
tection and Agriculture, Special Discussions,
the Silver Question. In the compilation of
this most meritorious work, Mr. Farquhar
had as an able collaborator his brother, Henry
Farquhar, and the book is considered in the
light of an authority upon the various topics
touched, bearing the unmistakable mark of
patient study, careful research and wide
knowledge, and showing the spirit of utmost
fairness, while voicing honest convictions
ably guarded against attack. In this publica-
tion Mr. Farquhar clearly elucidates the ills
that would arise from the free coinage of sil-
ver and from a high protective tariff, demon-
strating that the first would unsettle the finan-
cial stability of the country, and that the latter
stands as a barrier to the exchange of the
manufactured goods of our workshops.

Mr. Farquhar's distinctive individuality is
nowhere more apparent than in the matter of
his political proclivities, since he exercises his
franchise not according to the regulation party
lines, but as his judgment dictates. He was

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a strong supporter of President Cleveland,
whose administration he considered an honest
one, tending to conserve the best interests of
the nation. At previous elections he had sup-
ported Lincoln, Blaine and Garfield.

In 1892 Mr. Farquhar was nominated, by
Hon. Robert E. Pattison, then governor of
the State of Pennsylvania, as one of the State
commissioners to represent the old Keystone
Commonwealth at the World's Columbian Ex-
position held in Chicago in 1893. At the meet-
ing of the State commissioners he was elected
executive commissioner, and later was still
further honored in being chosen president of
the National Association of Executive Com-
missioners, representing all the States. He
visited Europe about this time, acting under
a commission from the government, and there
rendered valuable service in the interests of
the World's Fair.

In January, 1897, Mr. Farquhar was ap-
pointed by Gov. Hastings as delegate from
Pennsylvania to the Coast Defence Convention
called by the governor of Florida to meet at
Tampa, that State, and over which Gen. J. M.
Schofield presided. On that occasion Mr.
Farquhar delivered a very able address, whose
lofty sentiment and broad humanitarian princi-
ples impressed his audience deeply. Mr. Far-
quhar is a member of the American Peace
Congress and of the World's Peace Congress,
and in this connection has made addresses
which have attracted world-wide attention,
notably at the great Peace gatherings held at
Washington, D. C, Boston and Mohonk Lake.
He belongs to almost every Reform Society
in America, being an active member of at least
twenty such bodies. He is also a member of
the world-famous Cobden Club of England.
No man in York county is more widely known
or more highly esteemed at home and abroad.

From the foregoing it will be seen that
Mr. Farquhar is not limited by his business
interests — they, if anything, widened his out-
look and strengthened his position on other
subjects. He ranks deservedly among the
distinguished and successful men of the
nation, yet he never loses sight of matters per-
taining to the welfare of the city of his resi-
dence, and has done much to further its prog-
ress and material prosperity. He is a mem-
ber of the Board of Trade; a director in the
York Trust, Real Estate & Deposit Company ;
and was until recently proprietor of the York

Gazette. He is a director of the Philadelphia
Museum and president of the York Hospital ;
vice-president and member of the Executive
Committee of the National Association of
Manufacturers ; and a member of the Cosmos
Club of Washington, D. C. He is also presi-
dent of the Park Commission, and it was
through his efforts that York secured her at-
tractive park system. At the time of the war
of the Rebellion, when York was invaded by
Confederate forces, Mr. Farciuhar arranged
with the commanding officer of the enemy for
the protection of the town, by payment of a
comparatively small sum, and not a dollar's
worth of property was taken. For this timely
service he received the personal thanks of
President Lincoln and the Secretary of War,
Mr. Stanton.

In person Mr. Farquhar has a physique that
is typical of strength and vitality, and he de-
votes the major portion of his time and atten-
tion to the great industrial concern at whose
head he stands. In speech he is quick and de-
cisive, impressing his hearers with the evi-
dence of his sound judgment and his power of
instantly comprehending and summing up the
true values of things, there being no vacillation
or hesitation in his manner of address. He is
easily approachable, cordial, and signally free
from ostentation. Generous and quick in his
sympathies, he is honored by and holds the af-
fectionate regard of his employees, while he
wins friends wherever he goes. Those in his
employ realize that he has cognizance of true
manhood and that he feels a deep interest
in their welfare, ever standing ready to reward
their faithful service.

Mr. Farquhar was married, in i860, to Miss
Elizabeth Jessop, daughter of Edward Jessop,
who was a leading hardware merchant of Balti-
more, and president of the Short Mountain and
the Tunnelton Coal Companies, his country
seat having been in Spring Garden township,
York county. To Mr. and Mrs. Farquhar
three sons have been born, William E., Percival
and Francis.

JERE CARL, president of the York Wa-
ter Company, and a prominent capitalist of
York, has been variously identified with this
city for considerably over a quarter of a cen-
tury, and has done much for its material de-
velopment and prosperity. Mr. Carl is the only
surviving child of Martin and Mary (Dear-



doff) Carl, and his birth occurred in Frankhn
township, York county, July 21, 1829.

Martin Carl was born Oct. 17, 1782, and
was reared and educated in York county, where
for a number of years he was engaged in mer-
cantile pursuits. He was a Democrat in poli-
tics, and usually took an active part in the man-
.agement of local affairs, holding at different
times nearly all of the offices in Franklin
township. He served one term as director
of the poor for York county. His death oc-
curred June 29, 1855, his remains being inter-
red in Prospect Hill cemetery. He had been
the father of eleven children, all of whom are
deceased except Jere : Henry ; Martin D'. ;
Lewis; Jere; Sarah, who married Christian
Eender, of York; Mary A., who married Pe-
ter Wolford; Lydia, who married Joshua
■Green; Elizabeth; Andrew; and two who died
in infancy.

Jere Carl was educated in the common
schools, and was reared to habits of economy
and thrift. At an early age he became an ap-
prentice in the office of the York Democratic
Press, where he learned the trade of printer,
which, however, he never followed. At the
close of his apprenticeship Mr. Carl was made
a. clerk in the store of his brother Lewis, at
York, and remained with him for seven years.
On Jan. i, 1853, he secured a clerkship in the
old York Bank, which he held up to Jan. i,
1867. In the latter year he formed a partner-
ship with Charles Weiser and Charles S.
Weiser, under the firm name of Weiser, Son
•& Carl, bankers. This firm continued to do a
private banking business until Jan. i, 1889,
when their bank was consolidated with the
York County National Bank, with which insti-
tution Mr. Carl has remained as an officer and

Mr. Carl has also turned his attention to
other business concerns and projects. He has
been a leading spirit in the advocacy of good
Toads, and to his efforts is largely due the pres-
ent meritorious condition of a number of the
Dest roads in York county. He is president of
..le York and Gettysburg Turnpike Company,
treasurer of the York and Chanceford Turn-
pike Company, and has for some years been
secretary of the Wrightsville Turnpike Com-
pany. He is also president of the York Wa-
ter Company, which erected the splendid new
system of water works, which is unexcelled by

anything in the State in utility, effectiveness
and completeness, and which has a capital
stock of nearly a million dollars. The water
works were built with an immense capacity,
not only providing for present needs, but fu-
ture contingencies and increased population.

Mr. Carl was married Jan. 10, 1861, to
Miss Adeline Weiser, daughter of Charles Wei-
ser, of York, and to this union three children
were born : a son, who died in infancy ; Charles,
who died Feb. 27, 1882 ; and Bella, who mar-
ried, Nov. 5, 1896, William A. Key worth,
treasurer of the Martin Carriage Works. Mrs.
Carl died Feb. 23, 1897.

Jere Carl has been uniformly active in re-
ligious matters, and in various philanthropic
and charitable movements. He is a member
of St. Paul's Lutheran Church, has been the
lay representative to the General Synod to that
church on several occasions, is a member of the
board of Church Extension and of the church
council. Mr. Carl is a member of the various
Masonic bodies, and in his earlier years was
one of the chief spirits in the organization of
the various branches. In politics he is a Dem-
ocrat, and was elected chief burgess of the
borough of York in 1874, 1876 and 1878, but
has carefully eschewed partisan politics as an
office seeker or promoter.

Mr. Carl is, perhaps, prouder of no con-
nection in his busy and successful career than
the part he has taken as a member of the Vol-
unteer Fire Department of York. He joined
the Vigilant Fire Co., Oct. 8, 1848, and retired
as an officer Jan. i, 1904, having been an of-
ficer of that noted organization for a con-
tinuous period of fifty years. Mr. Carl is a
traveled and cultivated gentleman, having vis-
ited all of the prominent countries of Europe,
and his intelligent observations while abroad
form the theme of most interesting conversa-
tion, Mr. Carl's conversational powers being
far above the ordinary.

HON. W. F. BAY STEWART, for ten
years Judge of the Courts of York county, and
prominently connected with several mammoth
enterprises whose scope and influence are as
far-reaching as the confines of the country,
has been the architect of his own fortune. Pro-
fessionally he has attained a high position
through his sterling integrity and sound judg-
ment, as well as his erudition; while in the in-


dustrial and financial world his projects have,
by their uniform success, shown the master
mind that conceived and executed them.

Judge Stewart is of Scotch-Irish extrac-
tion in both paternal and maternal lines. He
was born in Chanceford township, York coun-
ty, Feb. 25, 1849, son of Thomas Roland Stew-
art. His mother was a daughter of Thomas
Bay, of Coopstown, Harford Co., Md., who
for many years was Judge of the Orphans'
Court of Harford county, and who commanded
an artillery company at the battle of North

Judge Stewart secured a good English
■education, both classical and scientific, and has
always been a close student, particularly in
the realm of abstruse thought and speculative
philosophy. He attended the public schools
until seventeen years of age, and later was a
student of Pleasant Grove Academy, in Lower
Chanceford, and afterward in the historic
York County Academy, at York. He received
the honorary degree of A. M. from Ursinus
College. After leaving school he taught in the
public schools two years and then in the York
County Academy — the same institution in
which Thaddeus Stevens once taught. Early
in his career he determined upon a professional
life, and when he gave up teaching it was to
-enter upon the study of law with Col. Levi
Maish, who \vas afterward a member of Con-
.gress from the York-Adams and Cumberland
district. He was admitted to the Bar Nov. 3,
1873, ^nd two years later he formed a partner-
ship with John Blackford, then district at-
torney of the county, and a leading lawyer of
the York Bar. This partnership continued un-
interruptedly until Mr. Blackford's death, in
1884. On Oct. I, 1884, Judge Stewart entered
into a partnership with Henry C. Niles and
George E. Neff, and this was terminated only
with the elevation of Judge Stewart to the
Bench in 1895. It was but a short time after
lie began practice that he found himself in the
front rank of the legal practitioners. Lawyers
grown old in experience looked with favor on
this young man, whom learning and natural
.ability had made "a foeman worthy of their
«teel." Quick to grasp details, prompt in exe-
cution, gifted with keen insight into legal prin-
ciples, he was bound to win prominent place in
whatever career he chose. In 1895 came to
him, unsolicited, the nomination of the party
for the judgeship, and although he declined to
anake a personal canvass to secure the election

he won by a large majority over his competitor,
who was just completing a ten years' term on
the Bench.

Judge Stewart has always been a busy
man. While giving much care and study to
the profession he adorns, he has shown great
activity in other lines. He has always taken
a deep interest in economics and finance and
at the time he was elected Judge he was presi-
dent of the Security Title & Trust Company,
which he assisted in organizing, and which is
now one of the leading financial institutions-
of the city. At the same time he was interested
in many corporations, in nearly all of which
he was a chief promoter, and all of which have
been exceptionally prosperous. From 1883 to
April I, 1894, Judge Stewart had been en-
gaged in the foundry, machine and tanning
business as a partner of the firm of Baugher,
Kurtz & Stewart, composed of William H.
Kurtz, a local capitalist and himself. Mr.
Kurtz had no practical knowledge of the busi-
ness, and. at the time the enterprise was started
Judge Stewart had still less, but the latter
applied himself closely to learn the details,
and by his business sagacity soon made it one
of the largest and most successful industries
of the city, employing large numbers of men.
At a time when there was a disagreement
among the ofiicers of the York Card & Paper
Company, manufacturers of wall paper, he
took hold of the business, became its presi-
dent, and has made it one of the largest plants
of its kind in the world.

In addition to the industrial concerns al-
ready referred to above, Judge Stewart was
instrumental in the establishing, in 1889, of
the York Knitting Mills Company, of which
he is president. In 1900 he also established
and organized the Norway Iron & Steel Com-
pany, and is its president. Judge Stewart was
one of the two organizers of the York Haven
Water & Power Company, being vice-presi-
dent of the same, with Henry L. Carter as
president — these two being the principal own-
ers. The placing of all the bonds of this great
project by Judge Stewart at a time when work
had not been begun was regarded in the finan-
cial world as evidence of unusual ability in this
line, and established his reputation as a
financier of high order. Among other interests
of the Judge may be mentioned the York
Haven Paper Company; and the York County
Traction Company — he and Grier Hersh, to-
gether with Cap't. W. H. Lanius, having


brought about the consoHdation of the two elec-
tric Hght companies, the steam heating com-
pany and a dozen or more electric railway
companies, in all of which Judge Stewart was
a director. His interest in the Security Title
& Trust Company did not begin and end with
his official position, but he was the president
of the company at the time of building the
elegant structure which that company owns
and occupies.

The enterprises named have all been con-
fined to York county, but beyond the borders
of his home Judge Stewart has set on foot
several companies that will play a prominent
part in the development of Alaska. He was
one of the chief organizers and is president
of the Valdez-Yukon Railway Company, now
building a railroad from Valdez, in Alaska,
through the Capper river country to the Yukon
river, a distance of 412 miles. It certainly
would require a large volume to tell intelli-
gently of all the industrial and financial con-
cerns in which he is interested. The mind that
can conceive and execute so many great and
varied enterprises is beyond the conception of
the average man, however much may be appre-
ciated the upright character that has accom-
plished so much, and even in the fierce lime-
light beating on the holder of exalted station he
can show an unblemished honor and untar-
nished reputation.

Judge Stewart was married to Laura E.
Danner, daughter of the late Edward Banner,
one of York's wealthiest and best known citi-
zens. She died Oct. 10, 1900, and her only
daughter has since presided over the comfort-
able home on West Market street, York.

Judge Stewart retired voluntarily from the
Bench on Jan. i, 1906, after a service of ten
years thereon. Asserting that it was beneath
the dignity of his judicial office to enter into
an active canvass to secure a renomination
or election, he refused to be an active candi-
date to succeed himself. He left unspotted the
judicial ermine which he assumed ten years
ago, and his declination was received by the
people generally with sincere and manifest

MICHAEL B. SPAHR, a retired mer-
chant and business man of York, Pa., has had
connection with the commercial interests of
the city for half a century. During that period
his operations at times have been extensive, es-
pecially during the time of the Civil war, and

he has been at all times a prominent factor in
business circles. In 1901 he retired from ac-
tive work, but still retains an interest in some
of the financial concerns of the city, and takes
a lively interest in its growing prosperity.

Born in 1830, in East Berlin, Adams Co.,
Pa., as a boy his first business experience was
in a country store, where he was employed for
three or four years. In 1848 he changed his
residence to York, Pa., to become a student in
the York County Academy for a short time,
and there he again accepted a situation as clerk
in a store where he was employed until 1855.
At this time he engaged in the wholesale and
retail notion business, for himself, in a small
way at first, but as trade increased he kept add-
ing a greater variety of stock, from time to
time, in 1858 adding a line of boots and shoes.
This had never before been attempted in York
■ — the carrying of a large stock of boots and
shoes to supply retail stores, and Mr. Spahr
may justly claim to have been the pioneer
wholesale boot and shoe merchant of York.
This line eventually grew to become his prin-
cipal business. In 1877 he discontinued the
retail business entirely. From 1884 the busi-
ness was confined to a single line, the jobbing
of boots and shoes. In that year the firm of
M. B. Spahr & Sons was founded — Mr. Spahr
admitting into the firm his three sons, George
Walter, Philip B. and Franklin — which was
continued until 1901. During the forty years
there were many traveling salesmen employed,
soliciting orders from samples, the larger part
of sales being made in this way. The business-
was located on Centre Square, York. In 1870
Mr. Spahr purchased the northeast corner of
Center Square, which was considered the most
valuable business location in the town, and after
demolishing the old building he erected the
most attractive business house in the town at
that time, known as the Spahr building. It is-
three stories high, with a handsome mansard
roof, and for architectural beauty it has not
been surpassed in the city to this day, although
it was built thirty-five years ago. It stands as
a monument to the ability, courage and intelli-
gent foresight of the builder, anticipating his
wants for the future, and he still owns the
property, which is not likely to change hands
during his lifetime. He now occupies an office
in the Rupp building, on Center Square, where
he attends to his private business.

The following items serve to show how



long and important has been Mr. Spahr's con-
nection with the interests of the city : He was a
charter member of the Farmers National Bank
of York, and served as director of same con-
tinuously for thirty years; is one of the two
oldest living members of the board of trustees
of the York County Academy (the oldest edu-
cational institution in York), having served
thirty-seven years in that capacity ; an ex-presi-
dent of the York County Historical Society;
and the oldest living member of the Board of
Church Extension of the General Synod of the
Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United
States, on which he has served twenty-five
years, being its present vice-president.

JACOB HAY, M. D., was for over forty
years engaged in medical practice in the
borough of York and sur^-ounding country.
He had an extensive patronage, practically
succeeding his father in the confidence and
popular esteem of the community. For the
long period of over three-quarters of a centui-y
father and son attended faithfully to the ardu-
ous duties of the most exacting of professions,
and with such success that they counted several
generations of many families among their
friends and patrons. Both represented that
class in the profession generally known as
"family physicians," the doctors on whom pa-
tients rely so implicitly that their mere pres-
ence is a comfort in times of sickness or dis-

The family of Hay is of Scottish origin,
being descended from Thomas Hay, a hus-
bandman of Scotland who, with his two sons,
was working in a field near the battlefield of
Loncartie, during an invasion of Scotland by
the Danes in the year 980. Seeing the enemy's
steady advance he and his two sons rushed to

Online LibraryGeorge R. ProwellHistory of York County Pennsylvania (Volume II) → online text (page 2 of 201)