George S Newth.

A text-book of inorganic chemistry online

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24. Describe the common method of obtaining and of purifying mer-
cury.

25. Explain the method and the purpose of distilling mercury in vacuum.

26. State the physical properties of mercury.

27. Discuss chemical behavior of mercury.

28. What is an amalgam? How does sodium amalgam behave as a
reagent? Mention other important amalgams.

29. What is the essential difference between mercurous and mercuric
combinations ?

30. State color, composition, stability and method of making three
oxides of mercury.

31. Show by equations two different methods for making calomel.

32. What is the formula for calomel? State reasons for answer given.

33. How is mercurous nitrate prepared? What can be said of its
stability?

34 Give method of making corrosive sublimate on a commercial scale.

35. State the properties of mercuric chloride.

36. HgCl2+KI = . Complete the foregoing describing the mercury
bearing product formed. What would be the result if an excess
of either of the salts were used?

37. How does mercuric nitrate compare with the corresponding ous
compound in method of manufacture and in properties?

38. How do cinnabar, precipitated mercuric sulphide and vermilion
differ?

39. What general structure represented in ammoniacal mercury com-
pounds?

40. When a silver, mercury solution is precipitated with hydrochloric
acid and the silver chloride dissolved in ammonia water what
mercury compound remains?

41. What is the composition of ordinary white precipitate and how
is it formed?

42. What is the composition of Nessler's solution? For what is it
used? What constitutes a test? What of the delicacy of the test?
Give composition of the compound upon whose formation the test
depends.

64*



Questions on Chemistry



CHAPTER VIII

1. Name the members of Group III in order of their atomic weights
and in their proper subdivisions.

2. Designate the common or important elements of Group III.

3. What unique property possessed by gallium?

4. Of the elements of Group III. how many and which are non-metals?

5. Give occurrence of the element boron.

6. What reducing agents are employed to set boron free?

7. Give the properties of the element boron.

8. Enumerate the important properties of the residue left upon heat-
ing boric acid to a red heat.

9. Show relation of boron trioxide to the different acids of boron.

10. Describe the process of obtaining boric acid from natural sources

11. How many grams of boric acid can be gotten from a kilogram of
borax 99 per cent pure?

12. Give the important properties of boric acid.

13. How obtain metaboric and pyroboric acids?

14. Complete the following: H 3 BO3 + Na 2 CO3 =.

15. Show method of producing borax from the borate of lime deposits.
Note any point of economy in the method.

1 6. Give properties of borax. In what way is it of value in analytical
tests? In welding or brazing processes?

17. What very marked activity has boron trifluoride?

1 8. Explain the action of carbon and chlorine in forming boron trichloride.

19. What elements found in greater abundance than aluminium?

20. Name important naturally occurring substances containing alumin-
ium.

21. Briefly sketch the reduction method of obtaining aluminium.

22. Accurately explain the electrolytic method of obtaining aluminium.

23. Enumerate the physical characteristics of aluminium.

24. Give an account of the chemical behavior of aluminium.

25. Describe aluminium bronze.

26. Name important natural forms of aluminium oxide.

27. Explain the formation of a lake.

28. How do aluminium compounds act as mordants?

29. What is spinelle?

30. How must A1(OH) 3 ionize that it may be basic? That it may be
acidic? What salts will form in each case?

31. What is the source of the aluminium sulphate of commerce?

32. Give general formula for an alum.

33. What properties in common have the alums?

34. What property possessed by the alums is of value in determining
atomic weights?

55*



Questions on Chemistry

35. What are pseudo- alums?

36. Give method of nomenclature of the alums.

37. What is alunite, and how is potassium alum obtained from it?

38. Describe the process of making alum from alum shale.

39. Give properties of alum.

40. Discuss the modifications of alum known as "burnt alum" and as
"neutral alum."

41. What reaction takes place between alum and baking soda ?

42. Why is aluminium not precipitated as a sulphide in analytical
work?

43. Describe the metal thallium.

44. What classes of salts are formed by thallium and what valence does
the metal exercise in each class?

45. Thallium, in its properties and in the properties of its compounds,
^ shows similarity to what other metal?



CHAPTER IX

1. Name the elements of Group IV as they appear in sub-divisions
A and B.

2. What in general can be said of the occurrence and uses of the ele-
ments of family A of Group IV?

3. What element of family B, Group IV might be considered a metalloid
and why?

4. In what respects does carbon stand apart from other members of
its family? Is this an exceptional occurrence in the periodic
table?

5. Show similarity of the elements tin and lead.

6. Discuss occurrence of silicon.

7. Is silicon obtained in commercial quantity? If so, mention method
of manufacture and use.

8. Does silicon present allotropic modifications?

9. In what particulars is silicon hydride like marsh gas and in what
particulars like phosgene gas?

10. How is silicon fluoride made? Give an equation expressive of its
interaction with water together with the names of products formed.

11. Compare a method of formation of silicon chloride with that of
boron chloride.

12. What is kieselguhr? Suggest a use for this substance.

13. What explanation might be offered for the natural occurrence of
various forms of .silica?

14. Mention important physical properties of crystalline and of amor-
phous silicon dioxide.

15. Discuss the solubility of silica.

56*



Questions on Chemistry



16. Show relation of silicon dioxide to acids of silicon. What of the
stability of these acids?

17. What products result from the mixing of an alkaline silicate with
hydrochloric acid?

1 8. Describe a dialysing apparatus. Explain the use of one in separat-
ing salt and silicic acid.

19. Show the relation cf the mineral serpentine and orthoclase to silicic
acid.

20. Discuss the natural occurrence of tin.

21. Describe the reduction process as applied to tin ore. How is the
crude metal purified?

22. Give the important physical properties of tin.

23. Discuss the chemical behavior of tin.

24. In what ways is tin made of practical use?

25. What marked difference in chemical property of the oxides of tin?
Which oxide is the more stable?

26. Give the formula and use for sodium stannite; for sodium stannate.

27. Show in equation the interaction of stannic oxide and caustic potash.
Under what condition is this reaction brought about?

28. Discuss the composition of the acids of tin, showing their relation
to the anhydride and to each other.

29. Give composition of stannous chloride. What is its most char-
acteristic chemical action? Give an example.

30. What change occurs if stannous chloride solution is left exposed
to air? If the solution is largely diluted?

31. What occurs when metallic iron is heated in a solution of stannic
chloride?

32. Show by equation the interaction of yellow ammonium sulphide and
stannous sulphide. Treat the product with hydrochloric acid and
formulate the reaction. Compare the sulphides of tin appearing
in the above equations.

33. Give method of preparation, composition and use of mosaic
gold.

34. What is the source of the lead of commerce? What other combina-
tions containing lead are found in nature?

35. Give the names of general processes employed in reducing lead
ores. What determines the method employed in lead reduction?

36. Describe each method for reduction of lead ores, giving equations
representing interaction taking place.

37. How purify the crude lead obtained in the ordinary process of
reduction? What of the purity of the product compared with that
of other metals on the market?

38. Give the physical properties of lead.

39. Explain the formation of a " lead tree." What relation must exist
between the interacting metals?

57*



Questions on Chemistry



40. Discuss the solubility of lead. Especially note the solvent action
of water.

41. Mention uses of metallic lead.

42. Give the name and formula for each of the oxides of lead.

43. Distinguish between litharge and massicot as to composition,
method of manufacture and appearance.

44. Show by equation the interaction of red lead with hydrochloric,
sulphuric, nitric and acetic acids respectively.

45. To what uses is red lead put?

46. Formulate the reaction of lead acetate and bleaching powder.

47. What is the most important chemical property of puce lead?
Illustrate.

48. How is lead dichloride recognized? How transformed into pigments?

49. Compare the chlorides of lead with those of tin.

50. How is lead nitrate made and what are its properties?

51. Show by equation the interaction of lead nitrate and ammonium
sesquicarbonate. How does the product differ from that produced
if sodium carbonate is used?

52. Describe the Dutch method of making white lead, employing
equations where applicable.

53. Compare the Thenard and the Milner processes with each other
and with the old Dutch process.

54. What objectionable properties has white lead? What substitutes
and adulterants are employed?

55. What is the composition of the white sediment often formed in
diluting strong sulphuric acid? Account for its presence.

56. What compound of lead found in a storage cell?

57. How is lead sulphide affected by heat?

58. Show by equation the possible interaction of nitric acid and galena.



CHAPTER X

1. Name the elements of Group V, specifying the family to which
they belong.

2. Account for the presence of vanadium in Bessemer slag.

3. Formulate the reaction attending the heating of vanadium in air.

4. Show general relations of the oxides and acids of the two families
of Group V.

5. How is vanadium pentoxide easily obtained?

6. Illustrate the basic action of vanadium. Which property is more
pronounced the acidic or basic?



58*



Questions on Chemistry



CHAPTER XI

1. Name the elements of Group VI. Which of these belong to sub-
division A?

2. Give natural occurrence of the element chromium specifying its
principal ore.

3. Describe the present method of obtaining the metal chromium.

4. What is the melting-point of chromium? How does chromium behave
toward each of the three common mineral acids?

5. Briefly describe the most important alloy of chromium.

6. What oxides of chromium are definitely known and what is the
essential difference between them? What indication points toward
a lower oxide?

7. Formulate the reaction occurring when ammonium dichromate is
heated.

8. How does chrome green differ from Guignet's green in composition
and in method of manufacture?

9. Explain in equation the reaction between strong sulphuric acid
and potassium dichromate. How separate the products formed?
Why drain the crystals on porous plates?

10. How employ chromic anhydride in a hydrogen dioxide test?

11. Give formulae for chromous and chromic chlorides and sulphates.

12. How is chrome alum practically prepared? Explain the reducing
action of sulphur dioxide in this process.

13. Considering potassium dichromate a salt of chromic acid plus
its own anhydride, explain the formation of potassium chromate
from caustic potash and the dichromate.

14. Carefully follow the manufacturing process for producing potassium
dichromate pointing out economical features.

15. Mention important properties of "bichromate of potash."

1 6. Formulate interaction of lead nitrate and potassium dichromate.
How is this reaction of value in analysis? What is the common name
and use of the precipitate?

17. Lead chromate of market is frequently brown. Explain this. For
what is it used in organic analysis?

1 8. Write the formula for chrome-red in a manner indicating its basic
character.

19. See application of chromyl chloride in an important analytical
separation pages 123-124 Newth's Manual of Analysis.

20. What is the commonest mineral yielding molybdenum, and what
substance does it resemble?

21. Which oxide of molybdenum is acidic? What classes of salts are
.obtained from this oxide?

59*



Questions on Chemistry

22. What molybdenum compound of value in a phosphate test and what
is the appearance and composition of the precipitate formed?

23. Give the name and formula for the commonest ore containing
tungsten.

24. What is tungstic anhydride and tungstic acid? What similiarity
between meta-tungstic acid and phospho-tungstic acid?

25. What is the commonest ore containing uranium and what is the
composition of the uranium compound contained therein?

26. In what respect is uranium trioxide similar to the corresponding
oxides of tungsten and molybdenum? In what respect does it
differ?

27. Give the formula for sodium uranate; for uranium nitrate: for
uranyl nitrate: for potassium per-txranate : indicate valency of
uranium in each compound and designate the oxide to which each
salt is directly related.



CHAPTER XII

1. What unique position is occupied by manganese in the periodic table?

2. What combinations of manganese are found naturally occurring,
and which one is of most importance?

3. How is manganese gotten in metallic state, and of what use is
the product?

4* Give names and formulas of the oxides of manganese and designate
those that are basic in character.

5. What products result if manganese nitrate is highly ignited?

6. Mention technical uses for pyrolusite.

7. What is the color of hydrated manganous salts? Compare crystallized
manganese sulphate with both blue and green vitriols.

8. Compare the ous and ic salts of manganese as to relative stability.

9. Trace relationship of Weldon mud to a possible manganous acid.

10. Show by equation the reaction taking place if manganite is fused
with potassium carbonate or potassium hydroxide in open air.

11. Describe the appearance of potassium or sodium manganate.
Are they stable salts?

12. What is the action of COa in K2MnO4 solution?

13. By what simple means would the passing of a sodium manganate
into a sodium permanganate be recognized?

14. How reduce potassium permanganate to the manganate form?

15. Give properties and uses of permanganate of potash.



60*



Questions on Chemistry



CHAPTER XIII

1. Name the elements of the first transitional group in the order of
their atomic weights.

2. What reasons can be assigned for an arrangement of the elements
of the first transitional group not in conformity with their atomic
weights?

3. Discuss the occurrence of iron; name and give formulae for all
important naturally occurring iron compounds.

4. Describe a blast furnace. Note dimensions.

5. What is the general composition of the charge emptied into the
furnace in iron smelting?

6. What use is made of the escaping gases from the blast furnace?

7. What changes occur in the limestone admitted to a blast' furnace?

8. What is the fate of sulphur, phosphorus, and silicon bearing materials
in the iron reduction process?

9. What is slag? How gotten from the furnace and what disposition
is made of it?

10. What is contained in pig iron?

11. What marks the difference between white and gray cast iron?
How demonstrate this?

12. What is Spiegel or Spiegeleisen? What is ferro-manganese? How
are these substances used in steel manufacture?

13. What is wrougTit iron and how is it made?

14. Explain the cementation process of steel manufacture.

15. Describe a Bessemer converter and its operation.

1 6. In what does steel differ from wrought iron and from cast iron?

17. Give the physical properties of iron. Mention important chemical
properties of iron.

1 8. Discuss the stability of the lower oxide and hydroxide of iron.

19. Compare and contrast FeaOa and FesC^ as to methods of formation
and properties.

20. What is the true composition of the compound ordinarily given
as Fe(OH) 3 ?

21. What is iron rust and how formed?

22. Describe the making of dialyzed iron.

23. Does iron form compounds similar to manganites and manganates?
Elucidate.

24. What occurs when iron is oxidized to the ic state or reduced to
the ous condition?

25. How is ferrous chloride made and what of its appearance? Is it a
stable or a labile salt?

26. Explain the formation of copperas on a commercial scale.

27. Mention peculiarities of the crystallization of ferrous sulphate.

61*



Questions on Chemistry

28. What is the action of ferrous salts toward the ferro- and ferri-
cyanides of potassium respectively?

29. How is ferric chloride commonly made and what are its properties?

30. Give equation showing preparation of ferric sulphate. Also equa-
tion showing the result of mixing solutions of ferric sulphate and
ammonium sulphate.

31. What is the action of ferric salts toward the ferro- and ferri-cyanides
of potassium respectively?

32. How is ferrous sulphide formed from the elements? From a ferrous
salt? From a ferric salt?

33. Account for iron pyrites appearing in " petrified" forms.

34. How do the sulphides of iron behave toward oxygen at high tem-
peratures?

35. What are the chief ores of cobalt?

36. How obtain metallic cobalt and what are its properties?

37. Compare the oxides and hydroxides of cobalt with those of iron
as to composition.

38. How is the color of cobalt chloride affected by different degrees of
hydration? What is there in this property to suggest its use in
"sympathetic inks" or "humidity indicators?"

39. What scheme of separation of cobalt and nickel suggested? What
fallacy in the test?

40. Compare sulphides of cobalt with those of iron.

41. Discuss in a general way the ammonical cobalt compounds.

42. What is smalt, and for what is it used?

43. What is the general composition of nickel ores? With what other
elements is nickel frequently associated?

44. Describe the Mond's process for reducing nickel. Does this method
effect separation from other metals?

45. Give physical properties, chemical properties and uses of nickel.

46. Compare the oxides of nickel with those of iron and cobalt; note
very important differences.

47. What difference in appearance between the hydroxides of nickel
and how may the ous form be converted into the ic?

48. What is the color of nickel salts and of solutions of these salts?

49. What compound of nickel used in nickel plating and how is it pre-
pared?

50. Compare solubility of the precipitated sulphides of nickel, cobalt
and iron.

CHAPTER XIV

1. Name the elements belonging to the three transitional groups
locating each group in the periodic table.

2. What general name given to the second and third transitional
groups and why?

62*



Questions on Chemistry

3. In what state is the metals of these groups found and in what
relationship to each other?

4. Compare the metals of the last two transitional groups as to (a)
solubility, (6) density, (c) fusibility.

5. In what particulars does osmium differ from the other platinum
metals?

6. What is osmic acid and what important properties has it?

7. Where is platinum ore found and with what common elements
is it frequently associated?

8. Comment on the method for separating the metals of the platinum
group.

9. What is spongy platinum, platinum black, and platinised asbestos?
How do these substances act as catalyzers?

10. What knowledge of platinum alloys necessary tor intelligent analyt-
ical work?

11. How obtain the oxides of platinum? Can either of them be made
by direct union of the elements?

12. What is platinous chloride and how is it related to the platinotype
process?

13. What is platinic chloride? Is it used as a reagent? Explain.

14. Give the general composition of the chloro-platinates of the alkali
metals and discuss their solubility.

15. Are the platino-cyanides platinous or platinic combinations?
Illustrate by formulae.

16. What peculiar properties manifested by the platino-cyanides?
Give formula for barium platino-cyanide.

17. In what group is platinum found in chemical analysis?

1 8. Discuss the ionization of the complex double salts of platinum.

19. What class of platinum combinations represented by the green salt
of Magnus?

APPENDIX

1. What important discovery made by Becquerel and when?

2. In what particulars do the Becquerel rays resemble the Rontgen



rays



3. What is meant by radioactivity and what elements possess this
property to a marked degree?

4. What discovery first made by M. and Mme. Curie, and what led
up to this discovery?

5. What more important discovery made later by the Curies? State
the procedure followed in this later investigation.

6. How was it absolutely proven that a new element was associated
with the precipitated barium chloride?

7. In what group is radium placed and why?

63*



Questions on Chemistry

8. Has radium been isolated? What is the significance of the term
radium as employed in all literature?

9. In what ore is radium found? What aptly shows the extremely
minute amount of it present in this ore?

10. What unique property possessed by radium? Give several examples
of the manifestation of this property. Does radium stand alone
in the possession of this property? Explain?

11. How are the radiations of the radioactive elements classified?

12. What are the properties of the alpha rays? Of what do the alpha
rays consist? In what way is this shown?

13. How do the beta rays differ from the alpha in properties? Of what
do the beta rays consist?

14. Describe the gamma rays. In what important particular do they
differ from the alpha and beta rays?

15. What elements possess the power of emitting emanations? How
do their emanations affect contiguous matter?

1 6. How does the quantity of emanation vary with change of temperature,
solution, etc.? To what conclusion has this behavior led?

17. Describe an experiment in which the emanation is apparently
collected.

1 8. Discuss the "decay" of the radium or thorium emanation.

19. Show the procedure necessary to procure Uranium X, and Thorium
X.

20. Explain the phenomenon of normal radioactivity.

21. What seems to be the real nature of the emanation?

22. Discuss the probability of actual transmutation of elements.

23. What can be said of the energy of radioactive changes? Give
illustrations.

24. What is the better conception of the original indivisible atom?

25. Discuss the effect of the adoption of the la,ter atomic theories upon
the fundamental doctrines of chemistry.



64*



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N55 A text -book of inorganic
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Online LibraryGeorge S NewthA text-book of inorganic chemistry → online text (page 67 of 67)