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apothecary. " I supposed you were "

" My-de*-seh," exdaimed M. Grandis-
sime, suddenly becoming very earnest, " I
am nothing, nothing ! There-h is wheh you
have the advantage of me. I am but a
dilettante^ whether-h in politics, in philoso-
phy, morhals, aw rheligion. I am afraid to
go deeply into anything, lest it should make
rhuin m my name, my family, my prhop-
e'ty."

He laughed unpleasantly.

The question darted into Frowenfeld's
mind, whether this might not be a hint of
the matter that M. Grandissime had been
trying to see him about.

" Mr. Grandissime," he said, " I can hardly
believe you would long neglect a duty either
for family, property, or society."

" Well, you mistake," said the Creole, so
coldly that Frowenfeld colored.

They galloped on. M. Grandissime bright-
ened again, almost to the degree of vivacity.
By and by they slackened to a slow trot and
were silent. The gardens had been long left
behind, and they were passing between con-
tinuous Cherokee rose-hedges on the right,
and on the left along that bend of the Missis-
sippi where its waters, glancing off" three miles
above fix)m the old De Macarty levee (now
CarroUton), at the slightest opposition in the
breeze ^o whirling and leaping like a herd
of dervishes across to the ever-crumbling
shore, now marked by the little yellow



depot-house of Westwego. Miles up the
broad flood the sun was disappearing gor-
geously. From their saddles, the two horse-
men feasted on the scene, without comment

But, presently, M. Grandissime uttered a
low ejaculation and spurred his horse toward
a tree hard by, preparing, as he went, to
fasten his rein to an overhanging brandL
Frowenfeld, agreeable to his beckon, imitated
the movement.

" I feah he intends to drhown himseli^''
whispered M. Grandissime, as they hurriedly
dismounted.

"Who? Not "

" Yes, yo' lanlawd, as you call him. He
is on the flat ; I saw his hat over the levee.
When we get on top the levee, we must
^et right into it But do not follow him
into the wateh in frhont of the fiat ; it is
certain death; no power-h of man could
keep you frhom going under-h it."

The words were quickly spoken; they
scrambled to the levee's crown. Just al»reast
of them lay a "flatboat," emptied of its
cargo and moored to the levee. They leaped
into it. A human figure swerved from the
onset of the Creole and ran toward the bow
of the boat, and in an instant more would
have been in the river.

" Stop I " said Frowenfeld, seizing the un-
resisting f. m. c. firmly by the collar.

Honor6 Grandissime smiled, partly at the
apothecary's brief speech, but much more at
his success.

" Let him go, Mr. Frhowenfeld," he said,
as he came near.

The silent man turned away his face with
a gesture of shame.

M. Grandissime, in a gentle voice, ex-
changed a few words with him, and he
turned and walked away, gained the shore,
descended the levee, and took a foot-path
which soon hid him beyond a hedge.

" He gives his pledge not to trhy again,"
said the Creole, as the two companions pro-
ceeded to resume the saddle. " Do not
look afleh him." (Joseph had cast a search-
ing look over the hedge.)

They turned homeward.

« Ah ! Mr. Frhowenfeld," said the Creole,
suddenly, " if the immygrhant has cause of
complaint, how much mo' has that man!
Trhue, it is only love fo' which he would
have jus' now drhowned himself; yet what
an accusation, my-de*-seh, is his whole life
against diat 'caste' which shuts him up
within its narrhow and almost solitary limits !
And yet, Mr. Frhowenfeld, this people es-
teem this very same crhime of caste the



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holiest and most prhecious of their virtues.
My-de*-seh, it never-h occu*s to us that in
this matteh we are interhested, and thefifo'
disqualified, witnesses. We say we ah not
unde'stood; that the jurhy (the civilized
vrorld) rhendehs its decision without view-
ing the body; that we are judged frhom
a distance. We fo'get that we owselves
ah too close to see distinctiy, and so con-
tinue, a spectacle to civilization, sitting in
a horrhible dahkneSs, my-de'-seh!" He
frowned.

" The shadow of the Ethiopian," said the
grave apothecary.

M. Grandissime's quick gesture implied
that Frowenfeld had said the very word.

" Ah! my-de*-seh^ when I trhy sometime*
to Stan' outside an' look at it, I am ama-aze
at the length, the breadth, the blackness of
that shadow!" (He was so deep in ear-
nest that he took no care of his English.)
" It is the NinUsis w'ich, instead of coming
afteh, glides along by the side of this mor-
hal, political, commershial, social mistake!
It blanches, my-de'-seh, ow whole civiliza-
tion ! It drhags us a centurhy behind the
rhes' of the world ! It rhetahds and poisons
everhy industrhy we got ! — mos* of all our-h

(To be



immense agriiicultu'e ! It brheeds a thousan'
cusses that newa leave home but jus' flut-
ter-h up an' rhoost, my-de'-seh, on ow heads;
an* we newa know it! — yes, sometimes
some of us know it"

He changed the subject

They had repassed the ruins of Fort St.
Louis, and were well within the precincts of
the little city, when, as they pulled up from
a frnal gallop, mention was made of Doctor
Keene. He was improving; Honor6 had
seen him that morning ; so, at another hour,
had Frowenfeld. Doctor Keene had told
Honor6 about Palmyre's woimd.

" You was at heh house again this maw-
ning ? " asked the Creole.

" Yes," said Frowenfeld.

M. Grandissime shook his head warn-
ingly.

" 'Tis a dangerhous business. You are-h
almost su'e to become the object of slandeh.
You ought to tell Docteh Keene to make
some o&er-h anrhangement, aw prhesently
you, too, will be imdeh the — ^" he low-
ered his voice, for Frowenfeld was dismount-
ing at the shop door, and three or four
acquaintances stood around — ^<'undeh the
* shadow of the Ethiopian.'"

continued.)



EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOND. III.

(edited by his son.)
reminiscences of 1863, and the question of french intervention.



The second of these papers ^Scribner
for January), it will be rememberea, included
my fatliei^s account of the failure of the
Bumside campaign before Fredericksburg
and the causes assigned for it at head-quar-
ters. The pages here given relate to the
subsequent events which culminated in the
appointment of Gen. Hooker, with impres-
sions of Washington life at that period. The
opinions and statements in regard to French
intervention possess peculiar interest to those
who recall the gloom of those dark days
in 1863. An<i when it is remembered how
much the executive branch of the government
had to contend with — factions in the camp
and at home, discontented critics button-hol-
ing members of the administration to listen to
their personal grievances; politicians seek-
ing to influence military movements in favor
of their own partisan and selfish schemes ;
^es of the enemy fomenting discord



throughout the North ; selfishness too often
superseding a desire for the safely of the
commonwealth, and foreign nations invited
and urged to take part in our struggle, to
dictate terms of settlement, to demand dis-
ruption as the price of peace— considering
all these things, how is our admiration in-
creased for the President and Cabinet who
patiently, firmly, confidently met all com-
plaints and cavils, anticipated difficulties,
thwarted secret foes, and finally carried the
nation triumphantly through all its troubles,
and saved us as the United States.

The entries in the journal continue to be
made in the field with the Army of the
Potomac.

** January 24ih^ tS6j, At half past 12, General
Bumside called to Doctor Church and mvself, who
were walking in front of headquarters, and asked us
in. He turned to us after we were seated and said:
</'m not going to resign, I'll put the thing in such



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704 EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOJ\rZ>.



a shape that the government and country can't mis-
understand it. ft is time to see whether patriotism
or unprincipled selfishness rules the country.*' He
then asked his secretary to read me an order he
had just dictated. It recited that General Hooker
had dealt in unnecessary and unjust criticisms of his
superior officers ; that he had forwarded exaggerated
and untrue reports to headquarters, calcmated to
deceive the commanding General ; that he was in the
habit of talking harshly and abusively of all in
authority over him, to me scandal and the serious
injury of the service : and then dismissed him from
the service of the United States as unfit to hold a
command in a cause where so much of moderation^
forbearance^ and unselfish patriotism were required.
This order was, of course, subject to the approval
of the President. He asked me what I thought of
it. I asked him if he was sure of his ground. He
said he could prove everything he had Stated. I
then said I thought it was the Best step taken dur-
ing the war, — that it could not fail to have an ex-
cellent effect upon both the army and the country,
if followed up by acts of corresponding vigor. He
said he should prepare orders at once relieving
Franklin, W. F. Smith, Sturgis. Woodbury, New-
ton and Cochrane from their commands. He was
satisfied this was the proper course to be pursued.
He left his secretsffy to copy these orders.

General Burnside stated to the Congres-
sional Investigating Committee, that he had
become satisfied that it was absolutely neces-
sary that some such examples shotild be
made, in order to enable him to maintain the
proper authority over the army under his
command. He also said to the committee :

"I told my Adjutant-General to issue that order
(No. 8) at once. One of my advisers — only two
persons [Doctor Church and my father] knew of
this— one of them, who is a very cool, sensible man,
and a firm friend, told me that, in his opinion, the
order was a just one, and ought to be issued; but
he said that he knew my views with reference to
making myself useful to the Government, instead
of placing myself in opposition to it; that all of
these things had to be approved by the President
at any rate before they could be put in force; that
he did not think I intended to place the President
in a position where he had either to assume the
responsibility of becoming my enemy before the
public, at any rate, thereby enabling a certain por-
tion of my friends to make a martyr of me to some
extent, or else to take the responsibility of carry-
ing out the order, which would oe against the views
of a great many of the most influential men in the
country, particularly that portion in reference to
the officers I proposed to have dismissed the serv-
ice. * * * * I took this order, already signed
and issued in due form with the exception of publi-
cation, to the President, and handed it to him, to-
gether with my resignation of my commission as
Major-General."

To resume the narrative of the journal :

"When we were outside, I said it was desirable,
of course, to look at all sides of the question, and
to contemplate all contingencies. Suppose that
Genera] Hooker should attempt to raise a mutiny
among his troops on the promulgation of the order:
what then ? He said he would swing him before



sundown, if he attempted such a thing. I t^s
said I didn't suppose ne would make the attesipc.
but H was well enough to think of it. I ^vas sat»-
fied he (General B.) was on the right track.

" At eight in the evening the general said to bk
that he was going to Washington, and asked me tc

fo with him. i asked him what took hizn there,
le said that General Parks and Doctor Clmjci
were startled at the boldness of the action lie pro-
posed to take, and thought it would be more pru-
dent for him to consult the authorities before deod-
ing upon it. He said he should see oolv the Pr^i-
dent He had telegraphed to him that be would be
there by one o'clock and would detain him only as
hour, lie should submit to him the orders be
proposed to issue, and leave him to say whether be
should issue them or not. He asked what I thongbi
would be the result I told him the orders would
not be issued. He thought he could satisfy tbe
President of the necessity of such action.

" At half-past eight we. started in an ambnlaooe
for the station at Falmouth, three miles off. Tbe
night was dark, and the obscurity was increased hv a
dense fog. The road was very muddy, and as it led
through open fields we soon lost it and found our-
selves nlunging down a steep hill in an old corn-
field. We stopped, dismounted, and began to boot
for the road. A horseman loomed throu^ the fog.
The General hailed him, and asked him where tbe
road was. He said he didn't know ; he was lost,
also. The General, without telling him it bo he was,
told him to turn and ride to a camp, the light of wbkh
was shining in the fog, and find out the way. Tbe
man answered that he was going to headquarters
with despatches for General Burnside. ' Turn about
and do as I tell you,* said the General, still not re-
vealing himself. The man hesitated a moment, and
finally started off, shouting, < I am going to attend to
mv own business, and I advise you to do the same.'
We resumed our search, found the road, lost it
again, stumbled over four or five dead mules and an
upset caisson ; and, after plunging about in the mud
for three hours, reached the station. The special
engine which the General had ordered was raie,
having been sent for to Stoneman's Station to^nl
a car upon the track. We spent half an hour trying
to get telegraphic communication with the latter
place, and finally started on foot for a three-mile
walk. The General took the lead, carrying a lan-
tern, I followed, and then came the GeneraTs secre-
tary and his servant We had gone two miles or so
when we met the engine. The General succeeded in
stopping it by swinging the lantern. We mounted,
stopped at Stoneman's long enough to wake up tbe
telegraph operator, took him along for consignment
to tne guard-ship, found a steamboat in readiness at
Acquia, and reacned Washington at six o'clock in tbe
morning.

" General Burnside left me at WiUard's, while be
went to the White House. At about nine a. m. be
sent in for me, and we breakiiEisted in a private room.
He said his announcement to the President of tbe
orders he intended to issue had come upon him like
a clap of thunder, and he was very doubtful as to tbe
result. He intended to return at once to the amy,
and would apprise me of the conclusion of the mat-
ter bv telecpraph. He left at half-past ten. I imme-
diately called upon Secretary Chase and told him the
whole story. He was greatly surprised to hear such
reports of Hooker, and said ne had looked upon him
as probably the man best fitted to command tne Army
of the Potomac But no man capable of so much
selfish and unprincipled ambition was fit for to great
a trust, and be gave up all thought of bim hence-



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EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOND. 705



forth. He asked me to ^p with him to his house
and accompany him and his daughter to the Presi-
dent's levee. I did so, and founda great crowd sur-
rounding Mr. Lincoln. I managed, however, in
brief terms, to tell him that I had b^n with the army,
and that many things were occurring there which he
ought to know. I told him of the obstacles thrown
in Bumside's way by his subordinates, and especially
of General Hooker's habitual conversation, lie put
his hand on my shoulder and said in my ear, as if
desirous of not being overheard, * That is all true —
Hooker does talk badly ; but the trouble is, he is
stronger with the country to-day than any other man. *
I ventured to ask him how long he would retain that
streng^ when his real conduct and character should
be understood. * The coun try,* he answered, * would
not believe it; they would say it is all a lie.*

" I next called at the State Department, and found
that, although it was a dav for receiving none but
foreign ministers, word had been left at the door for
roy admission. I found Mr. Seward verv anxious to
know all about the state of things in the army. I
told him all I knew, and said I thought the mass of
the army was lojral and sound, and that the whole
demoraUzation was with the officers. I dwelt con-
siderably upon what seemed to me the main char-
acteristics of Bumside*s mind and character, and
answered all his questions, which were many and
minute, as well as I could. He finally asked if I was
satisfied with Bumside as commander of that army.
I told him that this question involved very many
military considerations of which I was not a compe-
tent jud^e. He said I was as good a Judge as he
was, and he was obliged to have an opinion. I told
him then that, according to my best judgment, it was
advisable to have Bumside in command and to ^ve
him idl the powers that belonged to that position.
He talked a good deal about foreign affairs, which
he said were in a perfectly satisfactory condition, and
asked me to dine with mm, but a previous engage-
ment with Mr. Chase rendered it impossible for me
to do so.

**In the evening I dined at Secretary Chase's,
where I found Gov. Andrew, of Mass., Mr. Odell,
M.C. from Brooklyn, a bright and talkative Mrs.

N from Philadelphia, and Miss Kate Chase,

bright, lively, and agreeable. The Secretary was ex-
ceedingly solicitous for the success of his banlc project,
which he deemed absolutely essential to the man-
agement of the finances for me war. I ventured to
ask him how the Government proposed to supply
the places of the soldiers whose time of service
would expire in the spring. He said he did not
think they had any plan, and that the only way he
could think of was by enlisting the negroes. I
asked him if he supposed they could be obtained in
sufficient numbers. He said he thought they could.
Gov. Andrew had very little to say on the subject.
^ Sunday ^2S' • • • At dinner I fell in with
Mr. Bancroft, who was greatly disturbed by the
unpromising condition of affairs in the army and in
the country, and thought it important that Gen.
Hooker should be put m command. I explained
to him my views of affairs, and told him I tnought
things would go right if the Government would
simply say fu> to Bumside's proposal to resign, and
then leave him to the free exercise of his official
powers.

« Collector Barney of N. Y. came and sat by us,
and told me that he had positive evidence that Mr.
Greeley had been in correspondence with Vallan-
digham of Ohio on the subject of foreign mediation.
He had heard of his having written him letters on
the subject and on going to the 'Tribune' office
Vol. XIX.— 49,



to make inquiries on the subject, had been told by

Mr. , Greeley's chief assistant, that such was

the fiu:t, and that Greeley had become so alarmed
about the war that he was determined to have it
ended on any terms.

[That this statement that Mr. Greeley
sought foreign mediation to terminate the
war was true finds confirmatory evidence in
a later entry in this journal, which reads :

" On the way up to Albany I had Greeley for a
fellow passenger. In the course of conversation
he said he meant to carry out the policy of foreign
mediation and of bringmg the war .to a close.
* You'll see,* said he, * that I'll drive Lincohi into
it.* On the way down, Mr. Hall, who is one of
the Trustees of the * Tribune ' Association, told me
that they would not permit Greeley to continue the
advocacy of this pohcy in the pai>er. It was inju-
rious in the highest degree. ]

*' S. B. Ruggles was very urgent for the passage
of the bill to enlarge the locks on the Erie Canal,
and to build a canal from Lake Michigan to the
Mississippi as a means of consolidating the union
of the North and West. He talked with great en*
thusiasm and eloquence in support of the project
which was pending in Congress, and which met its
most formidable opposition from two New York
members, one Roscoe Conkling, living at Utica, on
the Erie Canal, and the other his brother, Fred-
erick A. Conkling, living in New York City, which
would receive more direct benefit from such a work
than any other locality in the country.

*^ Monday J abth, I had an after-dinner sitting in Mr.
Ruggles's rooms with Secretaries Seward and Usher,
Senator Foster of Connecticut, Doctor Bellows,
George Bancroft, General McDowell, and others.
Mr. Seward discoursed at large and with great in-
terest on the condition of the country. He seemed
a little alarmed at the Democratic victories in the
North, mainly because they seemed to indicate a
disposition to deal harshly, instead of charitably with
the administration, and to consider the rights of in-
dividual citizens of more importance than the sal-
vation of the nation. He said he had originally
opposed making an issue with the South on Fort
Sumter, because it could not be reinforced, and the
failure to take it would inspirit the whole South, and
bring them all into the secession movement. But
he said we coidd hold Fort Pickens, Fort Pulaski,
Fort Taylor, and the other forts below New Or-
leans, and he thought we ought to do so at all haz-
ards — ^making the issue upon them, and throwing
upon the Souu the burden of taking thepi from us, in-
stead of assuming the aggressive ourselves. He still
thought that would have been the wisest course.
When Fort Taylor was invested. General Scott had
told them that it could not be held, unless the habeas
corpus was suspended in the town, which was full
of secessionists, who were constantly aiding the
rebels. Mr. Seward said he drew an order sus-
pending it and took it to the President, explaining
the circumstances of the case, and telling^ him that
it seemed to be a necessary though a very important
and responsible act. Mr. Lincoln, after some little
discussion, said : * Well, here goes, if you say so,'
and signed the order. This was the first case in
which that writ was suspended.

"As to the issuing of the Proclamation, Mr.
Seward said he had simply delayed it for twenty
days. The President had proposed to issue it when



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7o6 EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOND.



he first heard of the crossmg of the Potomac by
the rebel armv, and of their appearance in Maryland
and Pennsylvania. Mr. Seward told him he
thought it would look better to expel the rebels
from free soil before undertaking to abolish slavery
in the Southern states. Mr. Lincoln yielded to
this reasoning, and postponed the issue of the proc-
lamation until after the battle of Antietam.

" Mr. Chase, while in New York, told me rather
a curious anecdote of this incident. He said that
the President came into the meeting of the Cabinet
after that battle (Antietam), and said he had come
across something very amusing in one of Artemus
Ward's letters and he read it through for the edi-
fication of the Secretaries. He then said he had
brought another document to read to them — not for
their advice and criticism for his mind was fully
made up on the subject, but for their information.
It was the Proclamation of Emancipation. He said
he had promised himself (and his Ood) that if the
rebels were driven out of ^Iaryland, he would issue
such a proclamation, and he was about to do it.
Mr. Chase said the words, *and my (Sod* were
uttered in a low tone, and he thought no one but
himself heard them. Some days after he recalled
them to the President's notice, and told him it
seemed to him to indicate that he had issued the
Proclamation in the fulfillment of a religious vow.
The President half assented to the inference which
Mr. Chase had drawn.

"Mr. Seward talked very freely of our foreign
relations. At the otUset of the war, he said, every
foreign minister in Washington exce|)t Baron
GercSt, the Prussian minister, sympathized with
secession in one way and another. Their views
had been changed, until now they were all solicitous
to avoid giving us any offense, and anxious to
maintain the most friendly relations. France had
withdrawn her fleet from the mouth of the Mis-
sissippi, and had dismissed her consul at New
Orleans, who had made himself offensive to us by
aiding the rebels. England evinced in various
ways her kindly feeling, and now asked as favors
concessions she had hitherto demanded as ri^ts.
As an instance of this he mentioned that an officer
of the British army, Major Winnie, had been taken
at Point of Rocks cominp; into our lines without
authority. He was in pnson and was to be tried



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