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thirty-seven occur over a blank space of the
staff on your part. This means that you
are not to come in until thirty-seven bars
are played by the other instruments ; and
you are now to carry on a double set of
coimtings in your mind, the one recording
the beats of each bar, the other recording
the number of bars. You therefore com-
mence, with the conductor's first down beat,
to count mentally, keeping a tally of each
set of four beats; supposmg the piece is
in four-four time, that is, that there are four
of the conductor's beats to each bar, you
say, one (two- three-four), two Ttwo-three-
foiu-), three (two-three-four), jour (two-
three-four), five (two-three-four), ana so
on. About the tune you have reached
thirty-one (two-three-four), you will infal-
libly — ^if an inexperienced player — fall to
wondering whether you did not omit to
say thirty (two-three-foiu:), and while this
inward debate is going on, you have, of
course, neglected the thirty-two (two-three-
four), to remedy which you jump to the
thirty-three, but in so doing reflect that
you were probably discussing long enough
to occupy two bars, and ought to have
jumped to thirty-four, or, even perhaps,
thirty-five — by which time your heart is
thumping with anticipation of the conduct-
or's scowl, when you shall presently come
in wrong and compel him to stop the whole
orchestra in order to commence over — until
finally you are in a state of hopeless, inane
confusion, and the chances are a thousand
to one that you do come in wrong, with all
manner of vile discord and resultant trouble.
Of course there are many passages which
are easier, by reason of one's familiarity with
the composition. A certain automatic pre-
cision of coimt comes with long experience.
But if the player's part is by no means
the trifling work which many imagine, the
conductor's will certainly impress one who
becomes acquainted with it for the first time
as requiring an amount of mental strain
little suspected by those who only see the
graceful curves of the baton and the silent
figure that moves it. The conductor must
read simultaneously all the bars written for
each class of the instruments in his orches-
tra, the notes being written xmder each
'^ther, those for the piccolo and flutes at the



top, those for the double-basses at the bot-
tom, the rest between. But this large col-
lection of notes, which have thus to be
instantaneously read, is written not only in
diff*erent keys, but with different clefe ; the
horns and clarionets may each be playing in
different keys fi*om the other instruments;
the tenor trombones will be playing notes
written upon a still difierent system; the
violoncellos, notes written upon a still difl*er-
ent system; the double-basses and bassoons
and bass-trombones and drums, notes written
upon yet another system. And this is not
half; for while the conductor's eye is read-
ing these notes his ear has to watch over
each one of his sixty to a hundred and fifty
instruments, and instantly report the least
failiure of one to play exactly what is written ;
and this is not nearly all ; for besides, the
conductor's arm must keep up the unceasing
beats of time, and must make the different
expression-signs, /. ^., the signals for loud or
soft, or slower or faster, and the like. Fancy,
in other words, that you had a class m
elocution of sixty pupils, all of whom sim-
ultaneously read aloud to you — some in
Greek, some in Hebrew, some in French,
some in Latin, some in English — and that
the least fault in pronouncing any word of
any of these languages, or the least error
even in inflection or intonation, must be
detected This is a fair analogy to the labor
of the orchestral conductor.

In the judgment of the writer, although
the improvements of the orchestra have be«[i
very great in modem times, it is yet in its
infancy as an adequate exponent of those
inward desires of man which find their best
solace in music. No prudent person ac-
quainted with the facts will now dare to set
limits to the futiure expressive powers of this
new and manifold voice which man has
found. The physics of music have made
such enormous advances under the scien-
tific labors of Helmholtz, Alfi-ed M. Mayer
and others, that the art cannot but re-
ceive additional aid through the &cts thus
discovered, and one cannot help looking to
see new instruments before long which will
indefinitely increase the resources of the or-
chestra of the futiu'e. Many reasons seem
to justify the belief that the home of the
orchestra is to be in this country: mean-
time, one can firame no fairer wish for one's
countrymen than that they may quickly come
to know the wise expansions and large tol-
erances and heavenly satisfactions which
stream into the soul of him that hath ears
to hear, out of the orchestra of the present



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PETER THE GREAT



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PETER THE GREAT. Ill .•

BY EUGENE SCHUYLER.



CHUKCH or ST. BASIL, MOSCOW. DIAWN BY F. LATHKOP FROM A PHOTOCKAPH.



CHAPTER X.

f vAn ELECTED TSAR TOGETHER WITH PETER.
SOPHIA APPOUfTED REGENT. PACIF-
ICATION OF THE,STRELTSI.

When once the fury of a mob has been
excited by the sight of blood, it will com-
mit deeds which at first all would have
looked on with abhorrence ; and it is rare
that a riot, beginning from whatever cause, —
as we, in America, unfortunately know, —
does not end in conflagration, pillage, and
robbery. Singularly enough, it was not so



with the riot of the Streltsi. The soldiery
satisfied their desire for revenge by killing
the men whom they had had cause to dis-
like in their campaigns, or whom they
believed to be injurious to the State. They
pillaged the Department of Serfage, in order
to set free the peasants and gain themselves
supporters, but they carefully abstained
from the indiscriminate pillage of private
houses. That they entered drinking-houses
and ate and drank without payment was what
might naturally be expected under the cir-
cumstances. Rosenbusch and all the eye-
witnesses explicitly state that the Streltsi



Vol. XIX.



' Copyright, 1880, by Eugene Schuyler.



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gave strict orders that no pillage should be
allowed, and kept watch that no persons
pretending to be Streltsi should attack and
rob the people, either in the town or in
the environs. About forty persons, some
Streltsi, and some poor peasants, were exe-
cuted for having stolen goods in their pos-
session, though the value of some articles did
not exceed four kopeks (about three cents).

Not feeling yet satisfied with the indem-
nity for the losses of pay and subsistence,
caused by the cheating and robbery of
their officers, the Streltsi, as soon as the
murders were over, and before even the
bodies were buried, petitioned the Govern-
ment to grant them a sura of two hundred
and forty thousand rubles as back pay, and
also to confiscate the property of those
officers and magnates who had been killed
in the riot, and distribute it among them.

Frightened as the inmates of 3ie palace
were, they were unable to admit demands
like these, and they finally succeeded, by a
liberal supply of drink, in compromising at
the rate of ten rubles to each man, and by
putting up the personal property of those
killed to auction, when the Streltsi were
enabled to buy what was for sale without
much competition. The money to pay the
Streltsi had to be raised by a general tax,
and for the necessities of the moment much
of the silver plate of the palace was melted
down and coined into money. Van Keller
writes: — "The new Government is trying
to content the Streltsi and the soldiers, but
a great amount of money is necessary, and
additional taxes and contributions are put
upon everybody. This ought to be a good



ward, and had endeavored to pacify the
rioters. This was but natural. She sur-
passed all the other princesses in natural
abilities as well as in strength of mind and
character. She had received an education
more masculine than feminine, for she had
shared the studies of her brother Theodore.
She had been much with her brother during
the last months of his life, had been at his
bedside during his illness, and had gradually
agd involuntarily in this way come to be
acquainted with affairs of state, and to be
the medium by which the orders of the
Tsar had been transmitted. It was in
Theodore's sick-chamber that she first knew
Prince Basil GaHtsyn, and it was there that
she began to judge of the .characters of offi-
cials and statesmen. She alone preserved
her presence of mind throughout the riots,
and it was but natural that all should turn
to her for advice or orders. New officials
stepped into the places and began to per-
form the duties of those who had been
killed, without at first any rightful authority,
although they were afterward confirmed in
their offices. In this way Prince Basil
GaHtsyn took charge of the Department of
Foreign Affairs, Prince Havdnsky of the
department of the Streltsi, and Prince Ivin
Milosldvsky of several other departments.

The feeling that there was a certain illegali-
ty in the election of Peter, to the exclusion
of his elder brother, Ivdn, was strong among
the Streltsi, and was doubtless greatly in-
creased by the partisans of the MUoslivskys,
whose own interests would have been ad-
vanced by the accession of Ivin. They
did not, however, demand the actual depo-




THB BATON OF PRINCB GALITSYN.



lesson to those vile gain-seekers, and extor-
tioners of gifts and presents."

A new Government had indeed been
formed by circumstances and of itself, with-
out apparently any orders from Peter or his
mother, but called out by the necessities of
the moment. We see by the relation of
Rosenbusch, the Danish Resident, that in
the latter part of the riot, the Princess
Sophia had been brought prominently for-



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Kremlin with their arms, and prepared for
attack. The chief nobles and officials who
could be found were hastily called together,
but as they were unwilling to take the re-
sponsibility of deciding the matter, a special
council was summoned in the palace, to
which were invited not only the officials, but
also the Patriarch, the archbishops and the
leading clergy, and deputies of the Musco-
vite state. Such deputies happened to be in
Moscow at that time, having been called
there for another purpose by Theodore,
shortly before his death, for the purpose of
equalizing taxation, but whether these men
took part in the council, or merely deputies
from the city of Moscow, is a matter of
question.

The threat that the Streltsi might make
another attack brought nearly all the nobles
to the Assembly, and the proposition of a
double reign was urged as in the highest
degree advantageous, for it was maintained
that when one Tsar went to the wars, the
other could stay at home to govern the
country. Examples in history were not
wanting, and members of the Council cited
in the discussions the cases of Pharaoh and
Joseph, Arcadius and Honorius, Basil and
Constantine. Under the threat of the
Streltsi, discussion was hardly free, and the
partisans of Peter had suffered too much to
make strong opposition. It was, therefore,
soon decided that both the brothers should
reign together. The great bell was nmg,
prayers were said in the Cathedral of the
Assumption, and solemn petitions were put
up for the long life of the most Orthodox
Tsars, Iv4n Alex^ivitch and Peter Alex^i-
vitch. It was with difficulty that Iv4n could
be induced by his sisters to take even a
nominal part in the Government. He al-
leged the defects of his sight and speech,
and said that he cared more for a quiet and
peaceable life, than for the world's govern-
ment, but he would assist his younger
brother in council and deed. By the terms
of the proclamation in the Cathedral, the
name of Ivdn was mentioned first, as the
elder brother, and he was in this way given
precedence over Peter ; but in consequence
of a row into which the Streltsi had got with
partisans of Peter, among the populace, who
laughed at the idea of Ivdn's actually being
Tsar, the leaders of the Streltsi felt it neces-
sary to express more clearly the relations
between the brothers, and a deputation
came to the palace begging that Ivdn should
be the first '" ' ^eter the second, and

al^' *Her. Two days






later, on the 5th of June, there came another
deputation of Streltsi, demanding that on
account of the youth and inexperience of
both the Tsars, the Government should be
carried on by the Princess Sophia, as Regent.



THB PRINCSSS SOPHIA, SISTBR OF PETSR.

When this proposition was discussed in the
Council, an historical example was again
adduced ; for, had not Pulcheria been regent
during the youth of her brother, Theodosius ?
Sophia was, therefore, asked to take upon
herself the reins of government. She at first
refused; but, on being sufficiently pressed,
consented. A decree, announcing the joint
accession of I v4n and Peter, and the regency
of Sophia during their infancy, was issued
the same day and sent to the different
provinces of the Empire.

In the meantime, in pursuance of the
work of conciliation, and in order to acquire
a better influence over them, the Govern-
ment had given to the Streltsi the honorary
appellation of the " Palace Guard." They
had been complimented for their loyalty
and fidelity by Sophia herself, and had
been feasted in the courts and corridors of
the palace at the rate of two regiments a
day. The Princess Sophia herself had even
handed round cups of vodka to the men.
But in spite of the feasts and honors given
to them, th^ Streltsi did not feel quite easy
in conscience. Although they had made a
change in the Government, yet the Govern-
ment was carried on by the same sort of
people as before. Certain boydrs had been
killed, but their places had been taken by



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SOPHIA PBASTINC THE STRBLTSI. DRAWN BY N. DMITRIBFP.



Others in all respects like them. The en-
thusiasm with which the movement had
started gradually died out. The Streltsi
recognized their own incapability of govern-
ing; they despaired of any permanent good
from their efforts. They knew that they
had acted in a manner contrary to discipline
and law, that they were in fact rebels.
They had offended the boydr class, not
only by their riot and their murders, but by
their action in favor of the serfs ; and now —
for discipline had in the end proved too
strong for them — they had placed them-
selves in a position of antagonism to the
serfs. On the very day, when, in conse-
quence of the action of the Streltsi, Sophia
was proclaimed Regent, many of the serfs
had united in a petition for their freedom,
complaining of the measures which the
boyirs, their late masters, had taken against
them. This petition was rejected with con-
tempt by the Government, and the Streltsi
were ordered to hunt out and catch the run-
away serfs, torture, imprison and punish them,
and restore them to their masters. More
than this, the Streltsi were induced to declare
that they had no sympathy with the serfs,
and would not assist them against their
nmsters. About Pentecost time, there were
numerous conflicts between the Streltsi and
' fugitive serfs. There were night alarms.



and the bells of the churches were rung even
in the German suburb. As many of ihe
serfs who resisted were cut down mercilessly
by the Streltsi, the others became frightened,
and they began gradually to return to their
masters.

While the Streltsi felt safe in Moscow,
where the population, if not sympathetic to
them, was at least afraid of them, they knew
that it would be comparatively easy for the
boyirs to raise an army of their adherents
in the more distant provinces, lead them to
Moscow and obtain the upper hand. To
secure themselves as much as possible
against such an event, they presented to the
Government, through Alexis Yudin, one of
their leaders, and the right hand of Prince
Hav4nsky, a petition, and, at the same time,,
a justification, purporting to be not only
from the Streltsi themselves, but also from
all the burghers of Moscow. In this they
attempted to explain and defend their con-
duct during the riots. They asserted that
they had taken up arms on the 25th of
May to protect the family of the Tsar from
great harm, that they had punished Prince
Ytiry and Prince Michael Dolgoriiky, for in-
sults which they had long given to them, and
for the harm which they had wrought to
them in depriving them of their pay, and in
being greatly unjust to them. They had



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killed Ldrion I vanof, because he had joined
with the Dolgoriikys, and had threatened to
hang them all. They had killed Prince
Romadon6feky, believing him to be guilty of
treachery in delivering up Tchfgirin to the
Turks and the Tartars. They had killed
Yazykof, because he had taken the side of
their colonels, and had put great assess-
ments upon them, and had taken bribes.
They had killed the boyar Matv^ief and
Dr. Daniel Von Gaden, because they had
poisoned the Tsar Theodore with herbs,
and had wished to poison the present Tsar,
which Dr. Daniel had confessed when tort-
ured. They had killed Ivdn and Athand-
sius Narj^shkin, because they had tried on
the Imperial crown, and had plotted all sorts
of evil against the Tsar Iv4n, just as they
had before done against the Tsar Theodore
Alexeivitch, for which they had been exiled.
They therefore asked permission to erect on
the Red Place a column, on which should
be inscribed the names of these evil-doers,
and the crimes for which they were killed ;
and desired that a document, with red seals,
should be given to all the regiments of the
Streltsi, to the soldiers, and to all the people
of the suburbs, that none of the boydrs or
councillors should revile them, or kill them
as rioters and traitors, and that no one
should be sent without reason into exile, or
beaten or punished because they had served
with fidelity. The Government consented ;
it dared not refuse. Ts]^kler and Ozerof were
ordered to carry out the demands of the
Streltsi, and a monument, with the proposed
inscription, was erected on the Red Place.

The erection of this monument does not
seem to have impressed contemporaries as
it does us. The Dutch Resident, in speaking
of it, says : "A high pyramid is to be erected
giving the faults of those who were killed and
the jusrification of the massacres. This is a
good lesson and warning to the bribe-takers
who have caused so much disorder."

Order seemed now to be restored ; thanks
were solemnly given in the churches for the
end of the riots ; and the Tsars made a
state pilgrimage to one of the neighboring
convents.

CHAPTER XI.

THE DISSENTERS DEMAND DISCUSSION.
CORONATION OF THE TSARS, 1 682.

It has already been remarked that the
siege and capture of the Solov^tsky Mon-
astery and the rigorous persecution of the



Dissenters increased the dissatisfaction of
the people without having great eflfect in
putting down dissent. It produced a rupt-
ure between all the old-believers and the
Government, which, from its using force to
put down the true religion, made itself un-
lawful in their eyes. The Dissenters played
a great part in the insurrection of Stenka
Rizin, and in all the popular movements
of the time. The administrative centraliza-
tion of Russia had at first only touched the
higher ranks of life, both lay and clerical,
but gradually it began to subordinate to it-
self, the common people, the villagers, and
the parochial clergy. In the concealed, but
no less real, struggle against centralization
the autocracy obtained everywhere the pre-
ponderance, but discontent remained in the
lower classes. As far as concerned their
religious ideas, this discontent and the dis-
like of the new dogmas and rites were in-
creased by the arrogant tone which the
superior clergy took toward the village priests
and toward the mass of the common peo-
ple, a feeling frequently expressed in the
writings of the Dissenters. It was increased,
too, by the dislike the Russians felt to the
foreigners who had settled in Russia, and to
the foreign influences which were increas-
ing and growing stronger — influences not
only of the Germans, both Protestant and
Catholic, who had entered the army and
whose families lived in the German suburb
of Moscow, but also those Polish influences
which came from the schools of Kfef, and
were increased and spread by the monks
and other clergy, who had received their
education in Poland and Kief. There was
even a prejudice against the Greek clergy
from Constantinople, who were thought to
be less tainted with Latinism and Romish
doctrines, but were accused of being more
eager to amass their rubles than to keep
the purity of the faith. The common peo-
ple, in their dislike of novelty, hated the
Polish influences, making themselves felt at
court and in the administration; and the
Dissenters, like the Streltsi, laid all the blame
on the boydrs. They thought as K6pytof,
a Dissenter exiled to the furthest part of
Siberia, said: "All in Moscow is according
to the will of the boydrs. What the boyirs
wish, that they do."

Such convictions led the Dissenters* to
think that the apparent triumph of the pop-
ular principles which had been proclaimed
in the riot of the Streltsi would be advan-
tageous to the cause of what they considered
true religion ; that there would be a revolu-



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tion in the habits and maxims of the Gov-
ernment, and a return to old Russian ideas
and practices in reUgion as well as in poli-
tics.

Many of the Streltsi were Dissenters, and
in some regiments this belief predominated
and it was known that the Prince Havinsky,
their new chief, was a great adherent of the
old believers, and had for a long time pro-
tected one of their leaders, the Protopope
Habbakuk, or Avvdkum. The third day
after the end of the riot, in the Kremlin, the
Streltsi of the Tit6f Regiment, which con-
tained a particularly large number of Dis-
senters, began to consider what measure
they might take for restoring the old beliefl
They resolved to write a petition in the
name of their comrades and of the inhabit-
ants of the suburbs, requesting the Govern-
ment to " restore the use of the old books
which were printed in the time of the or-
thodox princes and Tsars, and the five Rus-
sian Patriarchs, and to cease loving the
Latin -Romish faith, devised according to
man's will, but not according to God's."
After much searching they found a man to
write that petition — a monk named Sergius,
greatly respected, " a firm adamant skilled
in learning." When the petition had been
drawn up and was read in the assembly of
the Streltsi, they wept with astonishment to
see how many fearful heresies had crept into
the new books. They had not the ability
to go into details, but were firmly convinced
that the true faith was being persecuted.
" Don't give us up, O brethren, to be per-



secuted as before. Do not allow us to it
tortured and burned," cried Sergius to u
assembly.

"O Father, we are ready to shed oii
blood for the old piety," answered a lieu-
tenant-colonel.

All promised with one voice to stand uf'
for the orthodox faith, if necessary, e\'ei \k
death. One of the demands in this petitioi
was, that a public discussion on the c&^t£i:
points of the faith should be held either oe
the Red Place or in the square between the
Cathedrals. This discussion the Dissenters
insisted upon because, firmly believing the
truth of their doctrines, they felt sure of an
easy victory and were convinced that thci
could readily get over to their side all tlie
people present. Prince Havdnsky, when
informed by the Streltsi that the petitioo
was ready, was much pleased, and asked
whether there was any one who would be
able to enforce the arguments of the Dissent-
ing side. On being informed that there was
an old monk '^skillful in disputations and
firm in the faith," Havinsky requested them
to come to his house, and fixed a time for
the interview.

The dissenters were very warmly received
by Havdnsky's servants, but were obliged
to wait three hours until the Prince could
dismiss some guests who were with him.
At last he came in, and, seeing the monk



Online LibraryGeorge Streynsham MasterThe Century, Volume 19 → online text (page 150 of 160)