George Streynsham Master.

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"Just out of sight." It means the whole of woe:

One sudden stricken blind who loved the light ;

One starved where he had feasted day and night ;
One who was crowned, to beggary brought low ;
All this death doeth, going to and fro.

And putting those we love "just out of sighL"

H. H.

IN THE ADIRONDACKS. .
O CLOUDS and winds and streams, that go your

Obedient to fulftll a high behest.
Unquestioning, without or haste or rest, —

Your only law to be and to obey, —

O all ye beings of the earth and air
That people these primeval solitudes,
Where never doubt nor discontent intrudes, —

In your divine accordance let me share;

Lift from my soul this burden of unrest.
Take me to your companionship; teadi me
The lesson of your rhythmic lives ; to be

At one with the great All, and in my breast

Silence this voice, that asks forever " why,

And whence, and where ? " — ^unanswerable cry !
Anne Lynch Botta.



THEIR ANGELS.

My heart is lonely as heart can be.
And the cry of Rachel goes up from me.
For the tender faces untorgot
Of the little children that are not :

Although, I know.
They are all m the land where I shall go.

I want them close in the dear old way;
But life goes forward and will not stav,
And He who made it has made it right:
Yet I miss my darlings out of my sight.

Although, I know.
They are all m the land where I shall go.

Onlv one has died. There is one small mound,
Violet-heaped, in the sweet grave-ground;
Twenty years they have bloomed and spread
Over the little babv head;

And oh ! I Know
She is safe in the land where I shall go.

Not dead: only grown and gone away.
The hair of my darling is turning gray.
That was golden once in the days so dear.
Over for many and many a year.

Yet I know — I know —
She's a child in the land where I shall go.

My bright brave boy is a grave-eyed man.
Facing the world as a worker can;
But I think of him now as I had him then.
And I lay his dieek to my heart again.

And so, I know,
I shall have him there where we both shall go.

Out from the Father, and into life:
Back to His breast from the ended strife.
And the finished labor. I hear the word
From the lips of Him who was Child and Lord,

And I know, that so
It shall be in the land where we all shall go.

Given back, — with the gain. The secret this
Of the blessed Kingdom of Children is !
My mother's arms are waiting for me;
I shall lay my head on my father's knee;

For so, I know,
I'm a child myself where I shall go.

The world is troublous and hard and cold.
And men and women p;row pray and old:
But behind the world is an inner place
Where yet their angels behold Goa's face.

And lo ! we know.
That only the children can see Him so !

Adeline D. T. Whitney.



THE ONLY CHOICE.

I KNOW a heart that sits upon its throne.
Yet makes its kingdom poorer day by day;

A queen unblest, in that it blesses none,
And far too poor to give itself away.

And one I know hath all its sweetness given,
A flower left empty b^ the thankless air,

Yet in the losing finds its only heaven.
Fed by the fountains of divine repair.

Ah! who can weigh our wealth against our
death?
Where is the justice fine of sight and touch ?



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POEMS BY AMERICAN WOMEN,



So light the things we dream have dearest worth,
And those we hold for nothings worth so much.

How shall I dare then for this joy to pray,
Lest when it come it prove a grievous loss ?

Or how implore that gnef may pass away.
Lest thus I spurn a flower-bearing cross?

Oh, blessed tears, that cleanse the eyes for mom !

Oh, costly gains, wherein our all we lose!
Oh, rose of peace, so white with many a thorn !

Choose thou, my heart, be strong at last, and
choose.

Not yet, not yet! I cannot ask for pain.
And dare not ask the joy that blindeth me.

I cannot choose; my Father, I would fain
Ask thee for that which looks like joy to thee.
Frances Louisa Bushnell.



THE TRYST.

Impelled by memory in a wayward mood.
Reluctant, yearning, with a faitnless mind,
I sought once more a lone neglected spot,
A wooded upland bordered by the sea.
Whose tides were swirling up the reedy sands,
Or floating noiseless in the yellow marsh.
My way was wild. The winds, awaking, smote
My face, but as I passed a ruined wall
Brambles and vines and waving blossoms dashed
A frolic-welcome, like a summer rain.
Shouldering the hills against the murky east
Stood stalwart oaks, and in the mossy sod
Below, the trembling birches whispered me,
" Not here ! " I reached the silence-loving pines,
And lingered. The mists swept from wooded

hills.
And, rolling seaward, hid the anchored ships.
So, happy, dreaming an old dream aeain.
Of keeping tryst in secret an the knot?,
I wandered on, listening in dreamy maze
To sounds I thought familiar, — the approach
Of well-known footsteps in the leafy path, —
A murmuring voice calling me by name!
Through the pine shafts the sunless light of

dawn
Stole. Day was come. My dream would be ful-
filled!
Above the hills the sky began to blaze.
And ushering morn the west flushed rosy-red;
Then, the Sun leaping from his bed of gold,
Scattered cloud-banners, crimson, gray, and white.
There was my shadow in the leafy path
Alone, — none was to keep the tryst with me!
No voice, no step among the hills I heard.
The joyous swallows from their nestlings flew.
Mad in the light with song. Far out at sea
The white sails fluttered in the eager breeze,
But Day was silenf holding tryst with me, —
My pilgrimage rewarded — fiiith restored.

Elizabeth Stoddard.



FROST PICTURES.

Out of Frost and Fire sprang Ymir,

Type of Chans, long ago.
Miehty Odin slew the giant.

As the Norsemen know.



From the rushing blood the ocean
In swift thunderous torrents whirled.

From the ponderous carcass Odin
Carved tne Mitgard world;

Of his hair made waving forests.

Of his skull the vaulted sky.
Molded from his bones the mountains

Which around us lie.

Lo, to-day, upon my window

Odin carves on every pane
(To rebuke my skeptic smiling)

A new world again.

Mountain, forest, plain and river.
Flash upon my raptured sight;

Here is Summer's pirfect joyance,
There Spring's dear delight.

Ferny clifT, cascade and grotto

Glitter on the frosty pane —
Miracle the Norsemen chanted

Here is wrought again.

Who shall say the gods have left us,

Or that Odm*s power is lost,
When new Mitgards rise before us

Out of Fire and Frost ?

AUCE WlLLL\MS BrOTHBRTON.

INDIAN PIPE.

Death in the wood, —
Death, and a scent of decay ;

Death, and a horror that creeps with the blood.
And stiffens the limbs to clay;

For the rains are heavy and slow.
And the leaves are shrunken and wan.

And the winds are sobbing weary and low,
And the life of the year is gone.

Death in the wood,—
Death in its fold over fold,

Death, — that I shuddered and sank where I
stood.
At the touch of a hand so cold, —

At the touch of a hand so cold,
And the sight of a clay-white faxre.

For I saw the corse of the friend I loved.
And a hush fell over the place.

Death in the wood, —
Deatii, and a scent of decay ;

Death, and a horror but half understood.
Where blank as the dead I lay;

What curse hung over the earth.
What woe to the tribes of men,

That we felt as a death what was made for a
birth,—
And a birth sinking death ward again !

Death in the wood, —
In the death-pale lips apart;

Death in a whiteness that curdled the blood.
Now black to the very heart:

The wonder by her was formed
Who stands supreme in power;

To show that life by the spirit comes,
She gave us a soulless flower!

Elaine Goodale.



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THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.



199



THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.



The Johns Hopkins is the youngest, and
one of the very few real, universities in
America. It possesses no history, claims
no distinguished sons, has indeed hardly
reached the dignity of Alma Mater, If it
is to be a giant among the intellectual agen-
cies of our western world, it is a giant yet
in its cradle. Benignant powers have smUed
upon its birth, and the future opens out
gloriously, with promise of success. Still,
since it is an infant enterprise, any record
of it must necessarily be one of plans and
projects, rather than a history of accom-
plished deeds. However, to any one in-
terested in the advancement of education,
such record can hardly fail to be of interest.

There are few things less perfectly com-
prehended by the public than the distinction
between a college and a university. A
vague notion seems to be afloat that a
college endowed by the state thereby be-
comes a university. If to the four years*
undergraduate course of such endowed in-
stitutions, schools of law and medicine be
added, all doubt fades away in the popular
mind. The further addition of a school of
theology or of civil engineering fixes the
rightfulness of the claim in the splendor of
certainty. The distinction made broadly is
this : I A college should be an advanced
school for drill in the academic studies ; it
should lay a broad and solid foundation of
general education, on which any superstruc-
ture of special work may be reared. * To
this may be added schools of law, medicine,
or theology, for the professional education of
the student The university, on the contrary,
does not aim to do fundamental work, nor
to train for any special practical career. It
encourages to original research, stimulates
individual growth, and offers the conditions
of a high intellectual life.

It is necessary, as Professor Gildersleeve
strongly advocates, that the work hitherto
done by colleges shall be redistributed, and
preparatory schools made more efficient,
before we grapple with the problem of
American university work. There must be
practically something in common between
the college and the university, however great
the theoretical difference may be. The dis-
tinction is delicately made by Professor Gil-
dersleeve :



** Still the university differs, or let us say, ought
to differ, from the college, inasmuch as it should be
a great laboratory of systematic research. On the
other hand, it differs from an academy of sciences,
inasmuch as it should be a great center of instruc-
tion. To the combination and interaction of re-
search and training, the German universities owe
their efficiency ana their influence; and whatever
modification German methods must undergo before
they can be made fruitful ^n our civilization, these
two elements must alwavs be associated in our high-
est work. True, an able explorer may be an inoif-
ferent teacher; a good teadier may not have the
spirit of initiative which leads to successful investi-
gation ; but the two faculties, though not always in
perfect balance, are seldom wholly divorced, and a
university professor should possess both." •



As a people we are disposed to multiply
rather than to perfect our educational agen-
cies. For a century or more schools and
colleges have been springing up over the
land ; the desideratum has been the diffusion
of a general education among the many rather
than the special training of the few. And it is
quite right that this should be so. For a re-
publican people, the ideal educational sys-
tem should offer to all the opportunity for
laying a broad and solid foundation which
shall serve equally well as a basis for a
mercantile, professional, or scientific career.
The instruction in schools and colleges
should be fimdamental, the special and
higher training being otherwise provided
for.

The growing demand for opportimities
for special training has been here and there
responded to in one way or another. Har-
vard has answered the call by casting off"
to some extent, her collegiate shackles, and
assuming university freedom. Cornell and
Michigan long ago adopted the imiversity
idea ; and Yale has supplemented the four-
year course by schools of science, and made
other changes which afford her graduates
facilities for further study in various de-
partments. Some years ago, when the ques-
tion of the higher education was agitated,
it was discovered that the University of
Virginia had, for more than fifty years, been
upholding the university, in contradistinction
to the college, idea ; and had been tendering
opportunities for study, not only in the or-
dinary course, but also in the more advanced
classics, physics, and mathematics.

A large number of our colleges, in en-



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THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY,



deavoring to respond to the call for the
higher education, have made a double mis-
take : they have endeavored to combine the
advantages of both systems, and in doing
so have spoiled themselves as colleges, and
yet have not become universities. The uni-
versity is not intended to supersede the col-
lege, but to succeed it; not to supplant
it, but to supplement it. In many in-
stances, studies have been multiplied, while
the time devoted to the course has remained
the same ; in consequence the student has
been overcrowded. Two evils have resulted
fix)m this change : the work, apart from the
competence of professors and the earnestness
of the student, became, necessarily, more
superficial; and the pressure was relieved
by docking off the course at its beginning.
The standard of admission was thus gradu-
ally /aised, and this, of course, advanced the
age of matriculates. Thirty years ago, nine-
teen was the average age for graduation; now,
nineteen is, in many of our colleges, the aver-
age age for matriculation. Many a young fel-
low, with the old standard of admission and
curriculum, might have availed himself of
the advantages' of a college course, and been
ready to enter business at nineteen, who
now foregoes the course because he cannot
spare the years between nineteen and twen-
ty-three from his business career.

This, however, is a small evil when com-
pared with the more positive harm which
the change has made in those who do go to
college. While tlie course has been ad-
vanced, in most cases the method of in-
struction has remained elementary : a man's
work is given to the student, and at the
same time he is taught, and watched, and
made to recite lessons as if he were a mere
boy. If he proposes to enter upon a life of
business, he finds at graduation that he is
no better furnished for the life before him
by his advanced course than he would have
been with the old system, and he has lost
four of the best years of his life from his
business career. If, on the other hand, he
proposes to devote himself to scientific, phi-
losophic or literary work, he finds himself at
twenty-three without any training for origi-
nal research, — with a large store of facts,
perhaps, but still, to all intents and purposes,
a boy.

Sucli being the evils of the hybrid system,
the country is ready for a new foundation,
and this the gift of a private citizen has
supplied.

By the will of Johns Hopkins, a merchant
of Baltimore, the sum of $7,000,000 was



devoted to the endowment of a university
and a hospital, $3,^00,000 being appro-
priated to each. This is the largest single
endowment ever made to an institution of
learning in this country. To the bequest
no burdensome conditions were attached.
Among the few definite provisions of the
will was one requiring that all building and
other expenses should be defrayed out of
the income, leaving the capital untouched.

Clifton, the estate of the donor, and form-
ing part of the bequest, contains over 300
acres, and is situated three miles from Badti-
more. The conditions of the will just men-
tioned precluded the immediate erection of
the permanent university buildings. Two
large dwelling-houses on Howard street were
therefore purchased and so modified as to
serve the purposes of the university. To
these have been added Hopkins Hall and a
chemical laboratory. An additional build-
ing has just been procured. The groimd
floor of Hopkins Hall is devoted to a gen-
eral lecture-room. Above this is the library
together with small rooms for private study
furnished with desks, etc. The third floor
is occupied by the physiological laboratory,
with other rooms for spedal biological and
physiological research. In the rear of the
lot, a very complete chemical laboratory, with
office rooms, technical libraries, etc., has been
erected. In connection with these buildings
there is a litde workshop, where a skilled in-
strument-maker is busy putting into exe-
cution the various mechanical devices and
inventions of the professors, associates, and
fellows of the university. The buildings are
complete and commodious and very simple
— so plain and unpretending, indeed, as to
bring a smile of scorn upon the lips of the
professional sight-seer, who has been used to
think that education in America is nothing
if not bricks and mortar. The idea is that
the buildings shall form the shell, which
shall grow fast enough to house the inform-
ing life of the institution.

Just what this new university was to be
proved a very serious question to the trus-
tees. The conditions of Mr. Hopkins's
bequest left the determination of this matter
open. The problem to be solved was how
to adjust this new force so that it should be
most effective and answer most pertinently
the needs of the younger generation. There
were already enough colleges, scientific
schools, technological institutes, to meet the
needs of the country. Some of these estab-
lished schools were growing and thriving at
the expense of others. It was altogether un-



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THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.



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desirable that another rival' should appear.
The real need in Baltimore was that the
new institution should come in, first, as an
organizing power which should harmonize
and unite the scattered agencies ahready
existing, making of them, not rivals but co-
laborers. There is no stronger evidence of
the wisdom and good feeling of the pres-
ident and board of trustees of the Johns
Hopkins University, than the fact that they



courses should be voluntary, and the teach-
ing not limited to class instruction. The
foundation is both old and new. In so far
as each feature is borrowed from some older
university, where it has been fairly tried
and tested, it is old, but at the same time
this particular combination of separate feat-
ures has here been made for the first time.
A system which had been the outgrowth
of centuries of English or German national



CUPTON, TH« COUNTRY HOME OF Tl« LATK JOHNS HOPKINS.



have secured the hearty co-operation of all
existing powers and institutions in Balti-
more, both civil and educational.

A careful investigation led the trustees to
believe that there was a growing demand for
opportunities to study beyond the ordinary
courses of a college or a scientific school,
particularly in those branches of learning
not included in the schools of law, medicine
and theology. Strong evidence of this
demand was afforded by the increasing
attendance of American students upon the
lectures of the German universities, as well
as by the number of students who were
enrolling themselves at Harvard and Yale
for the post-graduate courses.

It was therefore determined that the
Johns Hopkins should be primarily a uni-
versity^ with advanced courses of lectures
and fully equipped laboratories; that the
Vol. XIX.— 15.



life could not be transplanted bodily to
American soil, and be for us the best possible
system. The attempt has therefore been
made to gather from the successes and fail-
ures of older institutions, in our own and
foreign lands, the elements which shall be
best suited to meet the demands of time
and place. While the university now per-
forms some of the functions which properly
belong to schools of a less advanced char-
acter, it is hoped that these will redistribute
among themselves the educational work
necessary to a thorough preliminary training,
and that the university will always be ready
to take up the work just where they have
laid it down.

The endowment having been made by a
Baltimore man, and the new institution
placed in his own city, the avowed piupose
of the trustees from the beginning has been



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THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY.



to extend the benefits of the University, first
to Baltimore • and its immediate vicinity, and
afterward to let them spread abroad as far
as they would. By the interposition of a
collegiate course between the high schools
and city college of Baltimore on the one
hand, and the Johns Hopkins University on
the other^ the boys and young men of Balti-
more have open to them " a well-considered
system of instruction from the primary school
to the university." The college instruction
is in some respects peculiar ; there are no
classes' which correspond to the freshman,
junior^ sophomore and senior. Each young
man, after his matriculation, is assigned to a
member of the faculty, who shall act as his
official adviser, counseling him in regard to
the studies which he shdl undertake and
their order, and giving him a constant super-
vision during the course. The aboHtion
of the traditional class system enables a
young man to take the position in each par-
ticular study for which his specific advance-
ment in that branch fits him. In the ordinary
college course, if a young man happens to
be deficient in mathematics, for example, he
is either forced to lose any advantage he
may possess in Greek or Latin, or else is
obliged to take a position in mathematics
for whicli he is unprepared. In the college
department of the Johns Hopkins, this dis-
advantage does not exist ; the classifying is
specific for each study. The student has
also the privilege of pushing forward in
any one study as rapidly as he can with
advantage ; or, on the other hand, in case
of illness or of unavoidable interruption, of
prolonging the time devoted to the course,
so that no part of it shall be omitted. . As
the studies are elective, it is possible to fol-
low the usual college course if one desires.

Seven diflferent courses of study are indi-
cated, any of which leads to the Baccalau>
reate degree, thus enabling the student to
direct and specialize his work. The same
standard of matriculation and the same
severity of examinations are maintained in
all these courses. A student has the privi-
lege of extending his study beyond the
regular class work, and he will be credited
with all such private and outside study, if
his examiners are satisfied of his thorough-
ness and accuracy.

* As a matter of fact, the number of associates
and fellows from Baltimore and Maryland seem to
be proportionately very small. What the cause of
this may be, it is scarcely within the province of the
present article to inquire ; the fact is merely given
tor what it is worth.



Besides the regular corps of professors,
which is still small, numbering only six,
there are courses of lectures. delivered by
non-resident professors, as follows :

NON-RESIDENT LECTURERS.
Appointed. Counes.

1876 Billings, John S., Medical History, etc, . One.

1876. Child, Francis J., EtriyEnglish, . Thice.

1876. Cooley, Thomas M., Lftr, .... Two.

1876. Hilgaird, Julius E, Ueodcutic Surveys, One.

1876. LoweH, Jas. Russell, Romance Literature, . One.

1876. Mallet, John W., Technological Chemistry, Two.

1876. Newcomb, Simon, Astronomy, One.

1876. Walker, Francis A., Political Economy) Twa
X876. Whitney, William D.. Comparative Pnilology, One.

1877. Alien, William F., History, . . One.

1878. Tames, William, Psychology, . One.
1878. Morris, George S., Philosophy, . Two.
1878. Diman, Jeremiah L., History, . One.
Z878. Von Hoist, H., History, .... One.

LECTURERS FOR THE CURRENT YEAR.

Professor T. M. Cooley, of the University of Michigan, Political

Science.
Professor J. L. Diman, of Brown University, History.
Professor W. G. Farlow, of Harvard University, Bo^ny.
Professor H. Von Hoist, of the University of Freiburg, History.
Professor G. S Morris, of the University of Michigan, Ethics.
Professor L. Rabillon, of Baltimore, French Literature.

In addition to the resident and non-resi-
dent lecturers, a number of young men dis-
tinguished for some peculiar natural gifb or
special attainments have been gathered
about the university under the tide of asso-
ciates. Though instruction is part of their
duty, neither the tide of "assistant professor**
nor that of " tutor " exacdy meets the case.
A salary of from $1,000 to $2,000 is attach-
ed to the position. These young men are



Online LibraryGeorge Streynsham MasterThe Century, Volume 19 → online text (page 36 of 160)