George Streynsham Master.

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councils, and myself without their conversation."

It is rather tantalizing that these few
lines should be the only record of this
memorable cliatting over bread and butter,



while so much more space is immediately
given to one of those Fielding-like advent-
ures which the gravest Congressman might
tlien encounter on his travels :

"We reached Reading where we put up at one
Hartman's near the Court House, in the middle of
the afternoon. It was with great difficulty that we
could get a lodging. We were obUged to lodge in
a room with a cunous crazy genius. We went to
bed about nine O'clock ; about half-past ten in came
the Genius thundering. He stamped across the
room several times, and then vociferated for the
boot-jack. He pulled off his boots, hummed over a
tune, lighted up his pipe, smoked a few whiffs, took
his pen and ink and oegan to write, when there was
a keen rapping at our chamber door. He turned
his head toward the door and was silent. Imme-
diately the door was forced open, and such a scene
presented as would have intimidated any person of
less heroism than F. D. and W. £. In rushed a
Sergeant's Guard with fixed bayonets and arrested
the Genius. All was confusion. There was • Damn
your blood Sir, what do you mean ? * * I arrest
you sir; seize his papers.^ *Gcnl Mifflin' — ^* War-
rant ' — * Challenge — * Let me put on my clothes.
I'll go with you to Genl Mifflin ' — * You snail go to
a house twenty times as good for you. Pll take
care of you.' After some time we found out that
our cracked Genius had challenged Gen Mifflin,
and therefore was arrested. They took him away»
but he had not been gone long, before he returned
to the House cursing and swearinj^, and was locked
up in another Chamber. Two ofllKers who were in
bed in that chamber were obliged to decamp to
make way for him and took his bed in our room."

" The knight of redoubled valor, had at his return

g>t up, dressed himself, and told the officer of the
uard, that he had put the Genius into a passion,
and that he must not be put into our room* to disturb
us, which occasioned nis quarters being shifted.*
The two officers before mentioned told us that the
Genius when he was enraged as he then was, was a
ferocious creature and that we might expect that he
would attempt to recover his old locfging before
morning. — Tne landlady her daughter and maids
were all rouse4 and had got up ; the landlord and
Pill-Garlick kept snug in bed; all the females and
the Knight were busily employed half an hour in
putting Uie lock of our door in order. When that
was effected the Knight put his pistols under hi»
head, his hanger in the chair near the bed, and then
came to bed. In the morning early the Genius rose,
strutted about his prison and hummed over a tune
in seeming good humor. — After some time he was
discharged, came into our room, asked our pardon
for the disturbance he had occasioned and offered us
some of his loaf sugar to sweeten our tea. He then
waited on Genl Mifflin, returned and said he was a
clever fellow, but swore damn him that he would go
and kill the Officer of the Guard if he could find
him. Out he went, but what became of him I know
not ; for we set off, but I believe he killed nobody."

But the journey of oiur Congressman is
fast drawing to a close, and soon ends as
follows :

"TVJn'. /^M.— Crossed the Schuylkill dined at
Miller's near the town of Ephrata al. die. [alii dieunt
= a/ww] Dunkard's Town and lodged at Letidz a lit-
tle Moravian Settlement, where we lodged in Clover.



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4i6 A REVOLUTIONARY CONGRESSMAN ON HORSEBACK.



We lodged in Cabins about 3 feet wide, a straw
bed was at the bottom, a feather bed on that, sheets,
a thin soft feather bed supplied the place of blank-
ets, and a neat calico coverlid covered all ; and our
lodiging room was kept warm during the night by a
neat earthen stove wnich in form resembl^ a case
of Drawers.

**Nov, isth, — Crossed Anderson*s Ferry which is
17 miles from Letidz about noon, and in the after-
noon reached Yorktown which is 10 miles from the
Ferry, and so finished our Journey of four hundred
and fifty miles."

In June, 1778, Mr. Ellery records another
horseback journey. Congress had left York-
town and returned to Philadelphia, just
evacuated by the British ; and this was the
appearance of the country on the way :

*' From Derby to Schuylkill the Fencing was de-
stroyed and the fields lay entirely open ; but as the
stock had been removed by the Owners or taken by
the enemy, the erass was luxuriant — As I passed
the Schuylkill the naked Chimnies of destroyed
houses on my left expressed in emphatic language
the barbarity of the British officers & Soldiery. The
city however was in a much better state than I ex-
pected to have found it At Chester heard the glori-
ous news of the defeat of Genl Ginton at Mon-
mouth. I lodged at Philadelphia with my friend
William Redwood and continued in Philadelphia
until the loth of July when I sat out for Dighton in
company with him. On the glorious fourth of July
I celebrated in the dty Tavern with my brother del-
egates of Congress and a number of other gentlemen
amounting in the whole to about 80, the anniversary
of Independency."

His tiescription of this entertainment was
•quoted in this magazine for July, 1876, in
an article entitled " The Story of the Sign-
ing/'

He went fix)m home to his Congressional
duties that same autumn, leaving Dighton
October 24, 1778. The opening of his
diary on this occasion shows amusingly
some of the inconveniences to be surmounted
before setting off:

** Sat out from Dighton on a Journey to Philadel-
phia, arrived at Providence in the afternoon. The
olack man who had engaged to attend me on the
Journey fell sick or pretended to be so. I sent an
express to Dighton for a boy with whom I had talked
about his going and had refused to take on account
of this same black man. The Boy was now unwill-
ing to go. I applied to Genl Sullivan who accom-
modated me with a Soldier of Jackson's regiment.
The black fellow was a married man and tdas and
lack-a-day was under petticoat government and his
sovereign wanted to keep him at home to wait upon
her. If I had known previous to my engaging nim
that he had been under this kind of dommation I
should have consulted his Domina and procured her
consent, before I had depended upon nim, and not
suffered this sad disappointment Well— let the
ambitious sav what they please, Women have more
to do with the government of this world than they
re willing to allow. Oht tve— Eve!"



A little farther on we come to the more
substantial discomfort of a storm, putting a
stop to all travel, and giving opportunity for
genial phUosophizing by the fireside :

** Oct. ^rst, — We were at Emmons' detained by a
storm which has been brewing for more than a fort-
night ; but which, to our comfort, is like the dram
which the Gentleman presented to the Rev* Dr.
Phillips of Long Island, the least, as he said, by the
dram that ever I saw of its age in my life. This
Mr. Phillips had been preaching in I know not and
care not what Parish, and being much fatigued the
Gent, witli whom he dined, to refresh his spirits be-
fore dinner, presented him with a dram m a very
small glass, observing at the same time that the
dram was 10 years old. The arch priest wittily pro-
fessed that it was the least of its age that he had
ever seen in his life. — But as small as the storm is,
it b large enough to detain us. — Mrs. Emmons our
Landlady, is one of the most laughing creatures that
ever I saw. She begins and ends everything she
says, and she talks as much as most females, with a
laugh which is in truth the silliest laugh that ever I
heard. — As man hath been defined as a laugMng
animal as Laughter manifests a good disposition and
tends to make one fat, I will not fina fault with
laughing, let Solomon & Chesterfield have said what
they may have said agst it. Indeed the former says
there is a time to laugh, but with the latter it is at
no time admissible. However, Chesterfield when he
condemns it hath the character of a courtier only in
Idea, and does not regard common life. And Hor-
ace I think says, RitU si ja/w.— The Spectator hath
divided laughter into several species some of which
he censures roundly ; but doth not as I remember
condemn seasonable, gentle laughter. — ^Therefore
my pleasant Landlady, uiugh on.'*

A little later he finds another landlady, as
kind but less cheerful ; and we have a glimpse
at the standard of comfort then prevailing
in Connecticut :

** Nov, rst. — Passed Connecticut River and dined
at Chidsey's on the middle road on the east skirt of
Durham. Our Landlady was very kind and pleas-
ant Her cheese and Dutter were excellent ; but
alas 1 They had no Cyder ; and in consequence of
it she said with the tone of lamentation, that they
should be quite lonesome this winter. The good
people of Connecticut when they form the senudr-
de round the warm hearth, and the Tankard sparkles
with Cyder, are as merry and as sociable as New
Yorkers are when they tij^le the mantling Madeira.*'

Then follows another graphic picture of a
way-side interior :

*^ Nov. ^M.— Took the route through Paramos
and breakfasted at a Dutchman's about 7 miles from
Coes, and were well entertained. A litde diverting af-
fair took place here. The Children who had never be-
fore seen a Gentleman with a wig on, were it seems
not a litde puzzled with my mend's head-dress.
They thought it was his natural hair, but it differed
so much from mine and theirs in its shape that they
did not know what to make of it Tne little boy
after viewing it some time with a curious eye asked
his mother, in dutch, whether it would nurt my
friend if he should pull his hair. The mother told



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A REVOLUTIONARY CONGRESSMAN ON HORSEBACK, 417



us ^rhat the boy had said ; whereupon my friend took
off his wig, put it on the head of the bov and led
him to the looking-glass. The mixture of Toy and
Astonishment in the boy's countenance on this occa-
sion diverted us not a little. He would look with
astonishment at Mr. Redwood's bare head, and then
survey his own head, and the droll figure he made
with the wig on made him and us laugh very heartily.
It is not a uttle remarkable that children who had
lived on a public road should have never before seen
a wig."

That night he reaches Elizabeth town, N.
J., where we have a glimpse at some of the
mild relaxations of the Continental army:

•* Wc lodged at one Smiths. A Detachment of
the Army, under Ld. Stirling was here. The officers
had a ball at Smiths, and Icept up the dance 'till
three o'clock in the morning. Drum, fife and
fiddle, with an almost incessant saltation drove
Morpheus from my Pillow."

"Lord Stirling" was General William
Alexander, who had been an unsuccessful
claimant for the earldom of Stirling. Later
we are presented with some of the joys of
travel, tempered with pensive moralizing :

**Ncv, gth. — We breakfasted at Gilchrists in
Woodbury. In the wa^ firom Roxbury to Woodbury,
about three or four miles from the former, the Eye
is saluted with a beautiful Landscape. The side of
a mountain in a semicircular form, from its gentle
declivity presents a charming variety of fiel£ and
woods and buildings. In a word it yields a more
beautiful prospect than any you behold between it
and Philadelpnia — Gilchrist furnished us with the
best dish of Bohea Tea and the best toasted bread
and batter I have eaten for a twelvemonth. But
this is a chequered state of thing^, and good alas !
is frequently attended with evil. My Surtout
« # % # • »»

There seems to have been some farther
tragedy in respect to this overcoat. Perhaps
it had followed the garment of Mr. Dana's
servant into the patriotic army. The next
day brings us close to the enemy's lines :

**Nov. loth, — Breakfasted at Buells in Hebron
ei^t miles from Hills — Dined at Jesse Billings,
my Tenant in Colchester. The Enemy on Mon<&y
entered N. Haven and pillaged the Inhabitants.
They were opposed by a handful of men who be-
haved gallantly. Of them between twenty and
thirty were killed, and of the enemy it is said an
equal number, and among them was an Adjutant
Campbell. The next day they landed at Fairfield
and burned the Town. — How they came to destroy
this town and not New Haven is matter of inquiry.
They are now, it is said, hovering about New Lon-
don, a considerable body of militia is collected there,
and more men are ordered in. • Some Gentlemen
of Hartford seemed to be apprehensive that the
enemy would pay them a visit. I wish thev might.
For I presume such a body of men woula muster
on that occasion as would effectually prevent their
return. It is thought that they mean to draw off
the main army from their present post, and then to
attack West Point Fort I rather think that their
intention is to keep the People in constant alarm.
Vol. XIX.— 31.



and thereby prevent their getting in the Summer
harvest. Findyig that they cannot conquer the
country, they are determinea agreeably to tne Man-
ifesto of the Commrs., to do as much mischief as
they can to make our alliance with France of as
little benefit to that Kingdom as possible. — Miser-
able Politicians ! by their infernal conduct they will
destroy every spark of aflfection which may still
remain in the breast of Americans, and force us and
our commerce irrevocably into the Arms of France,
which have been and still are extended to receive
both. Quos Deus vult perdere prius dementaU — ^Wc
were detained by the rain at Mr. Billings the after-
noon, and lodged there."

Yet amidst all these public cares our
worthy statesman found time to notice not
merely mankind but womankind, on the
way; now noticing that his landlady "hath
an Austrian lip/' and now wondering, as the
less ornamental sex was wont even then to
wonder, over the freaks of fashionable cos-
tume, — thus :

** Nov. i2th, — Bated at Adam's about 8 miles from
Lathrops ; where I saw a Girl whose head-dress
was a fine Burlesque on the modem head-dress of
polite ladies. It was of an elevated height and
curiously decorated with Holyokes [hoUynocks].
Lodged well at Dorrances."

On the 14th, he reaches Dighton, and
thus sums up his journey :

"Reached home at dinner time, 18 miles from
Providence and found all well. This Journey for
the season was exceedingly pleasant The first
four days were too hot for comfort ; but the succeed-
ing six were cool, and my mare was as fresh when
I got home as when I sat off. The two men who
escorted me and a sum of Money for the State
behaved very well, and my Companion was sociable
and clever."

Three more of these diaries of travel,
making five in all, are preserved by the de-
scendants of Mr. Ellery. They were con-
sulted by Professor Edward T. Channing
when preparing the memoir of his grand-
father, published some forty years ago, in the
sixth volume of Sparks's ** American Biog-
raphy." He gives some extracts from them,
but these are marred by a- peculiarity of edit-
ing not uncommon among American literary
men of the last generation, — an exaggerated
sense of decorum which led even the accu-
rate Sparks to substitute " General Putnam "
for the more familiar " Old Put " in Wash-
ington's letter; and led Professor Channing
to strike out, from one passage I have quoted,
all reference to Don Quixote and Pilgarlick,
and to offer the reader a vague collation
of " beef-steak and strong drink " for the
terser bill of fare, " Beef-steaks and grogg."
The theory of both these excellent biogra-
phers was, no doubt, that they should



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THE SPIDER'S LESSON,



amend the deshabille in the style of these
familiar epistles and put on them a proper
waUcing-dress before sending them out to
take the air — as the writers themselves would
have done, had they foreseen this publicity
of print This may often be a good argu-
ment for omission, but it can never be an
argument for alteration ; and I think writers
of the present day have a stricter sense of
the literal significance of a quotation-mark.
It may interest the reader to be told, in
conclusion, that William Ellery long out-
lived the fatigues and dangers of the Rev-
olution and passed an eminently peaceful
and honored old age. He left Congress in
1785, and could then return to his native
town ; but his house was burned, his mer-
cantile business was destroyed, the town
itself was almost ruined, and he had, when
almost at the age of sixty, to begin life anew.
During the following year. Congress ap-
pointed him commissioner of the Conti-
nental Loan Office for Rhode Island, and
on the adoption of the Federal constitution
by that state, in 1790, he became collector
of customs for the Newport district, — an
office which he retained until his death. He



lived to see one of his grandchildren, Wil-
liam Ellery Channing, the most noted cler-
gyman of Boston; another, Walter Chan-
ning, the first resident physician of the
Massachusetts General Hospital; and two
others, Edward T. Channing and Richard H.
Dana, the joint editors of the " North Amer-
ican Review," a periodical then new-bom,
which Mr. Ellery must have read 'with de-
light To these his descendants, and to aU
the young people who constituted their cir-
cle, his personal society is said to have been
a constant joy. " He was not their teacher,**
says one of them, " but their elder com-
panion." He retained his intellectual facul-
ties unimpaired until the very last hour, and
died February 15, 1820, at the great age of
ninety-two. On the morning of his death
he rose and partly dressed himself, then lay
down from weakness, and the physician
foimd his pulse almost gone. Wine revived
him, and the doctor said, " Your pulse beats
very well." " Charmingly ! " said the cour-
ageous old man ; after which he lay for some
two hours in silence, — saying once only that
he knew he was dying, — and then ceased to
breathe.



THE SPIDER'S LESSON.



A TYRANT in my border dwells
In Austrian black and gold;

Wrought all in silver are his cells.
Fine-spun, a thomand fold.

His dwelling has no dingy roof,
Nor dismal underground;

The sunlight gilds its slender woof
On firagrant bushes bound.

And at his lev6e, every mom.
Such brilliants do appear

As ne'er in any court were worn
By Christian monarch dear.

No prison dungeon has this wretch
Where victims, out of sight,

His cruel jealousy may fetch
And keep in hopeless night.



Yet subtle stratagems he springs

On harmless passers-by.
Winds his soft silk about their wings.

And hangs them up to die.

I came to sweep his work away
With swift, impatient hand;

But here the lesson of the day
He teaches, as I stand.

The tyrant Luxury doth so
Oiur wingM souls entwine,

And binds us fettered in a show,
To mock the free sunshine.

The subtle web afar Pll leave

Of flattering deceit ;
The gorgeous spider shall not weave

His fetters for my feet



The eye that views the heavens in faith,
The hand with justice armed.

Can see the snare that binds to death,
And scatter it, unharmed.



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EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J, RAYMOND, 419



EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOND. II.

(edited by his son.)
with the army of the potomac in 1 863.



The ten years from 1852 to 1862 were
among the busiest of my father's life, and
during that time the old Index Rerum did
not receive a single addition under the head
of memoranda. In this respect, it was some-
what like the portals of the temple of Janus,
—closed in peace and reopened in war.
My fjither was often urged to take active
part in the contest for national unity, which
had begun when the next entries in his diary
were nwde. At a time when political gen-
erals were much in fashion, he had been
offered high rank in the military service.
He felt, however, that he had more import-
ant work to do in his own sphere, — to help
keep up the spirits and the courage of the
North, to fight the opposition element at
home, and to strengthen the Government by
the active support of " The Times." More-
over, having no military knowledge or ex-
perience, he shrank from assuming the
command, and perhaps the disposal of the
lives of thousands of his fellow men. He
was twice drafted, and each time furnished
a substitute.

Speaking of his lack of military experi-
ence, he used to say that he had about as
much knowledge of military science as a
relative of his, who, at the breaking out of
the war, went to the Secretary of War, and
said that he wanted a colonel's commission.
The Secretary made some general remarks,
and finally asked him if he had had any
military experience. "Yes, sir," he an-
swered ; "I've been to general training once,
and in the guard-house twice." He got his
commission, and raised, equipped, and satis-
fectorily commanded the First Vermont
Cavalry.

NotwithsUnding his lack of military ex-
perience, my father had been with a con-
tending army previous to the beginning of
our civil war, and had witnessed actual war-
fere on the bloody fields of Montebello and
Solferino with the staff of the French em-
peror. During our civil war, he was often
m the camps and on battle-fields.

The extracts which follow are taken from
memoranda made soon after the disastrous
events which occurred while the Army of
the Potomac was maneuvering in front of
Fredericksburg, Virginia, during the mem-



orable winter of 1862 and 1863. General
Bumside had succeeded to the command of
the army, November 7th, 1862, and on the
X5th of that month, being then at Warren-
ton, he turned the army toward Fredericks-
burg, marching along the nc^th bank of the
Rappahannock, and intending to cross the
river, occupy Fredericksburg, and advance
upon Richmond from that point. This
movement was followed by the ineffectual
attempts to effect a permanent landing on
the south side of the Rappahannock, oppo-
site the town, which were made on the loth,
nth, i2th, and 13th of December, 1862.
On the night of 3ie 15th, the army was
withdrawn to the north bank of the river,
to the great disappointment of the country,
which was impatient at delay, and greatly
excited over the failure of the movement
The army remained quiet until January
of the following year. In the meantime,
my father had gone to the head-quarters,
and the result of his observations is recorded
in the subjoined extracts, which shed new
light on the stirring incidents of this much-
discussed campaign :

** January, i86j. — On Thursday, January 15th, I
received at dinner a telegram from Colonel Swain at
Washington, 'Your brother's corpse is at Belle
Plaine. Come immediately.' Knowing that mv
brother had been sick, I made no doubt of the trutn
of the message, and at seven the next morning started
for Washington. I arrived in the evenine* and, fail-
ing to see Colonel Swain, started the next day at eight
for Belle Plaine. It was a very cold day, the boat
was crowded with convalescent soldiers from the
hospitals at Washington, and everything conspired
with the melancholy nature of my errand to make
the journey one of ereat discomfort. Dr. Willard
of Albany went with me as far as Acquia Creek,
where I took another boat, and found as one of my
compagnons de voyagt Dr. Dean, also of Albany,
who luui entered upon the business of embalming
the dead of the army. 1 made all necessary in-
quiries and arrangements in regard to my brother,
landed at Belle PUdne, and made fruitless inquiries
for hb body. I finallv walked to the head-quarters
of General Wadswortn, in whose division was the
brigade to which my brother's regiment belonged.
He received me with great kindness, and got some
dinner for me, while he sent one of his aids. Colonel
Cress, to make inauiries into the circumstances of
my brother's deatn. While seated at dinner, the
aid returned, and my brother with him / I had the
pleasure of his company durinp^ the remainder of
my dinner. As he knew nothme of my errand, I
puzzled him a go«d deal by teUing lum that his



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420 EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL OF HENRY J. RAYMOND.



appetite was much better than I had expected to
find it, etc I finally told him the message which
had brought me down. He was a good deal taken
aback, but said he would forp^ve the blunder, inas-
much as it had secured a visit.from me. It turned
out afterward that Colonel Swain had sent a mes-
sage that my brother's corps was at Belle Plaine,



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