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the younger. And when the said Llewelyn had craftily obtained the King's forces
from the neighbouring marches under the pretext of punishing other of the King's
rebels, he suddenly invaded the Marshall's lands, destroyed three of his castles killing



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 97

Llewelyn will at this time have re-occupied the castles
of Carmarthen and Cardigan (as stated by the Shrewsbury
historians 1 ); and it would seem that he gave over the
former to Maelgon, but retained the more important
fortress of Cardigan in his own hands. This gave offence to
Res ap Griffith, the young Lord of Cardigan, who claimed
the said castle as his right, by virtue of the settlement
of 1216 ; and when Llewelyn refused to give it up to him,
he broke with the Prince of North Wales and formed an
alliance with the Earl of Pembroke. Whereupon
" Llewelyn with his army came to Aberystwyth, and
obtained possession of the castle with the territory
attached to it, and placed it under his own dominion.
And then young Res repaired to the court of the King,
and complained to him of the insult that Llewelyn had
offered him. And the King summoned Llewelyn and the
Earls and Barons of the Marches to Shrewsbury, and in that
council young Res and Llewelyn ap Jerwerth were recon-
ciled; and Llewelyn relinquished Aberteivi (or Cardigan) in
his favour as he had given Carmarthen to Maelgon ap Res." 2

I imagine the quarrel between Res and Llewelyn to
have taken place in the autumn of 1220, but their recon-
ciliation not till the following year. In the meantime
the hostile movements of Llewelyn had called forth a
letter from the King, bearing date at Westminster on the
5th of October (1220), in which he reminds him of the
truce concluded at Salop between him and William Earl
Mareschal (as he is there styled), and complains of his
neglect to appear before him at Oxford on the morrow of
St. Peter ad Vincula (Aug. 31), as also at London on the
morrow of St. Michael (Sept. 30), in obedience to his
summons, for the purpose of adjusting the differences
between himself and the said Earl ; instead of which he
had, as the King had been informed, in the meantime
invaded the land of the said Earl with a great army and
destroyed it with fire and sword, having taken two of his

all that were there, and when he had laid waste the whole province he shut up the
cattle and flocks in the houses and then set fire to them all. Moreover h slew a num-
ber of armed men who came over from Ireland to the assistance of the Marshall ; so that
the loss occasioned by this disgraceful raid is said to have exceeded the price of King
Richard's ransom. It is said that the quarrel arose from the Marshall's refusal to pay a
certain sum which he had promised for the ransom of some captives taken in war"
(Annales de Dunstaplia, p. 61).

i Owen and Blakeway Hist. Shrewsbury, Vol. I, p. 98. 2 Brut-y-Tywysogion.

O



98 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

castles and razed them to the ground. He had further
put the men of those parts to a tribute (censoriam) of
100, having taken security from them that, if it should
be required of them, the payment should be made to the
King or to Llewelyn within fifteen days of the next
coming Feast of All Saints. Moreover he had compelled
them to swear that they would never return to the fealty
of the said Earl ; and, what the King took most amiss,
he had pretended that he was acting under the King's
authority and that of the legate against the said Earl,
who had given them no cause of offence. The King
commands Llewelyn to desist from exacting the tribute
of 100 which he has required of the men of the said
Earl, to restore, as far as possible, whatever he has taken
from the Earl's land, and in no way to prevent his re-
building and repairing his said castles or to hinder his
men from returning to their allegiance. Moreover he
summons the Welsh Prince to appear before him at Wor-
cester on the octaves of St. Andrew (Dec. 7) to answer
for his excesses ; and orders him to surrender at once
those lands which had been previously occupied by
Welshmen, and of which Llewelyn had taken forcible
possession, to Wplliam] Bishop of London and Ralph
Boteler, to whose custody he (the King) has committed
them to hold during his pleasure ; and finally the King
enjoins him to keep the peace with the Earl and his men
and the Magnates of the Marches till the octaves of St.
Andrew, taking order to do them no injury ; which
injunction the King informs him he has likewise laid
upon the said Earl and the said Magnates of the Marches. 1
By letter of the same date the King writes to the knights
and freeholders of the county of Pembroke, informing
them that Llewelyn had not been acting under his sanc-
tion or authority in the late invasion, and ordering them
to pay fealty to the Earl of Pembroke, as they had done
before the said invasion of Llewelyn, notwithstanding
the convention they had made with that Prince to place
themselves in the King's hands arid under the guardian-
ship of Llewelyn. They are further forbidden to answer
to the said Llewelyn for the 100 they had bound

1 Rymer' Fsedera.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 99

themselves to pay to him ; and are ordered to assist their
Lord in repairing his castles of Narberth and Wiz,
which Llewelyn had destroyed. 1

It does not appear that Llewelyn came to Worcester at
the time appointed. He probably retained his hold over
Dyvet during the winter ; but in 1221 the Welsh Annalist
informs us that the Earl of Pembroke returned from
Ireland to South Wales, when he took the castles of
Carmarthen and Cardigan, and his allies despoiled nearly
all the churches of Dyvet. 2 In the summer of that year
the English Monarch was again at Shrewsbury, where he
remained from June 27 to July 3. 3 It is probable that
some general settlement of disputes between the Magnates
of Wales and the Marches was there effected before the
King and his council, under which these two castles were
restored to Llewelyn as Castellan. I further suppose the
breach between Res and Llewelyn to have been healed at
this time, 4 and the castle of Cardigan to have then been
surrendered to Res.

At the close of the year, namely " about the Feast of
St. Nicholas," Dec. 6, 1221, " John de Braose repaired
the castles of Abertawy and Senghenyth by the permis-
sion and advice of Llewelyn ap Jerwerth, 5 his father-in-
law ; and early in the following year the Welsh appear
to have again assumed a threatening attitude towards the
English. We find the King at Scenfrith from the 4th to
the 8th of March, 1222 ; 6 and on April 30 he writes to
Llewelyn with respect to the truce which had been made
between the said Llewelyn and William Earl Mareschal
and Reginald de Braose, and the contentions that had
arisen between them ; and tells him that it is necessary
that the truce should be extended till the Easter of the
ensuing year (1223) ; he enjoins him strictly to observe
the said truce according to the form agreed upon at
Shrewsbury before the King himself and Pandulph
the Lord Bishop elect of Norwich, the legate; and

1 Rymer's Facdera - Annales Cambriae. 3 MS. Itin. Hen. III. 4 Messrs. Owen
and Blakeway, the learned Historians of Shrewsbury, indeed, assert that this recon-
ciliation between Llewelyn and Res ap Griffith took place in May, 1220, before the
King and his council at Shrewsbury during his visit to that town from May 5 till 8 ;
and their general accuracy is such that I am unwilling to differ from them, but as they
give no other authority for their assertion but Rymer, who does not bear them out on
this point, I am disposed to follow the order of events as they are given by the early
Welsh Historians. 5 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 6 MS. Itin. Hen. III.



100 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

further informs him that he has sent to him the Abbots
of Shrewsbury and Haghrnon before whom he is to give
security for keeping the peace, in the same manner as
the Earl and Reginald de Braose have done before the
King, bidding him to fix a day for the meeting. No
doubt the truce was prolonged accordingly, though it did
not last for a whole year.

During this interval " died Res I vane, the son of
Griffith ap Res, being a young man famous for his praise
and bravery and sense and wisdom, the sole hope of all
South Wales, and that after a long and lingering disorder,
in the month of August (1222); and was buried at Strata
Florida, after taking penance and communion and con-
fession and the habit of religion." 1

The King lost no time in issuing his writ to Leulimis
princeps Norwallice, commanding him to take into the
King's hand all the land which Resus filim Griffini deceased
held of the King in capite and keep it in safe custody until
the King should otherwise order concerning it. This
writ was issued at Oxford, on August 11, of that year, in
the presence of Hubert de Burgh and others. 2

The Welsh chronicle informs us that " Owen ap
Griffith his only brother obtained part of his territory,
and another part Llewelyn ap Jerwerth gave to Maelgoii
ap Res." 3 From the subsequent history I should infer that
Maelgoii had the Southern portion of Cardigan, including
the cantrevs of Syrwen and Castell, commonly called
Is Aeron (of which he already had two commots), and
Owen the Northern portion.

It is most propable that the young Lord Res ap
Griffith died without issue. Dugdale, who is followed by
Collins asserts, indeed, that Gilbert Talbot, one of the
Justices Itinerant for the county of Hereford, married
Gwenthlian, daughter of Rhese ap Griffith, Prince of
South Wales ; but on reference to the document from
which he quotes I find that this Gwenthlian was the
daughter of Res Vychan, the son of Res Grig, as will be
shewn in a subsequent page. 4

We learn from the Statutes of St. David's that Gervase,
Bishop of St. David's, had claimed against Maelgon ap

l Brut-y-Tywysogioi. 2 Exceipta e Rot. Fin. 6 Hen. Ill, (1222). 3 Jjnit-y-
Ty\vjRogion. 4 I>lac. de Banco T. Hil. 19 Ed-vr. Ill, Eot. 132.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WAI lOl

Kes the land of Llandovery and Kenarth Vawr, for which
he impleaded him before Thomas the Dean, Albinus the
Chancellor, and Thomas the Treasurer of Hereford, who
were delegated by the Pope to adjudicate between them.
The litigation was terminated by the following compro-
mise, namely, Maelgon and Maelgoii his son and heir
acknowledged the right of the Bishop and his church to
the whole land of Llandovery, and the Bishop, with con-
sent of Maelgon the elder, took the homage of Maelgon
the younger for the said land, which he was to hold of
the church of St. David by the services of providing a safe-
conduct to the Bishop, in going and returning, whenever
he should come into those parts, of making his procu-
ration in the castle of Llandovery to the Bishop as Lord
of that castle at least once a year, and of sending his men
of that place to join the Bishop's army, whenever they
should be summoned thereto, like the other men of St.
David's. And as to the land of Kenarth Vawr the afore-
said Maelgon Major and Maelgon Junior agreed to restore
to the church of St. David, as her rightful possession, the
whole land together with the Mill and the Weir and all
other their appurtenances ; and the Bishop, with consent
of Maelgoii the elder, conceded to Maelgon the younger,
for the term of his life, a moiety of the Mill and Weir
together with the service of the sons of Syon and their
men of Talebrin, so that after his death the said moieties
of the Mill and Weir should revert to the Bishop. With
respect to certain other lands which were named in
the same compact namely, Maynorteun (Manorteivi ?),
Llanarthhayron (Llanercliaeron ?), Gartheley (Gartheli),
Merthirgcionant (Merthyr Cynog?), Penbeyr (Penboyrl
Kenart Vechan, Cledey (Clydey), Lansuliet (Llaiisilian ?),
Llanechren in Gwenoint, Abergwenn, Trefgaithel, Eglois
Gorthir, and the commot of Esterlof, except the lands

which the said Bishop held in Esterlof , the said

Maelgon and his son acknowledged the right of the
Bishop and his church thereto, and upon their surren-
dering them to the Bishop, Maelgon Junior, with his
father's consent, received them from the Bishop to hold
for the term of his life, by the service of paying yearly
to the Bishop one sparrowhawk in St. David's town
of Kenarth Vawr on the Feast of St. Peter ad vincula.



102 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

The above composition was ratified by the seal of all
parties, in the year 1222, and attested by the Abbots of
Alba Landa and Thalelech, J . . . , Prior of Brechon,
H . . . , Archdeacon of St. David's, Master N . . . , of the
chapel, Master Matthias, Canon of St. David's, Philip
de Lannays, A ... son of Ithayl, Master Thomas Briton,
Roger de Burchall, Walter de Brechon, Clerk, Aaron son
of Res, Lewelin son of Cradauc son of Eman, Gossalin
son of Gugan, Owen son of Eynean, and many others ;
and confirmed by the Pope's Delegates on the Eve of
St. Barnabas (June 10) 1239. 1

The same Bishop Gervase made a similar claim against
Res ap Res (i.e. Res Grig) for the Avhole commot of
Llanteilow Mawr, the lands between the river Dineleis
Luswlith and the Brook of Hilyg, the Manor of Lantarach
(Llanddarog?), the town of Kelrnir, and the lands of
Aberwili which Gugan Seys and Kedivor ap Enyr and
other nobles unjustly withheld from him. The suit
was determined before the same Papal Delegates by the
following composition, namely, the said Res Junior and
Mareduch his son and heir acknowledge the right of the
Bishop and the church of St. David to all the said lands.
Res and his sons surrender to the Lord Bishop and his
church the lands under Dyneleys as far as the bounds
of the commot of Keth-eynach (Cethinioc) so that they
should belong to the church of St. David as of full right,
with the exception of thejands of Kerrie Gwrgeneu and
the land of Owen son of Gadug and the land of the Smiths
of the court of Dynevor and the lands of the Canons of
Talelech which he, or his, had given to the church of
Lanteilaw Mawr or the Lord of Talelech in free and
perpetual alms with the good will of the Bishop and the
assent of the chapter of St. David's. Moreover the afore-
said Res and his sons surrender to the Lord Bishop and
his church all the lands of Abergwili, which Kedivor
ap Enyr and Gogan Seys and other nobles had unjustly
withheld from him, as fully belonging to the church of
St. David. And the said Res and his sons will warrant



1 Statitta Eccksice Menevensis, Harl MSS. 1249, compared with a MS. at Stackpole
Court purporting to be an abridgement of the same statutes from a copy in the possession
of Nicholas, Lord Bishop of St. David's, a 1740, made by E[dward] Y[ardley Arch-
deacon of Cardigan].



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 103

to the Bishop the said lands of Abergwili together with
the Mill against the said nobles and all others during the
time of the Welsh ascendancy. But the said Res and
his sons did homage to the Bishop for the aforesaid lands
and swore that they would every-where faithfully main-
tain the rights of the Bishop and his church therein,
and pay for the said lands an annual rent of one Lance
on the Feast of St. John the Baptist, further binding
themselves to send their men of those tenements to join
the Bishop's army at the summons of the said Bishop.
The above composition was mutually ratified by the
seals of all parties in the year of grace 1222, and wit-
nessed by the Abbots of St. Dogmael's and Talelech,
Henry fitz Robert, Walter fitz Bartholomew, Nicholas
fitz Meyler, John fitz Asser, William fitz Martin, Nicholas
fitz Samuel, canons of St. David's, the Deans of Peby-
diauk and Cantre Mawr, G . . . Prior of Talelech,
Ph . . . canon of the same House, Gogan the official, and
of the laity Owen fitz Kadug, Griffith fitz Elyder, Tra-
harn fitz Hoell, Jor . . fitz Gogan fitz Meilas, Gorgenew
clerk to the Lord Res, Master John clerk to the Lord
Bishop of St. David's, and many others. 1

These compositions will account for some of the
subsequent possessions of the Bishops of St. David's at
Abergwili, Llaiidilo, and elsewhere.

Towards the close of the year 1222 the Earl of
Pembroke went over to Ireland ; and during his absence
the Flemings threw off their allegiance to Llewelyn, and
attacked and took the castle of Cardigan. Whereupon
Llewelyn raised an army against the Flemings, and,
entering Dyvet, spoiled their lands, and took the castles
of Cardigan and Kilgerran, where he put the garrisons
to the sword, and manned the castles with his own
soldiers.

The two great antagonists with whom Llewelyn had
to contend at this period were evidently the Earl of Pem-
broke on the Southern, and Reginald de Braose on the
Eastern, border, and the constant breaches of the peace
on these two frontiers speedily involved the Welsh and
English in a more general war. Hostilities were

l Statuta Eccli'sirt Jfentvcnsis, Harl. MSS. 12-19, compared with a MS. at Stackpole
Court.



104 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

continued during the winter, and in January or
February, 1223, we find Llewelyn besieging the
castle of Whittington near Oswestry.

In order to chastise the Welsh Prince for these repeated
outrages, Henry came with an army into the Marches,
from whence, however, he returned to England without
performing any military exploit, having been reconciled
to Llewelyn at the intercession of the Earl of Chester,
who engaged for him that he should make restitution, by
a certain day, for the injuries he had committed ; an
engagement, however, which he was slow to perform. 1

In the meantime the Earl of Pembroke " quickly
returned from Ireland with a multitude of cavalry and
infantry, and came to land with a vast fleet about Palm
Sunday. And on Easter Monday he approached Aber-
teivi, and on that day the castle was delivered to him ;
and on the Wednesday following he drew to Carmarthen,
and obtained that castle also. And when Llewelyn ap
Jerwerth, the person who had the custody of the castles
on behalf of the King, heard that, he sent Griffith his
son with a numerous army to oppose the Earl. And
when Griffith understood that it was the intention of the
Earl to come to Kidwelly, 2 he proceeded towards it,
accompanied by the nobility of Wales. And Res Grig
was afraid of the treachery of the burgesses and tried to
excite the Welsh to seek the safety of the woods ; but
they did not give way, for they proceeded to the town,
and burned the town and the church to the ground.
When the Earl heard of this, he proceeded through the
Tywi by the bridge of Carmarthen, and boldly awaited
Griffith ap Llewelyn. And after continued fighting for
the greater part of the day, each of the two armies sepa-
rated and returned to their tents, many having fallen on
both sides and many being wounded. And then, for lack
of provision, Griffith ap Llewelyn returned back to his
country. Then the Earl repaired the castle of Car-
marthen ; and began to build the castle of Cilgerran. It
was not long after the work commenced before there came
letters to him from the King and the Archbishop of

1 Warrington's Hist. ; Clark's Earls of Pembroke ; and Brut-y-Tywysogion. 2 The
Earl was specially interested in the lordship of Kidwelly at this time, having purchased
from the crown the custody of the lands and the marriage of Hawise daughter and
heiress of Thomas de Londres (Clark's Earls of Pembroke).



PKINCES OP SOUTH WALES. 105

Canterbury, requiring him to come in person to answer
before them, and to make satisfaction for what he had
done, and to receive satisfaction from the Prince for every
wrong he had done him. And the Earl obeyed the com-
mand, and sailed with a small retinue in a ship for
England, leaving his army at Cilgerran, to carry on the
work commenced and to strengthen the place where
they might perceive danger. And the Prince and the
Earl appeared together at Ludlow before the council of
the King and the Archbishop. And since they could
not be reconciled, the Earl designed, through the aid of
Earl Ferrers and Henry Pictot, Lord of Ewias, to proceed
through the territory of that person to his own country ;
but he was not able, because Llewelyn ap Jerwerth had
sent his son Griffith, and with him a large army, and Res
Grig and his men, to Carnwyllion, to intercept the Earl
and his men. And Llewelyn himself, with all his power,
proceeded to Mabutryd ; and there he waited for tidings
from his men, and as to the advance of the Earl." 1

It would have been during this war between the Earl
of Pembroke and Llewelyn that the former made an
alliance with Cynan ap Howel, in whose company he
entered the land of Cardigan, from which he carried
away a great booty ; and having taken the whole country
as far as the river Ayron, he committed it to the custody
of Cynan, and retired with his own retainers. 2

On October 8, 1223, the King writes to William
Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke, from Montgomery, inform-
ing him that Res Grig and Maelgon had returned to
their fealty, and that he had received their homage; he
therefore orders him to do no further injury to their lands,
and if he had taken any of their lands since Thursday the
Feast of St. Matthew last past (September 21), to restore
them immediately. In the same manner it is written to
Reginald de Braose and Res Vaughan on behalf of Res
Grig, except only the last clause with respect to the res-
titution of land. 3

l Brut-y-Tywysogion. 2 Annales Cambria) (c) where the transaction is placed, as I
believe, under the wrong year, namely 1221. 3 Rot. Lit. Claus. 7 Hen. Ill, memb. 1.
I suppose this Res Vaughan (or Vychan) to have been the son of Res Grig ; and he
was then seemingly in rebellion against his father. Ho was probably the son who had
formerly been given up as a hostage for his father, jointly with two other persons, when
Res Grig was liberated from the King's prison about the 13th of June, 1215.

P



106 PKINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

About this time, namely, in 8 Henry III, 1223-4 ,
Llewelyn was superseded in his wardenship, and the Earl
of Pembroke was made Governor of the castles of
Carmarthen and Cardigan in his stead. 1

Maelgon soon seceded from his English allegiance,
as Llewelyn his Welsh Suzerain had already done. And
in 1225 we find him claiming a share of territory from
his nephews Owen ap Griffith and Cynan ap Howel.
In the prosecution of this claim he found a powerful sup-
porter in the Prince of North Wales, for whose peaceful
behaviour he had, in conjunction with Res Grig and
Meredith ap Robert, Lord of Kedewen, become security
to the King in the year 1223.

We have seen that Llewelyn had been superseded in his
Bailiwick, which probably carried with it some authority
over the whole Honour of Cardigan. In the meantime the
Earl of Pembroke, who succeeded him, had already driven
Maelgon from the Southern portion of Cardigan and
delivered it to the custody of Cynan ap Howel, by whom
and by Owen ap Griffith I suppose the whole land of
Cardigan to have now been held. Maelgon had probably
gained little by his submission to the King, notwithstand-
ing the Royal precept to the Earl of Pembroke to restore
to him the lands that had been taken from him. He
thus betakes himself to Llewelyn, and the Prince,
remembering his former services, became his suitor to
the King. When treating with Henry for a fresh peace
he stipulated that Maelgon should have a share of the
possessions of the Princes of South Wales, and the King,
being, on his part, desirous of pleasing Llewelyn, and
not unwilling to exercise his kingly prerogative of dis-
posing of the lands of his Welsh vassals under circum-
stances which afforded some probability of his mandate
being enforced, readily listened to his request. In a letter
concerning a treaty of peace, bearing date April 14, 1225,
he accordingly wrote to Llewelyn as follows: "Know
ye that we have of our clemency conceded the petition
you have made to us, by your chaplain, on behalf of
Mailgon son of Res ; to the effect that five discreet men
should be chosen on your part, and five on the part of
the Mareshal [William M. Earl of Pembroke], whose

1 Clark's Earls of Pembroke.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 107

names your said chaplain shall impart to you, for
dividing the land between Mailgon himself and his
nephews ; which said persons shall meet together, at the
Bridge of Kediaul' on the Wednesday before the Ascen-
sion of our Lord now coming, to make that partition, so
that his nephews may have that which they ought to
have, and so that there may remain to the same Mailgon
that which ought to remain to him : on condition that
you bring with you the said Mailgon, on the day afore-



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