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dith ap Owen at the time of his death ; but the greater
part of Cardigan was certainly then in his hands. His
territory was divided between his sons Owen, Griffith
and Cynan (or Canan), and the lands which they inhe-
rited would have been generally confirmed to them by
the treaty of peace which was made between the King
(or rather the Earl of Leicester) and Llewelyn on June
22, 1265, within a few months of the time of their
father's death. Under this treaty their homage would
have been conceded to Llewelyn ; and it was probably at
this time that Llewelyn ap Griffith, of his own sponta-
neous will, deforced them of the commots of Geneurglyn,
Crewthyn and Perveth, which he gave to Res the son of
Res ap Maelgon, as we learn from the evidence of one of
the witnesses who were summoned before the Royal com-
mission at Lampadarn Vawr on February 5, 1282. 1

After the conclusion of the more effective peace which
was finally agreed upon in October 1267, we find the King
sending his commissioners into Wales for the purpose of
hearing and determining all disputes concerning the tenure
of lands and other grievances.* I assume that the result of
these commissions, with respect to the land of Cardigan,
would have been to vest the castles of Cardigan and
Aberystwith, together with the respective lordships
attached to them, in the hands of Prince Edward, who
seems to have also claimed and entered upon the commots
of Anhunog, Perveth and Crewthyn, as appurtenances of
his castle of Cardigan. 3

We learn from the Plea-Rolls of a later date that the
commot of Mevenyth was likewise held to have been
forfeited by Meredith ap Owen, 4 though I doubt if it was

1 Certificatio et aprisa capte apvd Lamperder Voter die Mercurii proximo pott festum
J'unfieationis Beate -Virginia (Feb. 5J ; Rot. Wall. 9. Edw. I. 2 Rymer's Fsedera.
3 Inq. p.m. 4 Edw. I, No. 84. * Abbreviatio Placitorum pp. 227, 284, (Hil. Term.)
19 Edw. I.



150 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

ever actually in the King's hands until many years after
the death of Meredith ap Owen. Hence it would seem
that only the Southern commots of Iscoed Uchirwern,
Gwynnionith, Mabwynneon, Caerwedros and Pennarth
were absolutely conceded to the sons of Meredith ap
Owen and acknowledged as their right, and only that of
Geneurglyn to Res ap Res ap Maelgon.

Such a dismemberment of their ancient patrimony was
not likely to be satisfactory to the Lords of South Wales ;
and when, in 1270, Prince Edward engaged in a crusade
to the Holy Land, we find them taking advantage of his
absence to rectify their grievances and recover their
possessions for themselves. We are told that Griffith and
Owen, the sons of Meredith, and Res Vychan ap Res ap
Maelgon, recovered to themselves the commots of Anhunog,
Perveth, and Orasson (or Crewthyn).

In that year there was a general interruption of the
peace ; and in the month of October Llewelyn ap Griffith
possessed himself of the castle of Caerphili. 1 Moreover
on October 16 the King writes to Llewelyn ap Griffith,
who is now allowed the title of Prince of Wales, concern-
ing peace. He informs him that Gilbert de Clare,
who is deputed by the King to meet Llewelyn, has inti-
mated to the King that a certain Mereducus Resy, his
lawful vassal, had receded from his homage, and placed
himself, contrary to the fealty and homage which he owed
the King, under the power of the said Llewelyn, and pur-
posed to besiege the castle, which he held of the said
Earl and not of Llewelyn. 2 These differences and dis-
turbances appear to have been amicably settled. " And
in the ensuing year, the sixth day after August" (? of the
kalends of August, that is July 27, 1271) "died Meredith
ap Res Grig, in the castle at Dryslwyn, and was buried
at Whitland in the great church, on [under ?] the" steps
in front of the high altar. At the end of three weeks
afterwards, on the octave of the Feast of St. Lawrence
(August 17), Res Vychan, the son of Res Mechyll ap Res
Grig, died in the castle of Dynevor, and was buried at
Tal y Lychau." 3

King Henry III died on November 16, 1272. Prince
Edward was then abroad, and did not return to England

l & 3 Brut-y-TywTSOgion. 2 Rym. Faed.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 151

until the summer of 1274. He landed at Dover on
August 2, and was crowned at Westminster on Sunday
after the Feast of the Assumption (August 19, 1274).
The King of Scotland had already done homage to
Edward upon his arrival in England. Prince Llewelyn
was also summoned to do homage at Shrewsbury after
the King's coronation ; but he refused to attend unless
hostages were given for the safety of his person ; nor
could he be prevailed upon to alter his determination.

It has been already stated that, in or about the year
1270, the sons of Meredith ap Owen and Res ap Maelgon
recovered their lands from the English; and in 1273
" Owen ap Mereduc ap Owen " granted in frank marriage
to his wife l l Agaret fil. Owen " the commot of ' ' Annunaut." 1
In the same year we are told that " Owen and Griffith,
the sons of Meredith ap Owen, restored the middle
commot to their brother Cynan, about Candlemas day;" 2
that is, the commot Perveth. And in the following year,
1274, "there was an exchange of commots between
Cynan ap Meredith ap Owen and young Res [the son of
Res ap Maelgon]; and thus Pennarth came to Cynan,
and the middle commot to Res Vychan." 3

It is probable that some general readjustment of
lands between the Lords of South Wales took place at
this time, under which Anhunog was retained by Owen,
Mevenyth by Griffith, and Pennarth by Cynan, while
Res Vychan will have had the cantrev Penwedic con-
taining the commots of Geneurglyn, Crewthyn; and
Perveth (or the middle commot).

In this same year, namely on April 15, 1274, William de
Beauchamp, Roger de Clifford, The Prior of St. Thomas'
Extra Stafford, William Bagod and Odo de Hodenet,
were commissioned to take cognizance of all wrongs and
injuries which had been perpetrated in all parts of the
Marches of Wales contrary to the form of peace between
the late King and Llewelyn. 4 This commission appa-
rently led to more general measures ; and in the following
year, 1275, " a little before Ascension Thursday, King
Edward appointed a council in London ; and then he estab-
lished new institutions over the whole Kingdom." 5 The

l Report of Deputy Keeper of Records, Appendix No. 2, pp. 22, 39, & seq.
2 & 3 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 4 Eymer's Ftcdera. 5 Brut-y-Tywysogion.



152 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

mention of this by the Welsh Chronicler implies that these
institutions affected the Principality of Wales ; and accord-
ingly we find that in that year, on the Feast of Saints
Peter and Paul, 3 Edw. I (i.e. June 29, 1275), an extent of
the Manor of Cardigan was taken before Howel ap
Meur' and Henry de Bray, when the jury found that King
Edward, during the reign of King Henry his father and
in time of peace, was seized of three commots, namely
Annemok [Anhunog] comniot-pervet [Perveth] and Orasson
[Crewthyn] belonging to the castle (or Honour) of Car-
digan, 1 and that he had delivered them oftentimes to farm
for 80 per annum until Griffin and Owen, the sons of
Meredith ap Owen, and Resius Vathan son of Res ap
Maylgon had deforced him by war, which same persons
were still seized of the aforesaid three commots, namely
Griffin and Owen of Anhunnok and commot-pervet, and
Resius Wathan of Oresson. 2 It would seem from this
inquest that there had been a second exchange of territory,
in 1274-5, between the Lords of South Wales, and that
the commot of Perveth, which Res Vychan had received
from Cynan in 1274, had been subsequently given up to
Owen and Griffith, in consideration perhaps of his being
allowed to keep Orasson (or Crewthyn) to himself. We
are not directly informed. of the immediate result of the
" Extent" of Cardigan; but from what follows it would
seem that the Welsh Lords were not at that time ejected
from their recovered possessions. Owen ap Meredith ap
Owen died shortly afterwards, namely on August 15,
1275, and was buried near his father in the chapter
house at Strata Florida. 3 It was found at an inquest
held many years later, namely in October, 1328, that he
died seized of this commot of Hanunyauk, which he held
of the King by the Welsh law, and that he died seized of
it in time of peace, as well as of a moiety of the commot
of Gwynneonyth Uchkerdyn and of the whole commot of
Kerwedros, besides (or except) one Westua called
Drefreyr. 4 The commot of Anhunog, however, appears
to have been forcibly taken into the King's hands by
Pain de Chaworth in 1277, during the minority of his

1 The first mention that I meet with of the Honour of Cardigan was in King John's
charter to Ees ap Griffith in 1212. 2 Inq. p.m. 4 Edw. I, No. 84. 3 Brut-y-
Tywysogion. 4 Inq. 2 Edw. Ill, 1 Nrs. No. 47.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 153

infant son Llewelyn ap Owen, on account of the rebellion
of his uncles Griffith and Canan, and was never afterwards
restored to either Llewelyn or his children, although it
was shown, by repeated inquests to have been their
lawful inheritance. It has been already stated that
Owen ap Meredith, in 1273, granted in frank marriage to
his wife Angharad the daughter of Owen the commot of
Anhunog. 1 At the conclusion of the war which followed
Owen's death his widow petitioned for her dower,
and on January 4, 1278, the King issued his writ to
enquire into her claims in the following terms, " The
King to the venerable father G[odfrey] Bishop of Wor-
cester, and his associates, the Justices appointed for the
purpose of hearing and determining the complaints,
transgressions and inroads made in the Marches of Wales
and adjacent parts, greeting. Whereas Angarad who
was wife of Owen son of Maraduc ap Owyen claims to
have a right in the commot of Anhunaut within the land
of Kardigan as that which the aforesaid Owen had
assigned to her in dower, as she says, and which is now
in our hands, we enjoin you to make full enquiry into
the truth of the matter, and cause proper justice to be
done to the same Angarad according to the form of peace
and according to the law and custom of the aforesaid
parts, saving our own rights, if we should have any in
the aforesaid commot. Witness the King at the Tower of
London on the 4th day of January." 2 I am unable to say
whether or not she succeeded in recovering any part of
her dower ; but as to this commot of Anhunog it is certain
that the King kept a fast hold upon it from this time
forward, and never afterwards allowed it to fall back into
the hands of its rightful owners. The claim which he
had formerly preferred to it in the lifetime of his father
would probably have served as a pretext for retaining it
in his own hands. Angharad (or Anchoret) the wife of
Owen ap Meredith is said to have been the daughter of
Owen ap Meredith ap Robert, Lord of Cedewen ; 3 and by
her he had a son Llewelyn, who was but an infant at the
time of his father's death.

In the meantime the war had broken out again. After

i Report of Deputy keeper of Records, Appendix Xo. 2, pp. 2239 & seq. 2 Rot.
Wall., 6-9 Edw. I, m. 12 in dorso. de a sexto. 3 Her. Vis. Wai., Vol. II, p. 53.

V



154 PHINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

the death of Owen ap Meredith, which took place in August
1275, Edward, who had been previously engaged in
making laws and correcting abuses, repaired to Chester
in the September of that year, and again summoned
Llewelyn ap Griffith to do homage for his lands. But
Llewelyn called together the Barons of Wales, who
counselled him to refuse compliance with the summons,
because the King had broken the terms of peace and
harboured many of the Prince's enemies, especially his
brother David and the Lord of Powis who had purposed
his destruction. At this time Llewelyn justified his
conduct in a letter addressed to the Archbishops and
Bishops assembled in convocation at London, and dated
at Talybont on October 6, 1275, 1

Early in the following year, 1276, the capture of
Eleanor de Montfort by some English ships, while she
was on her way from France to be married to Llewelyn,
and her subsequent detention at the court of the English
King, further exasperated the Welsh Prince and endan-
gered the continuance of peace.

Negotiations were carried on throughout the summer,
but the Prince's terms were finally rejected in November;
Llewelyn was pronounced to be a rebel, and it was agreed
that he should be treated as such. The Welsh now took
up arms and ravaged the English borders; and on
December 12, 1276, Edward summoned his military
tenants to muster at Worcester, on the octave of St. John
the Baptist (July 1, 1277), with horses and arms prepared
for an expedition into Wales. 2

In the spring of 1277 Edward himself left London to
take the command of his army, and to make every effort
for a vigorous prosecution of the war, with the full deter-
mination of completely subjugating the Welsh people.
But before leading his army into North Wales against
Llewelyn he ordered his fleet to cruise on the Welsh
coast in order to cut off the enemy's provisions, and des-
patched a body of troops into South Wales to reinforce
the army under the command of Pain de Chaworth, so
as to distract the enemy's attention and reduce that
country to submission. 3

l Warrington's Hist. Wai. appendix Vol. II, p. 408, from Register Peckham, f. 242.
2 Eymer's Fwdera. 3 Warrington's Hist.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 155

The Lords of South Wales appear to have sided at first
with Llewelyn, but they were unfortunately seduced from
their Welsh allegiance, and gradually fell away to the King.

With a view to encourage a dissension amongst the
Welsh Lords the King had given orders to Pain de
Chaworth to receive into the King's favour such of
Llewelyn's adherents as were willing to submit to his
authority and become his vassals. Res ap Meredith was
the first to secede from the cause of his countrymen, and
on Sunday in the quindene of Easter (April 11,) 1277,
he entered into a convention, at Carmarthen, with the
Lord Pain de Chaworth, with the consent of the lords
and knights of the King's forces in West Wales and other
knights and faithful subjects of the King in those parts,
whereby the said Lord Pain contracts, on behalf of
the King, that the said King shall do full justice to the
said Res with respect to the castle of Dynevor and the
land of Maynertylau, the land of Methlaen, the land of
Cayo, and Mabelven, when he shall have obtained power
over the said castle and lands. And the aforesaid Res
covenants to do his homage to the King, wherever the
King shall please, at the King's command, and his fealty
to the Lord Pain de Chaworth, in place of the King, as
being his Lieutenant in those parts. The King pledges
himself never to remove the said Res from his homage
without his own free will, and never to compel him, or
suffer him to be compelled, to do suit at any county or
court unless the King shall hold the said county in his
own possession. And the said Res, for his part, concedes
to the knights and others of the King's forces a free
shelter in his castles to go in and out as they please and
as need shall require ; also permission to lay up their
provisions there, for which he will find them fit places.
He likewise grants them leave to make roads, engages to
give them his advice in the making of them, as well in
his own land as in that of others through which the King's
army may march, and promises to assist them witli his
own men to the best of his power. And, as often as need
shall be, he will attend the King's war expeditions with
all his forces, as well horse as foot, whenever he shall be
reasonably summoned and required to do so. And if it
shall happen that Griffin the son of Mereduc Ap-owayn



156 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

shall come to the King's peace, by his advice and pro-
curement, on condition that the said Res shall give up
to him his right which he claims in Gunyonnith and
Mebunnaun, the King will make reasonable satisfaction
to the said Res elsewhere, according to the demands
of justice, when it shall have been declared to him. 1

The defection of Res ap Meredith must have struck
a fatal blow to the Welsh cause. His example was
soon followed by Res Wendout, son of Res Vychan
ap Res Mechyll ap Res Grig, and nephew (sister's son)
to Prince Llewelyn. 2 " Llewelyn, brother of Res Wen-
dout, and Howel ap Res Grig, quitted their territory,
and went to Gwyneth to Llewelyn; Res [ap Res] ap
Maelgon went to Roger Mortimer and made his sub-
mission to the King " through means of the said Roger. 3
" And last of all from Deheubarth, Griffith and Cynan,
the sons of Meredith ap Owen, and Llewelyn ap Owen
their nephew became reconciled to the King. Then
Pain son of Patrick [de Cha worth] subjugated to the King
three commots of Uch Aeron, (namely) Anhunog and
Mevenyth and commot Perveth (or the middle commot) :
and Res ap Meredith, Res Wendot, and the two sons of
Meredith ap Owen went to the court of the King to offer
their homage and oath of allegiance. But the King
delayed receiving their homage until the next council ;
sending home Res ap Meredith and Griffith ap Meredith,
and retaining with him Cynan ap Meredith ap Owen and
Res Wendot. And then Pain placed Llewelyn ap Owen,
as a youth in guardianship, because he was under age.
After that, on the octave of the Feast of St. John (pro-
bably July 1, 1277) Res [ap Res] ap Maelgon and the
four above named Barons did homage to the King in the
council at Worcester." 4 As the first-fruits of their sub-
mission the venerable castle of Straty wy or Dynevor with
the adjacent country had been already delivered up to
Pain de Chaworth, the King's Lieutenant. 5 " The same
year, on the Feast of St. James the apostle (July 25),
Edmund [Earl of Lancaster], the King's brother, came
with an army to Llanbadarn, and began to build a castle
at Aberystwyth. And then the King with his forces

1 Rym. F0ed. an. 5 Edw. I. 2, 3 & 4 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 6 Po\vel's History;
Hist. Thorn. Walsingham ; Chron. Wil. Rishanger.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 157

came to the Midland District [of North Wales], and
fortified a castle at Flint, surrounded with vast dykes.
From thence he proceeded to Rhuddlan, and this he also
fortified by surrounding it with dykes; and there he
tarried some time. That year, the Saturday after August
[after the calends of August ?], Res [ap Res] ap Maelgon
retired to Gwyneth to Llewelyn, for fear of being taken
by the English that were at Llanbadarn ; and thereupon
the English took possession of his whole territory. And
along with him the men of Genaurglyn all retreated to
Gwyneth, leaving the whole of their corn and land waste.
On the eve of St. Matthew (August 8) Edmund [Earl of
Lancaster] and Pain [de Chaworth] went to England,
and left Roger Myles (or de Moels) to be Constable at
Aberystwyth and to protect the country. The day after
the Feast of St. Ynys [? the morrow of St. Denys, i.e.
Oct. 10] Res Wendout and Cynan ap Meredith returned
from the court of the King to their own country. That
year, in the beginning of harvest, the King sent a great
part of his army into Mona, which burned much of the
country and took away much of the corn. And after
that Llewelyn came to the King at Rhuddlan and made
his peace with him." 1

By the treaty of peace which was concluded with
Llewelyn at Aberconway on the Tuesday next before the
Feast of St. Martin (November 9, 1277), before the King
left Wales, Llewelyn was forced to cede the cantrevs of
Rhos, Rhyvonioc, Tegengl and Dyffryn Clwyd to the
King ; and though he was permitted to retain the homage
of the five Barons of Snowdon, together with the title of
Prince of Wales, for the term of his life, they were after-
wards to revert to the King and his heirs. 2 The Barons
whose homage the King conceded to Llewelyn for his
life, were David ap Griffin ap Owen, Elisse, the two sons
of Owen ap Blethyn, and Res Vachan ap Res ap Maelgun,
" together with the land which he now holds; for, as to
the land which the said King or those acting in his name
have seized, none of it is conceded to him, but it will
remain for ever in the King's hands." 3

This decisive triumph on the part of the English King
was followed by an interval of peace which lasted for

l Brut-y-Tywysogion. Warrington'B Hist. 8 Kym, Fwd. an. 5 Edw. I.



158 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

about four years. But it must have been a time of bitter
humiliation for the Lords of South Wales; for Edward
now treated them as a conquered people, and seems to
have paid but little heed to the terms of peace which had
been made with them. This is substantiated by the
list of grievances which they afterwards laid before
the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1282, 1 and which will
be mentioned in due order.

The King's officers appear to have retained the com-
mots of Anhunog, Mevenyth, and Perveth, in addition to
those of Crewthyn and Geneurglyn, as lands conquered
into the King's hands ; moreover he deprived the sons of
Meredith ap Owen of many of their ancient rights and
liberties, such as those of " wreck " and supreme power
of judgement in their own courts, where they were after-
wards made to deliver judgment upon themselves. A
strong castle was formed at Lampader Vaur to repress
the irruptions of the Welsh ; 2 and this castle was attached
to the Honour of Cardigan, as was the castle of Dynevor
to that of Carmarthen.

On January 7, 1278, Pain de Chaworth is ordered to
do no injury or hurt to the persons of Howel ap Res Crek
or his men as being entitled to enjoy the benefit of the
peace, and that for the space of one year. 3

By charter of the same date, the King notifies that he
has admitted to his peace Res the son of Meredith and
his men, and forbids their being molested on account of
any transgressions which they may have committed before
that time. 4

A few days later, namely on January 10, 1278, Pain
de Chaworth and Master Henry de Bray are appointed
to hear and determine pleas and complaints in the parts
of West Wales ; and the King apprises them that he has
ordered his Bailiffs of Lampader Vaur, Careukemuth
(Carreg Cynen?), Dumanor (Dynevor), Gilgaran (Cil-
garran), and Llanadever (Llandovery), the Bailiffs of his
uncle William de Valence of Pembroke, the Bailiffs
of Humfrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford ..."... of
Haverford, the Bailiffs of Nicholas fitz Martin of Cammays,

1 Warrington's Hist. Wai. appendix Vol. II, p. 427. 2 Hist. Thorn. "Walaingham.
3 Rot. Wall., 6-9 Edw. I, m. 12, de a<> sexto. 4 Ibid, privately printed for Sir T.
Phillipps.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 159

the Bailiffs of Res the son of Mereduc of Dehuberd
(Dehubarth), the Bailiffs of the Bishop of St. David's of
West Wales, the Bailiffs of Griffin and Canan of the
county of Kardygan, the Bailiffs of Res Vaghan of
Dehuberd, of Guy de Brienne, of Thomas de la Roche
and of William de Bonville, to cause to appear before
them, at such times and places as they (the said Pain
and Master H. de Bray) shall appoint, a sufficient num-
ber of good and lawful men from their bailiwicks and
lands in those parts, through whom the truth may be
best ascertained. 1

On the same day Res ap Meredith has orders to enlarge
the roads through his woods between Kermardyn and
Breckennen according to the order and provision of Pain
de Chaworth and Master Henry de Bray. 2 And at the
same time similar orders are issued to Griffin and Kanan
sons of Mereduc, the Abbot of Thalachlawyan, Howel
ap Griffin ap Edenavet, Res Vaghan, John Geffard,
Humfrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford and Essex, and the
Abbot of Strata Florida, with respect to the roads in their
woods where they are too narrow. 3

In the same year, 1278, Griffith ap Meredith complains
to the King and his parliament that when he had come to
the King's peace and placed himself and his land at the
King's will and favour, on the very first day, he was de-
prived of one half of all his land which he then held, namely
of the commot of Maywenet, which is considered to be
worth two other commots. And since the said Griffith is
unable to live on the other half of his land he prays the
King's majesty that some compensation may be made to
him wherefrom he may derive support, lest it should
seem to be the case, when favour was being shewn to
all, that he, who took the greatest pains to assist the
King's expedition at his own private cost, as he is bold to
assert before the King's bailiffs, and who was the person
of most power in the land of Cardigan when the war
broke out, should be, as it were, left destitute of all good.*



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