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Wales." This statement has been usually accepted ; but
it is highly improbable that Tudor the son of Eineon
should have been the father of Res ap Tudor Mawr.
Giraldus, as I think, more correctly, informs us that
Eineon had three sons Edwyn, Tudor, and Cadell; of
whom Cadell was the father of Tudor the father of the cele-
brated Res-ap-Tudor Mawr. 1 Tudor the son of Eineon
was slain at the battle of Llangwni in 993. 2

Eineon ap Owen ap Howel Dha was succeeded in the
command of his father's forces by his half brother Mere-
dith, the son of Owen by his second wife Angharad the
daughter and heiress of Llewelyn ap Mervyn, who
should have been Prince of Powis. Owen ap Howel
Dha died in 987, 3 having had four sons, Eineon who
died in his father's lifetime, Cadwallon who died in 96 1, 4
Meredith, and Llywarch who had his eyes put out by
Godfrey son of Harold in 986. 5

Upon the death of Owen, his son Meredith, who had
previously slain Cadwallon ap Jevaf the reigning Prince
of North Wales and assumed the government of North
Wales and Powis, possessed himself also of the kingdom
of South Wales to the exclusion of the sons of Eineon his
elder brother.

South Wates was, about this time, again attacked by
the Danes who committed dreadful ravages, and Meredith
had hardly freed himself from these foreign enemies
before he was called upon to defend himself against his
nephew Edwyn ap Eineon, who had raised an army to
support his claim to the throne. Edwyn, having obtained
succour from the Saxons and Danes, laid waste the

1 Leland's collectanea Vol. III. p. 74 ; Ex libro Giraldi Cambrensis de descriptions
Cambriae ad Ilugonem Episcopum Lincolniensem. 2 and 3 Brut-y-Tywysogion.
4 Gwentian Chronicle. 5 Powel' 8 Hist, of "Wales.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.



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10 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

territories of Meredith, namely Cardigan, Dyvet, Menevia,
Lower Gower, and Kidwelly ; but a reconciliation was
effected between the uncle and nephew which put an end
to hostilities ; and their friendship was cemented in the
following year, 992, by the death of Cadwallon the only
son of Meredith, which opened to Edwyn the prospect of
his future succession.

Edwal ap Meyric the rightful heir of North Wales re-
covered his kingdom from Meredith ap Owen in 993 . " And
in the same year Meredyth gathered togither all his power,
intending to recover againe North Wales, with whom
Edwal met at Lhangwm, [in Denbighshire] and overthrew
him in plaine battell," where Tudor, son of Eineon ap
Owen, Meredith's nephew was slain. 1

Edwyn the eldest son of Eineon ap Owen also fell soon
after at the battle of Clunog, in the same county, where
his monument is still to be seen, bearing the inscription
"Edwini occisio," the slaughter of Edwyn. 2 Edwyn
left two sons Howel and Meredith, who long strove
for the recovery of their kingdom, but only obtained
possession for a few years. Meredith was slain in
1033 and his brother Howel in 1042-3. 3 Their uncle
Meredith ap Owen died in 998, leaving an only
daughter Angharad, who married first Llewelyn ap Seisylt
by whom she had a son Griffith ap Llewelyn ; and
secondly Convyn ap Gwerystan, by whom she was
mother of Blethin and Rhiwallon who eventually suc-
ceeded to their mother's dominion of Powis. In the
meantime the government of South Wales was assumed
by Aeddan ap Blegored upon the death of Meredith ap
Owen ; and from this time forward the history of the
country is one continued record of civil warfare and blood-
shed, until the rightful succession was at length restored
in the person of Res ap Tudor Mawr in the year 1077.

The intermediate period is remarkable for the conquest
of England by William of Normandy, and, as a natural
consequence, the commencement of that series of spolia-
tion and encroachment upon the Marches of Wales by his
Norman followers which in a few years made them mas-
ters of its most valuable possessions. During the 79 years

i Vowel's Hist. ; Gwentian Chronicle. 2 Jones' Hist, of Wales, p, 56. 3 Brut-y-
fywygogion.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES, li

which intervened from the death of Meredith ap Owen
to the accession of Res ap Tudor Mawr, South Wales was
successively governed by Aeddan ap Blegored, Llewelyn
ap Seisylt, Rytherch ap Jestyn, Howel and Meredith
the sons of Edwyn ap Eineon ap Owen, Griffith ap
Llewelyn ap Seisylt, 1 Meredith ap Owen ap Edwyn,
Blethin ap Convyn, Caradoc ap Griffith ap Rytherch,
then jointly by Res ap Owen ap Edwyn and Rytherch
ap Caradoc until Res ap Owen, the survivor of them, was
overthrown by Trahaern ap Caradoc, in 1077; after
which Res ap Tudor was acknowledged Prince of South
Wales.

The brave Res is said, by Powel and others who have
followed him, to have been the son of Tudor ap Eineon
ap Owen ap Howel Dha, which Tudor fell at the battle
of Llangwm in 993. But this is scarcely reconcileable
with dates as it would suppose Res to have been nearer
90 than 80 at the time of his accession. It is far more
probable that he should have been (as stated by Giraldus)
the son of Tudor, son of Cadcll, son Of Eineon ap Owen ap
Howel Dha. 2 All however agree in deducing his descent
from Eineon ap Owen ap Howel Dha, and making him
the rightful heir to the principality of South Wales.

" In the year 1077," says Powel, " Rees the sonne of
Theodor as right inheritour to the kingdome of South
Wales claimed the same, and the people received him
with much joie, and made him their Prince." " In him,"
says Yorke, "the legal succession was restored: he was
moreover the choice of the people." 3 According to
Vaughan of Hengwrt the immediate territories of this
Prince, who is known as the founder of the 2nd Royal
Tribe of Wales, consisted only of the present counties of
Cardigan and Caermarthen : as Pembroke, Brecknock,
Gwent, and Glewising (or Herefordshire) were governed
by their several reguli. There can be but little doubt,
however, that all these acknowledged the sovereign
authority of the superior Prince of South Wales. 4

Res had scarcely secured himself on his throne before

1 Oct. 24, 1055, is the date of a battle two miles from Hereford, wherein Griffin,
King of Wales, defeated the English commanded hyAlgarEarl of Mercia, and Rodolpk
(sometimes called Earl of Hereford), nephew of King Edward the Confessor. (Ex. inf.
Rev. R. Eyton.) 2 Leland's Collectanea III, p. 74. 3 Royal Tribes of Wa4,
* Warrington's Wales.



12 PRINCES O'F SOUTH WALES.

he was called to the assistance of another Prince, who,
like himself, had been kept from his lawful inheritance.
Griffith ap Cynan, called the Founder of the 1st Royal
Tribe of Wales, was the son of Cynan ap lago, ap
Meyric, ap Edwal Foel, ap Aiiarawd, the eldest son of
Eoderic the Great, and rightful heir to the throne of
Gwyneth. In the year 1080 he landed in Pembrokeshire,
with an army of Irish Scots, and being joined by Res ap
Tudor, he marched against Trahaern the ruling Prince of
North Wales, and engaged him on the hills of Carnau,
in Cardiganshire. In this battle Trahaern was slain ;
and the fortunes of that field established Res and Griffith
upon their respective thrones.

It was in this same year (according to the Welsh
Chronicle, but more correctly in 1081) that William the
Conqueror came into Wales with a great army. The
Welsh were unprepared for resistance ; and, as he met
with no opposition, he retired from the country, after
receiving the homage of the native Princes, and making
an offering at the shrine of St. David. 1 King William I.



1 AVe gather something of the state of the Welsh Border in the year 1085 from the
following notes supplied by Domesday. The county of Monmouth is not sxirveyed :
but under Gloucestershire we have a detailed notice of the Castie and Chatellany of
" Estrighoiel." The Castle had been built (between 1066 and 1070) by Earl William
fitz Osbern, whose son Roger, Earl of Hereford, had lost Strigoil and everything, by
his treason in 1074. The chief Norman occupants of Strigoil and other Monmouthshire
territory were, in 1085, (1) the King himself, as having the Fief of Earl Roger by
Escheat. (2) Durandus Sheriff of Gloucestershire. (3) Geoffrey de Moubray, Bishop
of Coutances. (4) Roger de Berkeley. (5) William de Eu. (6) Roger de Lacy. (7)
Turstin fitz Rou ; and (8) Alurcd of Spain. Domesday records of four vills which had
been in charge of one or other of K. William's Pr<epositi, that they were destroyed
(VastatcK) by King Caraduech. Among the King's Theyns of Gloucestershire only one
of Welsh origin appears. Madoch tenet de Rege Rtideford (In Botelau Hundred).
Ipse tenuit. T.R.E.

The Herefordshire Domesday shows the Conqueror on better terms with his Welsh
neighbours. The Province of Arcenefelde was tenanted by Welsh and English indis-
criminately. Each population was governed by its own national laws and customs ;
but the Executive in both was with the King's officers. The Priestsof the Arcc-nefelde
churches were by prescription the King's Ambassadors for Wales ; when the King
invaded Wales proper, they formed the Vanguard of his host ; when he retreated, they
formed the Rear-guard. For some great Section of this Province of Arcenefelde, Riset
de Wales, as he is called, paid King Willinm an annual tribute of 40. But a more
remarkable feature of the Herefordshire Domesday is that Grifin Son of Mariadoc is
registered as a tenant in capite, with a Fief of seven Herefordshire manors, all of which
had been held under Edward the Confessor by Saxons rather than by Welshmen.
What is said of two of these manors was doubtless true of all, viz. that Earl William
gave them to King Mariadoc ; that is, William fitz Osbern, in his palatinate power,
and between the years 1066 and 1070, had thus enfeoffed a native King of Wales.
And it seems that King William, when in 1074 Fitz Osbern's Earldom reverted to
the crown, had respected the act of his greatest Lieutenant, nay, he had exempted
King Mariadoc' s Herefordshire Fief from the payment of Danegeld, and had conceded
the same immunity to Mariadoe's Son, Grifin, " Rex. W. Condonavit geldum Regi
Mariadoc et posteei jilio ejus." (Ex. inf. Rev. R. Eyton.)

It is difficult to identify these Welsh Magnates whose names occur in the Domesday



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 13

died in Normandy, on Sept. 9, 1087; and was succeeded
by his son William. Riifus. "On the death of the Con-
queror, the spirit and genius of the Welsh nation revived,
and with it revived also the variety of evils which are
incidental to intestine divisions." 1

In 1087, after the death of King William the Conqueror,
the sons of Blethiii ap Convyn, who had formerly ruled
over all Wales, gathered their forces together against Res
ap Tudor; and Res, being unable to cope with them,
escaped to Ireland, from whence he obtained assistance
and returned to South Wales with an army of Irish Scots :
"which when his freends hard of, they drew to him, and
the other came in hast, thinking to fight with him before
his power should increase, and at Lechrhyd they gave him
battell." 2 In this engagement the usurpers were defeated ;
two of the sons of Blethin were slain, and the other " fled
and forsooke the countrie." 3 As soon as Res was in quiet
possession of this kingdom, he sent home his auxiliaries
with great rewards. But the turbulent spirit of his
vassals allowed him only a short interval of repose. A
circumstance shortly occurred which produced a most im-
portant and decisive change in the affairs of South Wales,
and tended in no small degree to bring about the final
overthrow of Cambrian liberty. Eineon and Llewelyn,
the sons of Cedivor, Lord of Dyvet, and their uncle
Eineon ap Collwyn, brother to Cedivor, chiefs of some
eminence in South Wales, rose in rebellion against Res
ap Tudor, and prevailed 011 Griffith ap Meredith, another
southern chieftain, to join their revolt. The rebels were
quickly defeated ; Llewelyn and Eineon, the sons of
Cedivor were slain, Griffith ap Meredith w r as taken and
beheaded as a traitor, and Eineon ap Collwyn fled to
Jestyn ap Gwrgan, Prince of Morgan wg (or Glamorgan).
This magnate, whose proud spirit could not submit to a
feudal superior, was also in arms against the Prince of

Record. King Caraduech was probably Caradoc, son of Griffith ap Rhydderch ap
Jestyn, who-e territory was Ystnulyw, invent Uchcoed, and Gwynllwg (Liber Landa-
vensis, p. 550). Kisct de Wales may have been Res ap Tudor Mawr; and Grifin son
of King Mariadoc may, perhaps, have been the same with Griffith ap Meredith who
joined Eineon ap Collwyn, in his rebellion against Prince Res np Tudor, by whom he
was taken and beheaded after the death of William the Conqueror.

l Warringfon's Wales. 2 Towel's Hist, of Wales. The village of Llechrhyd is
situated on the banks of the Teify, about three miles from Cardigan, where Res would
have probably landed on his return from Ireland. 3 Towel's Hist.



14 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES,

South Wales ; and Eineon, who had served with the
Normans under William the Conqueror, engaged, upon
certain conditions agreed upon between them, to bring
an English army to their assistance. By this agreement
it was stipulated, on the part of Jestyn, that Eineon
should receive the daughter of Jestyn in marriage, with
the lordship of Meisgyn for her dower. Eineon prevailed
upon Kobert fitz Hamon and other Norman knights to
come to their aid, and with these reinforcements they
invaded the territories of Res, burned and spoiled his
land, and destroyed his people. The aged Prince of
South Wales marched in person against the rebels, and
meeting them upon the black mountain near Brecknock,
engaged them, with an army far less in number than that
of his adversaries, and w T as defeated. 1 In this battle,
which was bravely contested by the Welsh, the old and
gallant Res is said by some to have fallen. But it is
more probable, as asserted by others, that he survived
this defeat to perish a few months later while assisting
his brother-in-law Blethin ap Maenarch, Lord of Breck-
nock, against Bernard Newmarch, and a fresh horde of
Norman adventurers. The date of this last battle has
been attributed to the year 1093. Mr. Jones, the his-
torian of Brecknock, indeed, conjectures that it happened
a few years earlier, and asserts that there are grants by
Bernard Newmarch in Brecknockshire, as early as 1088; 2
but Florence of Worcester, a contemporary writer who
appears to have been well acquainted with the affairs of
Wales, places the death of Res in 1093, and says that he
was slain in battle near the castle of Brecknock, "in ipsa
hebdomada Paschali." 3 We can hardly doubt such res-
pectable authority; but it is by no means improbable
that Bernard Newmarch may have obtained some footing
in the land of Brecknock before this decisive battle was
fought.

With Res, says Powel, " fell and decaied the kingdome
of South Wales." The same author informs us that he
had, by his wife [Gladys], the daughter and heiress of
Rhiwalhon ap Convyn, "a sonne called Gruffyth, who at
his father's death was but a verie child, and one Grono

l Warrington's Hist, of "Wales. 2 Jones' Hist, of Brecknock, Vol. I. p. 88.
Florence of Worcester, Vol. II, p. 31.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 15

that was in the king's prison." From the Brut, however,
I should infer that Grono was taken prisoner about the
year 1102, and probably died soon afterwards in
captivity. 1 Another son, Howel, is afterwards mentioned
by the chronicler as the companion of his brother Griffith
ap Res in his struggles to regain his father's kingdom. 2
There was also a daughter Nest, who was married first
to Gerald de Windsor, constable of Pembroke (to whom
she is said to have brought Carew Castle with seven
manors in Dyvet, or West Wales, as her dower); and
secondly to Stephen, Constable of Cardigan. 3

The heralds give, as the issue of Res ap Tudor and his
wife Gladys one son, Griffith ap Res, and four daughters,
Gwenllian, Nest, Eva, and Arddyn. 4



1 Brut-y-Tywysopon, compared with general history. 2 Powel's Hist, of Wales,
S Lord Lyttelton's Hist, of Henry II, Vol. II, p. 165. The Marquis of Kildare
makes Stephen Constable of Cardigan to have been the first husband, and Gerald de
Windsor the second. (Earl* of Kildare and their ancestors, p. 3.) But Lord Lyttelton's
statement is borne out by Giraldus Canibrensis (Conquest of Ireland, chap. 13), who
writes concerning the arrival in Ireland of Redmond le Grosse, that " he "was nephew to
Robert fitz Stephen, and to Maurice fitz Gerald, being the son unto their elder brother
William," (i.e. William ,/frz Gerald, who assumed the surname of de Carrio, eldest son
of Gerald de Windsor, and ancestor of the family of Carew of Haccombe). It
has been asserted by some that Xest or Nesta the daughter of Res ap Tudor, who was
a woman of great beauty, was mistress of King Henry I, and mother of his eminent son
Robert de Caen, Earl of Gloucester, but this is very questionable. As Robert de Caen
obtained, through his wife, the lands of Robert fitz Hamon and his Welsh acquisitions
the Welsh wished to create for him a Welsh pedigree. Thus they have also found a
Welsh wife (Gladys daughter of Rhiwallon) for Gerald de Windsor's father, i.e. for
Walter fitz Otho. But the only proved wife of "Walter, and the mother of his eldest
son William, was Beatrice by name. (Hist. Abingdon.) 4 Heraldic Visitations of
"Wales, by Lewys Dwun, Ed. by Bir Samuel Meyrick, Vol. II, p. 99.



16 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.



CHAPTER II.

The death of Res was a sore disaster to his country,
which never afterwards recovered the position it had held
under his rule. The Norman adventurers who had
assisted Jestyn ap Gwrgan received their pay and returned
to their ships ; but South Wales was not destined to be
quit of them so easily. Eineon ap Collwyn went to
Jestyn to claim his daughter in marriage, and the portion
he had promised to give with her ; but Jestyn refused,
and laughed at Eineon, saying that he would do better
with his daughter than bestow her on a traitor to his
country and his lord. At this Eineon was greatly
enraged, and burning with resentment he went after
Robert fitz Hamon and his company, and related to them
the insult he had received, and likewise represented
to them the great dislike of the principal men of that
country to Jestyn, the fertility of the country, and the
ease with which it might be wrested from Jestyn, who,
on account of his treachery and deceit, would meet with
no assistance from any of the Welsh Princes. The Nor-
mans joyfully listened to Eineon, and willingly followed
his advice. Emeon. then gathered together such of the
nobles as were disaffected to Jestyn, with whom he joined
the Normans, and taking him unprepared, they soon
dispossessed him of his territory of Glamorgan, which
fitz Hamon divided amongst his followers, reserving all the
rich and fertile parts for the Normans, and leaving the
rough and barren mountains to the share of Eineon. 1

This invasion was speedily followed by others of a
similar nature. Brecknock, as we have seen, had already
fallen a prey to another set of Norman adventurers under
Bernard Newmarch who subdued the country and held
it as a lordship marcher under the King of England.
And these brilliant conquests induced several Norman

l Gwentian Chronicle. It is said that Eineon received from the conqueror the hand
f Jestyn'* daughter and with her the lordship of Meisgyn.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 17

warriors to apply to the King for a licence to possess such
lands as they might win for themselves in Wales. Thus
Martin de Turribus effected a landing at Fishguard, then
called Abergwayn, in Dyvet or West Wales. Here he
settled with his followers, and, partly by conquest, partly
by the consent of the inhabitants, carved Ins Barony of
Kemaes out of the Northern portion of Dyvet (or Pembroke-
shire), where he assumed the powers of a lord Marcher. 1
Cardigan and the remaining portion of Dyvet were also
disposed of by anticipation, and respectively granted to
Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, and his son
Arnulph, with leave to conquer them for themselves.
Nor did they long remain inactive, for we find them
speedily gaining a footing within the coveted possessions,
where they built, among others, the castles of Cardigan
and Pembroke.

These early successes on the part of the Normans,
however, were followed by temporary reverses. The
Welshmen of the South, who, for want of a leader, had
hitherto failed to make head against the invaders, being
stung to the quick by the galling yoke which they were
made to bear, now laid aside their differences. In the
year 1094, under the leadership of Cadogan ap Blethin
ap ('onwn, Prmce of Powis, they rose in arms against
their foreign masters, and drove them from their newly
acquired possessions in Cardigan and Dyvet, where they
destroyed all their castles but those of Pembroke and
liliyd-y-Gors, and returned home with great spoils.
William was at this time in Normandy, whither he
had gone to oppose his brother Robert. The Kong's
absence and the simultaneous disaffection of his English
barons encouraged the Welshmen to extend their vic-
torious arms to other quarters ; and, not content with
ravaging the territories acquired by the Normans in North

1 Fenton's Pembrokeshire, p. 521. This able writer says that the death of 'Rhys ap
Twdwr nnd the feebleness of the government during the minority of his son had thrown
such a damp over the Welsh as to render the conquest of this and the surrounding
country easy for a time ; but as soon as the young Prince [Griffith] was in a position to
vindicate his rights and appear in arms the nominal conqueror of Cemaes could scarce
call his newly acquired possessions his own for the whole of Grufydd ap Rhys' reign,
and part of his son's, till by the marriage of William Martin with the daughter of the
Lord Rhys [Grandson of Res ap Tudor], out of respect to that alliance, and influenced
by a mutual convention then entered into with reciprocal advantages, the people of
t - began to be reconciled to their new masters, now acknowledged by the title and

with the full power of Lords Marchers.

D



18 PKINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

Wales, they penetrated the border counties of Chester,
Salop, and Hereford, where they put the inhabitants to
fire and sword. 1 The Normans in South Wales on their
part laid waste the districts of Gower, Kidwelly, and the
vale of Towy, which ' ' remained a desert." 2 This was the
state of affairs when King William returned from Nor-
mandy on December 29, 1094 (iv. Kal. Januarii), and we
find him speedily raising an army to chastise the Welsh-
men. But they, retiring to their mountain fastnesses,
were enabled to hold their enemies at defiance; and
William, unable to meet with them except in the
straights of the mountains, or in the passage of rivers,
where they attacked him at a disadvantage and killed
many of his men, returned home before Easter with
ignominy. At the latter end of the same year, 1095, after
Michaelmas, he made another inglorious campaign against
the Welsh ; who, planning their defence in the same man-
ner, cut off his provisions and harassed his army so
continually, that, after passing through their country as
far as Snowdon without having an opportunity of a pitched
battle, he was obliged to retire with no better success
than before. 3 A similar fate attended a subsequent expe-
dition into Wales with a royal army in 1097. But that
which he failed to accomplish by a direct invasion
he effected more safely through the repeated and perse-
vering aggressions of the Lords Marchers, to whom he
held out every inducement to harass and destroy the
hated Welshmen.

In the meantime the natives of Brecknock, Gwent, and
Gwentlwg, encouraged by the example of their fellow-



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