Copyright
George Thomas Orlando Bridgeman.

History of the princes of South Wales online

. (page 20 of 31)
Online LibraryGeorge Thomas Orlando BridgemanHistory of the princes of South Wales → online text (page 20 of 31)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


in all these wars and contributed more than any one else
to the final subjugation of his country he expected to
receive all the confiscated estates of his kinsmen, but when
the war was concluded, he received little but fair promises,
while the larger portion of the forfeited lands of the
Welshmen were bestowed upon Englishmen. Thus dis-
appointed of his expectations his fidelity cooled, and he
was ready to take advantage of the growing discontent
among his countrymen, who were greatly dissatisfied
with the new system of laws which had been imposed
upon them.

At this juncture, in the year 1287, he was cited, with
the rest of his countrymen, to appear in the county
courts, by Robert de Tibetot, the King's Justiciary of
Caermarthen, and Alan de Plugenet the King's Steward
in Wales. Incensed with this summons he refused to
attend, alleging, for an excuse, the King's promises and
his own ancient liberties and privileges ; but the King's
officers proceeded against him according to the law;
whereupon a great variance arose between Robert de
Tibetot and Res ap Meredith " so that sundrie skirmishes
were foughten betwixt them and men slaine on both sides,
to the great disturbance of the countrie." 2

On May 20, 1287, Ralph de Hengham and others were
appointed to enquire into the transgressions made by
Res ap Meredith in the county of Carmarthen ; 3 and the
King, who was at this time absent from the realm," being
informed of the quarrels which had arisen in Wales
between his ministers and Sir Res ap Meredith, wrote to
the latter commanding him to keep the peace and

1 Clark's Earls of Pembroke. 2 Powel and Warrington. Powel says that the
quarrel arose between Payne Tiftoft (or Tibetot) and Res ap Meredith. Payne was the
son and successor of Robert. 3 Rot. Wall. 15 Edw. I, m. 10. (Ayloffe's Calendar).



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 193

promising that, on his return, the evils he complained
of should be redressed and that all reasonable justice
should be done to him. 1 But Res, having already waited
sufficiently upon the King's promises and being now in a
favourable condition to take the offensive, seized the
castles of Llandovery, Dynevor, and Garregcennen on
(or about) the Sunday next before the Feast of St.
Barnabas (June 8, 1287) ; and afterwards (on the 27th of
the same month) he wasted by fire the vill of Sweynese
(Swansea) and the manor of Osterlof with the greater part
of the country, as also the vill of Llanpadarn Vawr and
the vill of Caermarthen up to the gates of the town. 2

Orders from the court at Westminster with respect to
the Welsh Prince now followed fast and thick. On June
15 Roger 1'Estrange was ordered to proceed into Wales
to repress the rebellion of Res ap Meredith.* On July 2
directions were given to receive to the King's peace the
Welshmen who had joined the insurrection ; 4 and orders
were issued, on the same day, to the King's officers in
those parts, to take into the King's hands the lands and
tenements of Res ap Meredith the King's rebel. 5 On
July 5 a reward of a hundred pounds was put upon his
head. 6 On July 16 fresh directions were given to receive
to the King's peace the Welshmen of Stradenwy
(Ystradtywi) who had joined the insurrection ; 7 and to
take into the King's hands the lands and tenements which
were occupied by Res ap Meredith to whomsoever they
might belong. 8

.The rebellion 9 had now reached such a height as to

1 Towel's Hist. 2 Annales Cambria, compared with a contemporary (Glamorgan-
shire) Chronicle annexed to the MS. Exchequer Domesday at the Public Record office
(Arch. Camb. 3rd series viii. 281) and Annales Wigorniae, in which last (tub anno 1287)
it is recorded as follows, " Quinto idus Junii Res ab Meraduc, non ferens injurias a
ministris regis sibi et aliis illatas, tria castra prostravit et constabularies cum omnibus
aliis interfecit ;" and in' the Glamorganshire Chronicle it is thus recorded,
" ao mcclxxxvijo Resus films Mereduti cepit castrum de Dinevor in festo Viti et Modesti
(June 15), et noc anno iii idus Junii villam de Sweynese combussit et praedavit, et v
kalendas Julii (June 27) castrum de Ostremew cepit et incendit." 8 * * Rot. Wall. 16
Edw. I, m. 10 (Ayloffe's Calendar). 6-6 Rot. Wall. 15 Edw. I, m. 10 (Avloffe s
Calendar). 9 The account of this Welsh insurrection is thus given in the Metrical
Chronicle of Peter de Langtoft (Record Edition, p. 185, tub annis 1286-9).

" Rees Amyraduk, I don't know what ailed him,

Began to slay the King's people in Wales

Nevertheless the cry arose at first

That the Tybetoft aggrieved him with wrong.

The King received the complaint, and sent notice to Rees,

That ho remain in penro. ami when he returns,

1 \



194 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

make it necessary for the Earl of Cornwall to come in
person into Wales ; and with the intention of attacking
the enemy in several quarters at the same time he sum-
moned the military tenants of the crown to meet at
Gloucester, Llanbadarn Vawr, and Monmouth, prepared
to march under his own command or that of the Earl of
Gloucester.

On July 23 orders were sent from Hereford to the men
of the county of Chester to march towards West Wales



The King in good faith would listen to his complaints,

And would do him justice in every thing.

Eees Amyraduk, like a fool, set at nought

The King's injunction ; what evil he could

He did through the land, he spared nobody ;

He caused to be slain every one he could overcome

Who avowed himself for Sir Edward.



Rees Ameraduk going skulking about, A 1290

In Wales this same year was taken through a spy.

When the King heard tell of it, he orders that they bind him,

And carry him to York to the justices,

Where first he was drawn for his felony,

And then hanged as a thief ; henceforward there is none alive

Who carries the inheritance of his succession."

In Robert of Brunne's version of the Langtoft Chronicle it is thus given ;
" To while Sir Edward gos to Qascoyn forto apese,
Wales to werre up ros, thorgh conseUe of a Rese.
On Reseamiraduk, of Wales a lordyng,
Our Inglis did rebuk, and werred on our kyng.
I kan not telle yow whi that werre was reised olofte,
Men said the -wrath and cri com thorgh the lorde Tiptofte.
The kyng herd that pleynt, unto the Rese he sent
A letter enselid fulle quaynt, for the pes it ment.
He praied to hold him stille, tille his tocome mot be,
And he suld do his wille, in all that skille mot se.
His pleyntes he wild here in skille at lordes sight,
And if he baron were, he suld haf fulle gode right.
This Rese amiraduk, als fole and unwise,
His letter gan rebuk, sette it at light prise.
The skathe that he myght do with slaugter or prison hard,
All he brouht tham to, that longed tille Edward.
A thousand and two hundred the date forscore and nine,
On our men thei wondred, in Wales did tham pyne.
Whan Edward had been in Gascoyn thre yere,
Ageyn he and the quene on lond ryved up here.
At his comying he fond of clerkes and men of pleynt,
And justice of the lond of falsnes was atteynt.

The Rese Ameridie was taken that ilk yere,

In Wales thorgh a spie, for all his powere.

Whan the kyng herd it seie, to York he did him lede,

Schames dede to deie, als traytour for his dede. .

First was he drawen for his felonie,

And as a thefe than slawen, on galwes hanged hie.

Now is non of age of his ancestrie

May haf his heritage, to whom it salle alie."



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 195

for the suppression of the rebellion ;* and authority was
given to Gilbert de Clare (Earl of Gloucester) to receive
to the King's peace the Welshmen of West Wales. 2 On
the same day a safe conduct was granted to Thomas
Brun, a London poulterer, to carry victuals into West
Wales for the use of the King's army. 3

By virtue of a commission, bearing date at the same
time and place, the Earl of Gloucester was appointed
general of the King's forces for the suppression of the
rebellion. 4 But Gloucester, being nearly related to Res
ap Meredith, seems to have secretly favoured his cause
and taken no active measures against him.

The Earl of Cornwall now took the command himself,
and having entered Wales with a great army, he drove
Sir Res to his fastnesses, and about the 1st of August 5
laid siege to his castle of Drosslwyn, which soon fell into
his hands. The English suffered great loss on this occa-
sion by the falling in of the walls which they were under-
mining, whereby the lord William de Munchensy and
many other knights and esquires were bruised to death. 6
The New castle on the Teyvi (or Newcastle Emlyn),
which had been built by his father Meredith ap Res, was
shortly afterwards taken, and those castles recovered by
the English which had previously been occupied by Res,
while Res himself escaped with only a few of his
followers. 7

On September 24 the custody of the castle of Drosselan,
together with the comniots of Cathenon, Mathlayen,
Cayow, Mabel with, Mabederith, and Maynerdoylowe,
and all their appurtenances, was committed to Alan
Plogenet to hold during the King's pleasure. 8

Little, however, was accomplished by this expedition
into Wales owing to the inactivity of the Earl of Glou-
cester, so that Cornwall, being unable to complete his
conquest, was obliged to retire for the winter and grant
a truce to Sir Res ap Meredith. 9

No sooner had the Regent reached Westminster than
the faithless chieftain renewed hostilities, and on Sunday,
the morrow of All Saints (i.e. Nov. 2), he recovered by a

i, 2,&3 Hot. Wall. 15 Edw. I. m. 10 (Ajrloffe's calendar). 4 Ibid m. 9. 6 Circa
gulam 4ttffusti (Annales Cambria). 6 NIC. Triveti Annales, Annales Cambrian,
Annales de Waverleia, &c. 1 Annales Cambriae. 8 Abbreviatio Hot. orijj. 15 Edw. I.
9 Warrington's Hist.



196 PEINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

night assault his castle which is called New castle and
took prisoner Eoger de Mortimer to whose custody the
castle had been committed. 1

Fresh measures were immediately taken to put down
the insurrection. On November 14 letters were sent to
Edmund de Mortimer, Roger de Mortimer, Peter Corbet,
Roger 1'Estrange, Fulk Fitzwarin, John 1'Estrange,
Geffrey de Camvill, William Martyn, Guy de Briene,
Owen de la Pole, and others of the King's faithful
subjects in those parts, which, after reciting the evils
committed by Res ap Meredith and his re-occupation of
the King's castle of Emelyn, commanded them to
remain in their manors and lands adjacent to West
Wales during the winter. 2 At the same time Gilbert de
Clare was ordered to go in person to the castles adjacent
to West Wales for the purpose of crushing the rebellion. 3
And on November 28 orders were given to fortify the
King's castles in Wales for the more effectual repression
of the depredations of Res and his followers. 4

On December 5 orders were issued, from Westminster,
to receive to the King's favour and peace the Welshmen
of Cantrev Bychan ; and Humfrey de Bohun Earl of
Hereford and Essex (to whose custody the commot of
Pertieth and the lands of Iskenny and Hyrwryn had
been committed on the 5th of the previous month) and
Edmund de Mortimer were appointed captains and cas-
tellans of Stretdenwy (Istradtywi) and Cardiganshire. 5

The New castle was retaken by Robert de Tibetot
about the feast of the Purification (February 2, 1288),
when many of the garrison were put to death. 6 And
orders were issued, from Westminster, on February 8, to
guard securely the hostages, whose names were sent in
a certain schedule to Alan Plogenet the constable of
Droslan castle. 7 At the same time William de Breus
(Braose) was commanded not to receive the rebel Res ap
Meredith or his accomplices into his territories of Gower,
Kedewelly, or Karwathlan ; 8 and strict guard was

l Annales Cambrise. 2 Eym. Feed. 3 Rot. Wall. 15 Edw. I, m. 8. dorso. (Ayloffe's
Calendar ; it is here however ascribed, erroneously as I believe, to the year 14 Edw. I).
4 Rot. Wall. (Ayloffe's Calendar). 5 Rot. Wall. 16 Edw. I, m. 8. (Ayloffe's Calendar).
6 Annales Cambriaa. 7 & 8 Rot. Wall. Schedula explicit (Ayloffe's Calendar, where
these transactions aro attributed to 17 Edw. I, but I have little doubt that they should
be ascribed to the year 16 Edw. I).



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 197

ordered to be kept along the sea coast of the bailiwick
of William de Grandison, then lieutenant of the Justiciary,
to .prevent his escape, into Ireland. 1

Res now found his own country too hot for him, but he
found refuge in the territory of the Earl of Gloucester, by
whose assistance he was enabled to escape into Ireland. 2

In the following June, at an inquisition taken at Car-
marthen on the Monday next before the Feast of St.
Barnabas, 1288, (which has already been quoted) the jury
virtually found that Res ap Meredith had held the
comniots of Osterlof and Emlyn by no valid title. 3 We
have seen that his other possessions had been granted,
in 1286-7, to Alan Plugenet to hold during the King's
pleasure. On July 13, 1290, the towns, castles, and all
the lands of Res ap Meredith, the King's rebel in Wales,
which were then in the King's custody by reason of
his forfeiture, were granted to Robert de Tibetot, to
hold until the Feast of Easter next ensuing and for four
years after, so that he should receive the profits thereof in
discharge of certain debts which w r ere owed to him by the
King, on condition that he should cause the said castles
and lands to be safely guarded. 4

Res having remained for a year or two in Ireland,
suddenly reappeared in South Wales about the year 1290,
and having raised a new insurrection he was opposed by
Robert de Tibetot, the King's justiciary, with such troops
as he could hastily collect for the purpose. A pitched
battle ensued in which the English were victorious.
Four thousand Welshmen were slain and Res ap Mere-
dith was taken prisoner. He was tried at York soon
after Michaelmas,' 129 1, 6 and there cruelly executed
being first drawn at the tails of horses and afterwards
hanged and quartered.

l Rot. "Wall. Schedula explicit (Ayloffe's Calendar; see previous note).
2 Warrington's Hist. 3 Inq. 16 Edw. I, No. 77 (in printed calendar 17 Edw. I,
No. 45) ; See page 187. * Rot. Wall. 18 Edw. I, but having reference to the
previous year, 17 Edw. I. (Rym. Fsed.) 5 There is some discrepancy between the
historians as to the date of the capture and death of Res ap Meredith. The writers of
the Dunstaple and Worcester Annals place it in 1292, and the Chronicle annexed to the
Exchequer Domesday gives the actual day on which he was taken prisoner, namely
iiij nonas Aprilis (April 2), 1292. But Nicholas Trivet and Will. Rishanger agree in
saying that the trial of Res took place at York when the King was there for a short tima
on his journey back to Scotland, after attending the funeral of the Queen Mother at
Ambresbury. Now the Queen Mother was buried at Ambresbury in September, 1291,
(Annales de Osneia ; Saudford's Genealogical History) ; and the King started again for
Scotland after Michaelmas in that year.



198 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

Thus ended the career of Sir Ees ap Meredith ap Res
Grig.

It does not appear that he had any children by his wife
Auda de Hastings. He must have been between 40 and
50 years of age at the time of his marriage with her, and
I suppose that she was dead in 2 Edw. II (1308-9), when
John de Hastings (her brother) had license to enfeoff
other parties in Amgoyte manor, Pulinoke manor, and
the lands of St. Clare ;* which estates had been previously
settled upon Auda and her children by Sir Res ap Mere-
dith, with reversion to John de Hastings and his heirs.

Some of his other lands were afterwards claimed by
John de Hastings (the nephew of Auda), but the right of
De Hastings to these will have been derived from his grand-
mother Joan, co-heiress of the Earls of Pembroke, as an
escheat to the chief Lord. On the petition of the said
John de Hastings the King's writ to enquire into his rights
was issued, under the great seal, to Roger de Mortimer, of
Chirk, Justiciar of Wales, on Dec. 4, 1318. The answer
was returned to the King, on May 6, 1319, in the Par-
liament opened at York on Easter Day in the 12th year of
King Edward II, by the said Justiciar, who certified that
"a certain Gilbert Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke, gave
the commot of Emelyn super Cuth, with the appurte-
nances, to a certain Meredith ap Res Creek, for his homage
and service, to hold to himself and his heirs lawfully
begotten, of the said Earl and his heirs ; which Meredith
afterwards built the New Castle of Emelyn-super-Cuth.
And afterwards the said Gilbert died without issue, and
all his lands and tenements descended to his five sisters ;
of whom one, named Eva, married William de Breousa,
by whom she had three daughters, of whom one, named
Eva, married William de Canteleu (Cantilupe) to whom
fell the land and castle of Kilgarran and the homage and
service of the said Meredith ap Res Creek for the afore-
said land of Emelyn-super-Cuth. By this Eva the said
William de Canteleu had a son George de Canteleu and
Joan his sister, which George died without issue and the
right and inheritance descended to the said Joan, the
mother of John de Hastings, father of the present John
de Hastings. And afterwards Res ap Meredith, son of

1 Cal. Inq. a. q. d. 2 Edw. II, No. 79.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 199

the aforesaid Meredith ap Res Creek succeeded his father
and held the aforesaid castle and land of Emelyn-super-
Cuth of the aforesaid John Hastings Lord of Kilgarran,
son of the aforesaid Joan, for his homage and service.
Which same Res ap Meredith went to war against King
Edward, father of the present King Edward, in contra-
vention of the peace, and forfeited all his land. So that
the aforesaid castle and land of Emelyn-super-Cuth was
taken into the hands of the said King Edward by reason
of the forfeiture of the said Res, and thus it is now in the
King's hands. The aforesaid John de Hastings, father
of the present John de Hastings, was never seized -of the
aforesaid castle and lands through the forfeiture of the
aforesaid Res, but he was then in the said King's army
in those parts with Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, the said
King's Lieutenant, and he constantly claimed to have the
aforesaid castle and lands delivered over to him as his
right." 1

Though Res ap Meredith does not appear to have had
any children by his wife Auda de Hastings, he may pos-
sibly have had a son by a former wife ; for if we may
trust to the Carmarthen Chartulary, a certain Meredith
ap Res, son of Res ap Meredith, for the health of his
own soul and those of his ancestors and heirs, gave to the
Prior and Convent of St. John the Evangelist and St.
Theulacus, of Carmarthen, the advowson of the church of
Ebernant, with the chapel of Conwell pertaining to it,
together with the whole sanctuary and certain liberties,
easements and rights of common, in his wood, pastures,
fisheries, and turbaries, which said sanctuary extends from
Fouanwen to the River Henlan, and from Henllan to
Pencam, and from Pencam to the highway over the
mountain which leads towards Talvan, as also three acres
of land in Haraodgudan-juxta-Cowen, and one acre of
land near the burial ground of the aforesaid church, in
the name of Glebe, with all other rights and appurte-
nances belonging to the said church, for ever, as freely as
any alms can possibly be given. And because he knew
of no house or person on whom the said church could be
better or more opportunely bestowed for the health of his

l Documents illustrative of English History selected from the records (MS. ao 1844)
Salt Library, Stafford.



200 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

soul and those of his ancestors and heirs than the said
Prior, who has suffered such and so many losses by war
at the hands of the King's enemies, he will warrant (to
the said Prior) the said church with all its appurtenances
against all men. This charter was attested by the Lord
Robert Tupetot, then Justiciary of West Wales, Geoffrey
de Camvyle, William de Camvyle, Baldwin de Maneres,
Thorn, de Rupe, Walter de Petirton, then Constable, John
Laundrey, Thorn, fitz William, Thorn, the clerk, and
many others. 1

Supposing this Meredith ap Res to have been the son
of Res ap Meredith ap Res Grrig, and supposing him to
have been taken prisoner during the war waged by Res
ap Meredith, his father, against the King, we may
imagine the grant to have been obtained from him about
the year 1290, before he was removed from Wales. It
might, perhaps, have been granted under a promise from
the monks that they would intercede with the King on
his behalf. As his father was then living, however, and
he was himself in captivity at the time, they could hardly
have believed the gift to be good in law (even supposing
the grantor to have inherited the lands from his mother).
But it may have served as a pretext for their claim to the
property, which was, in fact, afterwards confirmed to
them by the King. 2

1 Caermarthen Chartulary, privately printed for the late Sir Thomas Phillipps,
Baronet, (compared with the MS. copy of the Chartulary, at Peniarth, from which it
was printed). 2 These monks had had, nearly a century before, a charter from William
de Braose, -wherein it is recited that when Meredith ap Res (Mercduth fil. Rid) had
seditiously burned the town of Caermarthen and the land of the Prior of St. John the
Apostle and Evangelist and St. Theulacus of Caermarthen, having taken booty from the
said Prior and killed many of his men, the whole of the said Meredith's land was, in the
King's court adjudicated to him (the King) on account of that transgression : and the
church of Ebernant, the patronage of which belonged to Meredith, happened at that time
to be vacant: and whereas the aforesaid Prior had sustained so many losses at the hands of
the Baid Meredith and other Welshmen, William de Braose, then Bailiff of Caermarthen,
moved by piety and for the welfare of the souls of King H. and his son Richard, with
the counsel and assent of the Lord H. Archbishop of Canterbury, then the King's
Justiciary, gave and conceded to God and St. Mary and the Prior of St. John the Apostle
and Evangelist and St. Theulacus, the church of Ebernant then vacant, with the
chapel belonging to it, and all the appurtenances in pure and perpetual alms, because
(ex quo) the Archbishop and he knew not to what House or person that church could
be more usefully or opportunely given for the health of the souls of the aforesaid Kings
than the said Prior who had suffered such and so many losses at the hands of the
aforesaid Meredith and other the King's enemies. And because he (the said William
de Braose) wished that those who succeeded him as Bailiffs of Caermarthen should not
interfere with the said gift but that it should remain firm and unshaken forever (there-
fore) the said Archbishop confirmed the deed with his own seal, to which are witnesses
"William and Philip, the sons of William d Braose, and Philip de Braose his uncle,
"William de Cobotom (and) Robert de Burchall, Knights, Symon Cokus, then Constable,
Adam, William, Robert (and) Richard, Chaplains, Bedmor, Alexander, Nicholas, John



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 201

In King Edward's charter, which was dated at West-
minster on May 15, 1290, it is stated that whereas Mere-
dith ap Res, the son of Res ap Meredith, being, as it is
said, in the King's prison by reason of the transgressions
he had made, had given, conceded, and confirmed, to God
and the church of St. John the Apostle and St. Theulacus
of Caermarthen, and the canons serving God there, one
acre of land adjacent to the cemetery of the church of
Ebernant, together with the advowson of the same church
of Ebernant and the chapel of Conwell, with all the other
appurtenances, which are of the King's fee of Caermarthen,
to have and to hold in free and perpetual alms ; although
the said f eoffment cannot be deemed valid, yet the King of
his especial grace did nevertheless give and concede to
the said canons the said acre of land &c., so that the
aforesaid canons should find one of their fraternity to
celebrate Divine Service daily for ever in their said church
of Carmarthen for the souls of Stephen Bauzan and
Richard Giffard and other faithful men who had been
slain in those parts in the service of the King or his
predecessors. 1

It would seem that the heirs of the Welsh Princes who
were taken prisoners in the last wars were afterwards

fitz William, Clerks, Robert fitz Richard Spilmon, and Gilbert, Meyley and Philip, his
sons, William Kyng, Daniel, Adam Cafel and Stephen his son, and many others (Caer-
marthen Chartulary). The transcriber of the Chartulary, probably misled by the



Online LibraryGeorge Thomas Orlando BridgemanHistory of the princes of South Wales → online text (page 20 of 31)