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commot of Annynyak, in the county of Cardigan, as of
right and inheritance, in the time of King Edward,
grandfather of the King that now is (viz. of Edward
III), until Griffin ap Mereduc and Canan his brother
rose against the said King (viz. Edward I), who conquered
from the said Griffin and Canan the whole land of the
said county of Cardigan ; and at that time the said
commot of Annynyak was conquered into the King's
hands with the other lands of that county, and so that
commot came into, and still remains in, the King's hands.
The aforesaid Owen and Thomas are the nearest heirs of
the aforesaid Lewelin and of full age. Moreover the

1 Inq. 2 Edw. Ill (1 Nrs.) No. 47. As the commot of Kerwedros had now passed
away from the heirs of Owen ap Meredith the Jury do not seem to have considered
themselves called upon to make enquiry as to its value.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 243

aforesaid Owen and Thomas have never given up or quit-
claimed their right to the said commot either to Edward,
the King's grandfather, or to the King's father, or yet to
the present King, or in any way exchanged it. The
said commot is held of the King by the service of doing
suit at the court of Cardigan and of serving the King
in the time of war. The said commot is of the annual
value of about 30. 10s. 5d. One William de Knoville
holds one westva in the said commot by the gift of the
late King Edward, grandfather of the present King,
which is of the value of 100s. 1

Notwithstanding this repeated affirmation of the right
of the sons of Llewelyn to the commot of Anhunog by
the verdicts of successive Juries they never obtained any
footing therein, nor do I find that they ever received any
compensation for the loss of their lands ; from which, as
from some other circumstances, I am disposed to infer
that the nominal concession by King Edward to the
conquered Welshmen of having their causes tried by a
Jury of their own countrymen, for which act of grace
he has gained such credit with posterity, was less in
reality than appearance, as it would seem that the
verdicts of the Welshmen were liable to rejection when
they proved unfavourable to the English interests.

By this repudiation of the title of these Welsh Lords
to the commot of Anhunog their lands in Cardiganshire
were reduced by nearly one half; and when Edward,
afterwards known as the Black Prince, who had lately
been created Prince of Wales and invested with the
insignia of the Principality, sent Richard de Stafford and
other commissioners to take possession of the Principality
in his name and receive the homage of his Welsh Vassals
it would seem that there were none in Cardiganshire
whose lands were sufficiently extensive to entitle them to
hold by Barony. The commissioners commenced their
progress towards the close of July, 1343, and when they
had made the circuit of North Wales they held a court

1 Inq. 9 Edw. Ill (2nd NTS.) No. 64a. It appears that William de Knovill was Lord
of the westva of Thleswen, which included the llandirs of Bedlawamech, Honnenen,
Nanchewedraf and Tloswen, and which was granted by King Edward I on December
6, 1280, to his ancestor John de Knovill for his good and faithful service to the King,
to hold to him and his heirs of the King and his heirs for ever, for which they were to
render the service of one horse caparisoned at the castle of Lampader (Plac. dc quo
wanmto IS E-hv. III).



244 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

at Llanbadarn Vawr on the Tuesday after the Feast of
St. Lawrence (August 12) and another at Cardigan two
days later, namely on the Vigil of the Assumption of the
Blessed Virgin in same year. 1

Those who did fealty at Cardigan on this occasion
were Robert Clement, Rees ap Jevan Vaghan, Grenou
ap Meiler, Owayn ap Meredith, Jevan ap Hewelin ap
Gowrgenne, Leulin ap Adaf ap Res, Madoc Duy ap
Heweilin ap Gwaltole, and others ; amongst whom we do
not recognise the heirs of Llewelyn ap Owen unless we
suppose the elder brother to have been described as
Owayn ap Meredith, under the patronimic of his grand-
father, which is not improbable. Thomas the younger
brother was probably dead at this time and his son Owen
a minor. It was however presented by the Jury of the
ioivn of Cardigan, on the same day (August 14) that the
English court of the county of Cardigan was accustomed
to be held at Cardigan on a Tuesday, and that those who
used to do suit there were Geoffrey Clement, John
Cnovill, the Abbots of Strata Florida, Alba Landa,
Tallacha, and Comhir, the Abbess of Lanller, Roger de
Mortimer, Owynus ap Lewelyn ap Oweyn, Thomas ap
Hoivel ap Oweyn, Meredith ap Res, Res ap Meredith,
John Baret and Philip Donne. 2

I have no doubt that this Owyn ap Lewelyn ap Oweyn
and Thomas (inaccurately described as the son of
How el ap Oweyn) were the two sons of Llewelyn ap
Owen, and that Thomas was dead at the time of the
presentment and his lands in possession of his son
Owen.

The Jury of the commot of Iscoyt on the same day
presented that the names of those who (now) owed suit
at the court of Cardigan were "L'evesqe de Seint David,
Monsire Rees ap Griffith, les heirs Monsire Roger de
Mortumer,L'abbe de Stratflour, L'abbe de Blaunchelaunde,
L'abbe de Talleghu, L'abbe de Cumbire, L'abbesse de
Nanlle, Oweyn ap Oweyn, Oweyn ap Thomas, les heires
Gronow ap Tydyr, Roger de Mortimer, le Mestre de
Slebeche, Ricardus Garaud, Johannes Geraud, les heirs
John Bared, le heir William Dyer, Priour de Cardigan,

l Ministers' Accounts, early series, 16 & 17 Edw. Ill, No. 16 (Arch. Camb. 3rd series,
Original Documents, p. cxlviij. & seq.) 2 Ibid. (Arch. Camb. p. clvij.)



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 245

et Robert Clement." 1 Those here called Oweyn ap Oweyn
and Oweyn ap Thomas were unquestionably Owen ap
Llewelyn ap Owen and his nephew Owen, son of Thomas
ap Llewelyn ap Owen, whom we find in possession of
the family estates in the following year.

In 1344 Oweyn ap Llewelyn ap Oweyn, Lord of a
moiety of the commot of Iscoyt Ugh'irwern, and a fourth
part of the commot of Gwynnyoneth and also of one
westwa in Mabwynnyon called the westwa of Starrok, was
summoned before Gilbert Talbot and others, who had been
appointed Justices of oyer and terminer for the Prince, to
appear at Cardigan on the Monday next after the Feast of
the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, September 20, and to
shew by what warrant he claims, for himself and his heirs,
to hold his three free courts, namely one court in each of the
aforesaid Lordships, from quinzaine to quinzaine by him-
self or his Bailiffs, and therein to take cognizance of all
pleas, as well crown pleas as all others, without brief,
according to the law and custom of Wales, together with
many other extensive seigneural rights. 2

In like manner Oweyn ap Thomas ap Thlewelyn ap
Oweyn, Lord of a moiety of Iscoyt Ugh'irwern and a
fourth part of the commot of Gwynnyonyth, was sum-
moned to shew by what warrant he claimed, for himself
and his heirs, to hold his two free courts, namely one in
each of the said Lordships, on the quinzaine (of Easter),
and other similar seigneural rights to those which were
claimed by Llewelyn ap Owen. 3

On September 29, 1345, Resus ap Griffith, Owanus ap
Oweyn, Thlewelinus Eignoun,and Vaghan Resus Bungan,
are named as commissioners of array to raise two thousand
men from the land of South Wales for the war in France,
one half of whom were to be lancers or spearmen and
the other half archers, to meet the King at Portsmouth
within three weeks of Michaelmas at the latest. 4

On November 8, 1355, Oweyn ap Lewelin ap Oweyn
and Oweyn ap Thomas had presented John de Woodhull,
Chaplain, to the church of Llandussul then vacant, and
Thomas, Bishop of St. David's, issues his writ to the
Archdeacon of Cardigan, ordering him to hold an

l Minister's Accounts. (Arch. Camb. p. clvij.) 2 Pkcita de quo waranto 18 Edw.
Ill, Rot. 6. 3 Ibid. * Rymer's Faedera.



246 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

inquisition for the purpose of ascertaining their right to
present &c. The three beneficed clergy of the Deanery
of Sub Ayron, who were summoned as his assessors, on
the 12th of the same month reported that the said church
had been vacated by the resignation of John Clement,
the late Rector, on the Saturday next before the Feast of
St. Martin, Bishop (November 6), of the same year, as
the said chapter had heard from the relation of others.
The right of presentation is indisputable. The church
pays an annual pension to the church of St. David's of
twenty marks of silver. Oweyn ap Lewelin and Oweyn
ap Thomas are the rightful patrons, who last presented
the said John Clement to the same church, and the right
to present belongs to them. 1

If I am right in assuming that Owen ap Llewelyn ap
Owen was sometimes called Owen ap Owen, it is probable
that the following inquisition, which was taken at Tenby
on the Monday next after the Feast of the Purification
(February 5), 1359, refers to the death of his wife. The
Jury reported that Avice, who had been the wife of
Owen ap Oweyn, deceased, held no lands or tenements
of the King in capite at the time of her death. But a
certain John de Barry had been seized, in demesne as of
fee, of the manors of Maynerbire, Pennaly and Begely,
in the county of Pembroke, which he gave to his brother
David de Barry and the heirs male of his body, and
David being so seized by virtue of the said gift, demised
the said manors to the same John de Barry his brother
for term of life, and afterwards died. After whose death
the said John de Barry, being only seized for the term of
his life, alienated the said manors to a certain Richard
son of Thomas in fee, and the said Richard son of Thomas
immediately demised the aforesaid manors to the said
John de Barry and Beatrice his wife for the term of their
lives. David de Barry son and heir of the aforesaid
David de Barry recently entered into the aforesaid
manors, and the aforesaid John de Barry, being seized
in the manner aforesaid, by his deed remitted and
quit-claimed to David the son of David all his right and
title therein, and bound himself and his heirs to warranty.
The aforesaid David son of David de Barry was

i Statuta ecclesiee Mencveiisis (Harl. MSS. 1249).



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 247

accordingly seized of the aforesaid manors for a while
until Richard de Barry, brother of the aforesaid David,
with a number of armed men disseized the said David
son of David de Barry by force, and died seized of the
aforesaid manors ; after whose death the aforesaid Avice,
wife of Owen ap Oweyn, -who was the daughter and
heiress of the aforesaid Richard de Barry, entered upon
the said manors and died seized of them in demesne as
of fee, which Avice held the manors of Maynerbir' and
Pennaly of the heir of Lawrence de Hastyngs, late Earl
of Pembroke, as of his castle of Pembroke, who is under
age and in the King's custody, by Knight's service, and
she held the manor of Begely of John de Carrue by
Knight's service. Avice died without issue on the Vigil
of the Assumption 32 Edw. Ill (August 14, 1358). The
manors of Maynerbir' and Pennaly are worth 30 per
annum, and the manor of Begely is worth 10 per annum,
and David de Barry son of David de Barry son of the afore-
said David de Barry, is the cousin and heir of the aforesaid
Avice, wife of Owen ap Oweyn, namely the son of David
de Barry, the brother of Richard de Barry, father of the
said Avice, and he is now 24 years of age and more. 1

I find no more mention of Owen ap Llewelyn ap Owen,
who is described as being deceased at the time of the
above quoted inquisition. He is said to have died
without issue, 2 and his share of lands devolved upon
the heirs of his brother Thomas. Thomas ap Llewelyn
ap Owen, the younger son of Llewelyn ap Owen, must
have died before August 14, 1343, when his son Owen
ap Thomas was in possession of his lands.

Thomas ap Llewelyn is said to have married Elianor,
the daughter and heiress of Philip ap Ivor, 3 Lord of
Iscoed, by whom he had a son Owen and two daughters
eventually his coheirs.

l Inq. 33 Edw. Ill (1 Nrs.) No. 16. 2 Hengwrt MS. No. 109, p. 49 (being Griffith
Hiraethog Y Llyfr Tene or the narrow Book). It is there stated that the mother of
Thomas ap Lin. ap Owen was the daughter of S. Eobert Y Val Arglwydd tref gam
Owan which took its name (of Owen) from Owain ap Lin. brother of Thomas ap Lin.
the which Owain died without heirs and his Lordship came to Thomas his brother.
3 It is so stated in most of the ancient Welsh Pedigrees, and the arms of Philip ap Ivor,
azure an eagle displayed or, have been quartered by the Leightons and other descendants
of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen, but I am unable to make out, or even to conjecture,
who or what Philip ap Ivor was, or indeed whether there was ever such a person. In
some of the Pedigrees the wife of Thomas is called Elinor Goch daughter and heiress of
Philip ap Ivor ap Cadivor ap Gwaithvoed (Hengwrt MS. No. 96 ; Golden Grove MS. ;



248 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

We have seen that Owen ap Thomas was living in
1355. He probably died soon after ; when his lands
descended to his two sisters, Elen the wife of Griffith
Vychan ap Griffith ap Madoc, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy and
Cynllaeth Owen, and Eleanor or Margaret wife of
William ap Griffith ap William ap Griffith, Lord of
Mawddwy. In the partition of lands between them it
would seem that the Lordship of Iscoed and a portion of
Gwynnionith fell to the wife of Griffith Vychan, and the
Lordship of Trefgarn Owen and a portion of Gwyn-
nionith to the wife of the Lord of Mawddwy.

and others ;) and in the " Glamorganshire Pedigrees," printed for Mr. Clark of Dowlais,
Ivor, the father of Philip ap Ivor, is described as the 3rd son of Meyric ap Cedivor, Lord
of Iscaiach, by his wife Nest the daughter and heiress of Madoc ap Caradoc ap Einion ap
Collwyn, Lord of Senghenydd, of which territory she was the heiress. Of this marriage
Griffith ap Ivor, Lord of Senghenydd, from whom the family of Lewis of the Van was
descended, was the eldest son, Llewelyn the 2nd, and Philip the 3rd. Philip ap Ivor
married Catherine, daughter of Llewelyn, Lord of Glyn Nedd, by whom he had a daughter
Ellen wife of Thomas ap Llewelyn. Meyric the father of Ivor Bach was the son of
Cedivor ap Cydrick, Lord of Iscaiach, 2nd son of Cydrick ap Gwaithvoed Vawr. But
if this Pedigree have any foundation on truth there must be several descents omitted
between Ivor Bach and Gwaithvoed. A Pedigree in the Golden Grove MS. ascribes to
Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen, for a second wife, his niece Elianor, the daughter of a
certain Meredith ap Owen by Lleiky, daughter of Llewelyn ap Owen, and gives him a
son by her, named Meredith, who married Eva, daughter of Llewelyn ap Cadwgan, of
Carrog, and had issue two daughters, namely Eva, wife of Jenkin Lloyd of Blaiddbwll
in Kemeys, and Margaret (or Elen) wife of Griffith ap Jevan. If such a marriage
between Thomas ap Llewelyn and Elianor daughter of Meredith ap Owen and Lleiky
ever took place, it would have been invalid without a special dispensation from the church,
and the issue of such a marriage would have been illegitimate. The following curious
note, in a later handwriting, is appended to the Pedigree above quoted, and is there said to
be copied from a Pedigree in the possession of Dr. Davies, of Carmarthen ; " This
Jenkin Lloyd of Blaidd bwll in Kemeys was a powerful gentleman and of ample
possessions in the time of the civil wars with the Houses of York and Lancaster, and
being a partizan of the former he changed the colour of his charge, making the lion
and roses white. Note that Meredith, Lord of Iscoed (whose daughter had married
Jenkin Lloyd according to this Pedigree) was by the malice of Adam Houghton,
Bishop of St. David's (who was Bishop from 1361 to 1388,) pronounced illegitimate
because his father had married his cousin gcrmain [niece ?] for his second wife, who
was the mother of Meredith, and all his lands fell to his sisters of the half blood by the
father's first marriage, whose posterity enjoy part of it to this day, viz., the Rt. Honble.
the Earl of Bradford, &c. The occasion of the quarrel between Meredith and the
Bishop was this, the latter, then residing at Llwyndynn in Cardigan, kept a pack of
hounds, as did Meredith, then holding his court, supposed to be at Cefn-y-maes, in the
neighbourhood. The packs occasionally meeting, the prelate took a fancy to some of tho
chief's hounds, which being refused him, out of resentment he pronounced Meredith
illegitimate." The story here given is probably the invention of a later age ; but it
may possibly be founded on fact. Giraldus Cambrensis, who lived about a century
earlier, gives a sprightly but unsparing description of tho faults of the Welshmen of
his own day. Amongst other things he mentions that " the crime of incest was lightly
regarded by all, nobles as well as common people, insomuch that they were not
ashamed to marry within the fourth and fifth and even within the third degree of
consanguinity, having no fear of God before their eyes " (Anglia Sacra, Vol. II, p. 450).
Such a marriage as that ascribed to Thomas ap Llewelyn would at all times have been
deemed an incestuous one ; and if the offspring of such a connection contested the
right of succession to the lands of Owen ap Thomas it might well happen that the
Bishop's evidence should be taken as to the validity of his title on the ground of
legitimacy, which would certainly have been given against him.



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250 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

Griffith Vychan, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, the husband
of Elen verch Thomas ap Llewelyn, was the son of
Griffith ap Madoc, Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, and third in
descent from Griffith Vychan, Lord of Yale, younger son
of Griffith ap Madoc ap Griffith Maelor, Lord of Bromfield
or Lower Powis. 1 They had issue two sons Owen and
Tudor; and three daughters, namely, Lowry, wife of

1 By deed, dated at Dynasbran on the morrow of St. Thomas the Apostle (Dec. 22)
1270, Madoc, Llewelyn, Owen and Griffin, sons of Griffin, Lord of Bromfield, conceded
to the Lady Emma their mother, for the term of her life, all the lands and tenements
which the said Griffin their father gave to her during his life, namely the country of
Mailor Saisenec, with the appurtenances, the manor of Overton with the mill and
stream and all other appurtenances, the manor of Hagneme' (Hanmer) with the
appurtenances, Lannerpanna with the appurtenances, Colton with the appurtenances,
and all the Tills which are situate in the country of Mailor Saisenec, the manor of
Eyton in Mailor Bemorat with the mill and park and all other appurtenances, and two
particles of land situate in the said park (of which the one was purchased by [their
uncle] the Lord Howel son of Madoc from all the heirs of Herbestoc subject to an
annual rent of 12 gallons of beer or the price thereof at the Feast of St. Michael, and
the other particle was freely given by the aforesaid heirs of Herbestoc to the Lord
Griffin their father), the rift of Lanarmon with the appurtenances in Beullerton, to-
gether with those lands which the Lady Ysota their grandmother, with the consent of
the Lord Madoc their grandfather and the Lord Griffin their father, purchased of

Cadegan and Eirit and Enion the sons of Doyoc, which are called Lloytleir

to have and to hold all the aforesaid tenements with the appurtenances, of them and
their heirs, as long as she should live. Madoc ap Griffith-Maelor, the grandfather of
Madoc, Llewelyn, Owen and Griffith, died in 1235. Griffith ap Madoc, Lord of Brom-
field, died in 1270. His wife Emma was the daughter of Henry de Audley (Calen-
darium Genealogicum Vol. I, p. 260). There is a tradition preserved by Yorke and
others that Madoc and Llewelyn, the two elder sons of Griffith ap Madoc and Emma
his wife, having been given over by their mother to King Edward I, were by him
respectively committed, together with their lands, to the custody of John Earl Warren
and Roger Mortimer, who strengthened their charge with two strong castles, those of
Holt and Chirk ; " and, as it might happen, the wards were missing and no more
found " (Royal Tribes of Wales, p. 62). This tradition is disproved by the deed above
quoted. Madoc the eldest son was dead before December 10, 1278, when King
Edward I, by letters patent dated at Shrewsbury, granted the custody of all the lands of
which Madoc de Brumfeld had died seized in demesne as of fee, and the issues and
profits thereof, to Griffin son of Jerworth, the said Griffin to account for the same to
Anian then Bishop of St. Asaph and to Margaret the widow of the said Madoc, for the
sustentation of the two sons and heirs of the said Madoc (Rot. Wall. 6 Edw. I). Ou
January 3, 1282, the King orders Roger de Mortimer and Walter de Hopton to ad-
minister justice to the said Margaret, who claims her right in " Corveyn, Carruic,
Mistwer, Bonu' and Rechald " as in estates which Madoc her husband had assigned to
her in dower, and complains that they are unjustly detained from her by Griffin Vaghan
de Yal (her husband's brother). On the following day the same Justices have orders
to hear and determine the complaint of Margaret, widow of Madoc Vaghan, that
Llewelyn Vaghan unjustly occupies the land of Megheyn, which is of the inheritance
of Llewelyn and Griffin the sons and heirs of the said Madoc, and which ought to be in
the custody of the said Margaret and of faithful men of the said inheritance, according
to the law and custom of those parts, until the time that the said heirs should prove
their age (Rot. Wall. 9 Edw. I, m. 12). By deed dated at Rhuddlan on October 7, 1282,
King Edward I granted and confirmed to John de Warren, Earl of Surrey, the castle
of Dinas Bran which was in the King's hands at the commencement of the present
Welsh war, and all the land of Bromfeld which Griffin and Llewelyn the sons of Madoc
Vaghan held by themselves or by their Tutors or Guardians at the commencement of
the said war (Rot. Wall. 10 Edw. I, m. 3) ; so that if there be any foundation for the
tradition above mentioned it will have applied to the grandsons of Griffith ap Madoo
and Emma rather than to their sons. Of Llewelyn, the 2nd son of Griffith ap Madoc
Lord of Bromfield and Emma de Audley, all I can learn is that in November, 1282,



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 251

Robert Puleston of Emral, Esq.; Morvydd, wife of Sir

Llewelyn son of Griffin son of Madoc, complains to the Archbishop of Canterbury that
the King's Constable of Croes Oswalt (or Oswestry) and the men of that town had
spoiled him of a third part of the town called Ledrot [in Cynllaeth] and other rights ;
moreover the King of England had granted his letters to a certain bastard, namely
Griffin Fychan ab Cynllaeth, to litigate against the said Llewelyn for the purpose of
obtaining his whole dominion, by reason of which letters he had been put to a cost of
200 (Appendix to Warrington's History of Wales). It is probable that, like most of
his countrymen, Llewelyn ap. Griffith lost his lands by forfeiture in that or the
following year. Owen, who from the order in which his name occurs in the joint Deed
of Gift to his mother I take to have been the 3rd son of Griffith up Madoc and Emma,
was Lord of a moiety of Cynllaeth, from him called Cynllaeth Owen ; he was
Rector of " Blanckebir," on January 11, 1283 (Mr. J. Morris' MS.) ; and on his death
his portion of Cynllaeth devolved upon his brother Griffith Vychan. Griffith Vychan,
the youngest son of Griffith ap Madoc and Emma, succeeded to the Lordship of Yal,
and that of Glyndyfrdwy in Edeirneon. By a treaty between King Edward I and
Llewelyn ap Griffith, Prince of North Wales, dated on the Tuesday next before the
Feast of St. Martin 5 Edw. I, 1277, it is stipulated that Griffin Wychan shall do homage
to the King for the lands which he holds in Tal and to Llewelyn for the lands which
he holds in Llewelyn's dominion. By deed dated in February, 1278, " Griffinus
Vychan films Griffini ap Madog Dominus de Yal" grants the manor of Llandegla (iu
Yale) to Anian, Bishop of St. Asaph, and his successors (Willis* St. Asaph, pp. 152,
153 ; Thomas' History of St. Asaph). In January 1281 we find him unjustly with-
holding from his sister in law Margaret the lands which Madoc ap Griffith his brother



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