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Mawddwy, may have shared with Edmund Mortimer,
Earl of March, the right of heirship to the throne of
North Wales, not (as is usually assigned to them)
through any descent from Catherine, 3 an imaginary
daughter of Prince Llewelyn ap Griffith, but as being
the descendants of Angharad, wife of Maelgon Vychan
ap Maelgon ap Res; which Angharad and her sister
Gladys, wife of Ralph de Mortimer, were the daughters
of Llewelyn ap Jerwerth, Prince of North Wales, by his
wife Joane, natural daughter of King John, and sisters
of David ap Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales. 4

i Memoirs of Owen Glendower by Thomas Ellis, Rector of Dolgclle, p. 72 ; Pennant's
Tours in Wales, Vol. Ill, p. 377. 2 Archseologia, Vol. XXV, pp. 616 & seq. 3 This
lady, although she appears in numerous Pedigrees, and even in Historical works of
some weight, as wife to Philip ap Ivor, and mother of his daughter Eleanor wife of
Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Own, had really no existence except in the brain of the
Welsh Genealogists. 4 The descendants of these two ladies are by no means
unlikely to hare become the right heirs of the Princes of this line; for (1) Griffith


It is always remarkable how loyally the Welshmen
were wont to cling to their hereditary Princes in times
of trouble. For instance, after the conquest of Wales
by King Edward I and the capture of most of their
native Princes the men of Cardigan or West Wales seem
to have spontaneously rallied round the standard of
Canan ap Meredith ap Owen and Maelgon Vychan, the
two available representatives of their ancient Princes ; for
Llewelyn ap Owen the head of the family was then a
minor under the King's guardianship. The men of
Glamorgan, in like manner, at once acknowledged their
disinherited Seigneur, Morgan ap Meredith, as their head ;
and in North Wales, as we have seen, Madoc the natural
son of Llewelyn was the captain chosen of the people,
illegitimate sons in Wales being generally recognised as
capable of inheriting, at least where there was a failure
of legitimate heirs. In 1322 again, if we believe Sir
Griffith Lloyd to have married a daughter of Canan ap
Meredith ap Owen, we have another instance of the
Welshmen following one who had a certain claim to their
allegiance as representing (jure uxoris) one line of their
native Princes. We may therefore well believe that the
hereditary claims of Owen Glendower were weighed by
his countrymen before they acknowledged him as their
lawful Prince.

With respect to the descent of Owen Glendower and
his cousin John de la Pole, Lord of Mawddwy, from the
daughter of Prince Llewelyn ap Jerwerth, it has been
stated that one of the said Llewelyn's legitimate daughters

ap Llewelyn, the elder brother of Prince David and father of the last Princes
Llewelyn and David, is generally believed to have been an illegitimate son of
Prince Llewelyn ap Jerwerth, though his children were, for lack of legitimate male
heirs, acknowledged as Princes of North Wales on the death of their uncle David ap
Llewelyn ap Jerwerth without issue ; but (2) even supposing Griffith ap Llewelyn to
have been legitimate I am not aware that there were any descendants of his remaining
in the time of Owen Glendower. We know that the only legitimate child of Prince
Llewelyn ap Griffith, namely Gwenllian, his daughter by his wife Eleanor de Montfort,
was brought to England as a little child and forced to take the veil in the convent of
Sempringham, where she died a nun in 1337 ; and her cousin-german Gladys, whom I
take to have been the only surviving child of David ap Griffith, the last native Prince
of North Wales, was also placed at that time in the same convent, where she died a nun
in 1336. There were probably no descendants of Owen the elder son of Griffith ap
Llewelyn and brother of the last Princes Llewelyn and David ; and the descendants of
their sister Gladys daughter of Griffith ap Llewelyn and wife of Ees Vychan ap Eos ap
Mechyll seem to have ended with Res Wendot and his brothers ; so that when the
Welsh rose against the English in 1294 to resist the payment of the war tax, the men
of North Wales, for want of a more direct heir to the Princely throne, acknowledged
Madoc, the illegitimate son of the last Llewelyn as their leader.


married Maelgon Vychan (I), Lord of Cardigan Ucli-
Ayron, son of Maelgon ap Kes, the issue of whose only
son Res ap Maelgon will have probably ended with his
grandchildren Maelgon Vychan and his brothers, when
the representation of the family will have vested in the
descendants of the three daughters of Maelgon Vychan (I)
and his wife Angharad verch Llewelyn ap Jerwerth. Of
these daughters, Gwenthlian, wife, of Meredith ap
Llewelyn, Lord of Merioneth, had an only son Llewelyn
ap Meredith, Lord of Merioneth, who was living, and in
the King's pay on account of his loss of lands, in 1260,
having then a wife and children. 1 He was slain in battle
in 1263 ; and I know not whether his issue survived.
Margaret, another daughter, married Owen ap Meredith,
Lord of Cedewen, one of whose daughters, namely Ang-
harad, married her cousin Owen ap Meredith ap Owen,
grandfather of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen, the grand-
father of Owen Glendower ; but the representation of Mar-
garet, Lady of Cedewen, will have been with the descend-
ants (if any) of her sons rather than with Glendower and
Mawddwy. Elena, a third daughter of Maelgon Vychan
(I) is said to have married Meredith ap Owen ap Griffith
ap Res, Lord of Cardigan Is-Ayron, the great-grand-
father of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen, of whom Owen
Glendower was the senior coheir; so that it is by no
means improbable that he may thus have made out his
claim to the Princely throne.

The rebellion of Owen lasted through the whole reign of
King Henry IV. and part of that of his successor. During
the latter years of his life he suffered many reverses and
must have had many personal hardships to endure. It is
said that he had at one time to wander from place to place
in want and penury, and that he was forced to shelter
himself in caves and desert places in order to escape the
vigilance of his enemies. However, he maintained his

1 On August 8, 1259, the Sheriff of Shropshire and Staffordshire is ordered to pay to
Lewellyn son of Mereduc, \vho had baen disinherited on account of his adherence to the
King, the sum of 40 marks which the King granted to him, to be received annually for
the support of himself and his wife and children (Liberate Roll 43 Hen. Ill, m. 3). And
on May 30, 1260, the King's mandate is issued to the then Sheriff of Shropshire and
Staffordshire, in which it is stated that the former Sheriff, William Bagod had received
the above mentioned order, but that the said Lewellin had only received 10 marks
from the said William Bagod ; and the present Sheriff is therefore ordered to pay
Lawellin the remaining 30 marks out of the issues of his bailiwick (Lib. R. 44 Hen.
Ill, m. 7). Seo page 130 note.


independence to the last ; and on July 5, 1415, after the
accession of Henry V, the King, being then at Porchester
castle, deputed Sir Gilbert Talbot to negotiate with him,
even to the extent of promising pardon to him and his
adherents, provided they would request it of the King. It
is probable that the death of Owen prevented the completion
of the treaty. This gracious offer was renewed, on Febru-
ary 24 of the following year, to his son Meredith ap Owen,
by whom it was accepted ; but in the meantime Owen
himself, yet unsubmissive and unsubdued, died on
September 21, 1415, at Monington in Herefordshire, the
residence of his youngest daughter Margaret, or as some
say at Kentchurch, the seat of his daughter Alice Scudamore.
By his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir David Hanmer,
he is said to have had five sons and four daughters. 1
The sons, according to Vincent's Collections in the College
of Arms, were Griffith, Madoc, Meredith, Thomas, and
John, who are said, by his Biographer, Mr. Thomas Ellis,
Rector of Dolgelle, to have all perished in their father's
wars, without leaving issue. It is certain, however, that
one, at least, of his sons survived him, though it is
probable that they all died without issue. The daughters
were Isabel, wife of Adam ap Jorwerth Dhu ; Alice, wife
of Sir John Scudamore of Kentchurch, in the county of
Hereford ; Janet, wife of Sir John Croft, of Croft Castle,
in the county of Hereford ; and Margaret, wife of Roger
Monington, of Monington in the same county; w r ith
whose descendants the representation of Owen Glendower
and the senior coheirship of the Princes of South Wales
is presumed to rest. Two other daughters have also
been assigned to him by different writers, namely Jane,
who is said to have married Lord Grey de Ruthyn, while
he was a prisoner in her father's hands, and another who
is said to have married Sir Edmund Mortimer under
somewhat similar circumstances ; 2 but as to the existence
of these two there is some doubt.

1 Mr. Ellis, in his Memoirs of Owen Glendower, mentions the following illegitimate
children of Owen, namely Jevan ; a daughter married to the heir of Gwerneu ;
Myfanwy, wife of Llewelyn ap Adda of Trevor ; and Gwenllian, wife of Sir Philip
ap Res of St. Harmon in Radnorshire. 2 On June 27, 1 Hen. V (1413) 30 were paid
to John Weale "for the expenses of the wife of Owen Glyndwr, of the wife of Edmund
Mortimer and of others their sons and daughters in his custody in the city of London, at
the King's charge " (History of Ludlow, pp. 265, 266, by Thomas Wright Esq., F.S.A.,
who quotes from Devon's Pell. Rolls, p. 321).


In the year 1433 Sir John Skydemore, Knight, and Alice
his wife, as daughter and heir of Owyn de Glyndorde, had
claimed the manors of Glendourdy and Kentlyth, as
those which Walter Mitton and Walter Huse had given
to Griffyth Glyndouerde great-grandfather of the said
Alice and to Elizabeth his wife and the heirs of their
bodies, and they sought to enforce their claim in the King's
court in the county of Merioneth by writ directed to the
Sheriff; whereupon John, Earl of Somerset, then a
prisoner in France, presented his petition to the King in
Parliament, praying that the matter might be considered
and that an Act might be passed to restrain the said John
and Alice, or their heirs, or any of the heirs of the said
Owyn, from bringing any action for recovery of any of
the said Hereditaments, otherwise than by their petition
in the King's Bench. Such an act was accordingly
passed ; and it was further enacted that the statute made
in the 4th of Henry IV, to the effect that no Englishman
who should marry with any of the family of Owen de
Glyndourdy should hold any office in Wales or the
Marches, should be confirmed, and that all letters patent
or grants to the contrary which had been made to any
one should be null and void. 1

Tudor ap Griffith Vvchan, the younger brother of
Owen Glendower, inherited the manor of Gwyddelwern
in Edeirnyon as his portion. He was upwards of 24
years of age, on September 3, 1386, when under the
designation of " Tuder de Glyndore" he appeared as a
witness in the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy. He
fell fighting in his brother's cause on March 11, 1405, at
Mynydd-y-Pwll-Melyn, near Grosmont in Monmouthshire.
After the action he was found among the slain, and from
his resemblance to his brother, a report was spread of
the death of Owen ; but on examining his body it was
found to want a wart over the eye, which distinguished
Owen from Tudor. 2

Tudor ap Griffith married Maud, daughter and heir of
Jevan ap Howel ap Adda ap Awr of Trevor, and left
issue a daughter and heiress Lowry, Lady of

1 Rot. Tarl. 11 & 12 Henry VI (Vol. IV, p. 440). 2 Burke (Dictionary of the
Landed Gentry, under Hughes of Gwerdas), who quotes from Carte's History of
England, Vol.'ll, p. 665.


Gwyddelwern, wife of Griffith ap Einion of Cors-y-gedol
in Merionethshire who was living in 1400 and 1415, and
by whom she had two sons, (1) Griffith Vaughan, Esq., of
Cors-y-gedol, now represented through females, by
Edward, Lord Mostyn; and (2) Ellis ap Griffith, of
Gwyddelwern, represented, through females, by Richard
Walmesley Lloyd, Esq., of Plymog, in the county of

Margaret (or Elianor), the younger daughter and
eventual coheiress of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen,
married for her first husband William ap Griffith de la
Pole, Lord of Mawddwy in Powysland, 1 by whom she
had a son John, Lord of Mawddwy, who succeeded to
the Lordship of Trefgarn and the rest of his mother's
possessions. She married secondly Sir Tudor ap Grono, 2
Knight, of Penmynydd, in the county of Anglesey,

1 & 2 Ellis' account of Owen Glendower, p. 75 ; Hengwrt MS. No. 96. Sir Tudor
ap Grono, the 2nd husband of the Lady of Trefgam and Mawddwy, was the son of
Grono ap Tudor ap Grono ap Ednyved Vychan (Burke's Die. Lan. Gen., under Lloyd
of Plymog; Arch. Cam. 3rd series, Vol. V, p. 144). Sir Tudor ap Grono and his
brothers appear to have been tenants in capite of lands in Cardiganshire by inheritance
from their father. In 6 Edw. Ill the King's letters to Gilbert Talbot, his Justice of
South Wales, declare that, whereas Gronou ap Tuder deceased had held a third part
of a westva with the appurtenances at Kethlan in the King's commot of Mabwynneon
and a third part of a westva at Redonnen in the King's commot of Perveth, and
Lethychlenan in the commot of Creudyn by the Welsh law and by the service of doing
suit at the King's court of Cardigan from month to month, the King had received the
fealty of Howel ap Gronou ap Tudur, Tudur ap Gronou, and Gruffuth ap Gronou ap
Tudur (Abb. Rot. Orig. Ro. 32). And on the Monday next after the Feast of the
Exaltation of the Cross (September 20, 1344) Howel ap Gronouz Tuder and Tuder his
brother were summoned before the court of the Prince at Cardigan to shew by what
right they claimed to hold a free court in the vill of Lethwechleynan in the commot of
Gruthyn, and similar liberties in the vill of Kellan in the commot of Mabwynnyon and
in the vill of Redonnen in the commot of Perveth (Plac. de quo warranto, p. 818). Sir
Tudor ap Grono is said to have lived chiefly at Trecastell, in Anglesey. Here too he
died; and, according to the same authority, he was hurried in the Friary of Bangor
(hii grandfather's foundation) on September 19, 1367 (Arch. Camb. 3rd series, Vol. V,
p. 144). According to the Heraldic Pedigrees he was twice married, first to Mallt,
daughter of Madoc ap Jorwerth ap Madoc ap Ririd Flaidd, of Penllyn, by whom he
had an elder son Grono Vychan and others ; and secondly to Margaret, Lady of
Mawddwy, daughter and heiress of Thomas ap Llewelyn ap Owen Lord of Iscoed, by
whom he had a son Meredith (Hengwrt MS. 96). He was succeeded in the estate of
Penmynydd by his eldest son Grono, who died on March 23, 1332, leaving his son and
heir Tudor then under age (Arch. Camb. 3rd series, Vol. XV, p. 291). Rhys ap Tudor
and William ap Tudor, two of Sir Tudor's sons, were in the service of King Richard II
as Captains of Archers, as appears by the issues of pay made to them out of the ex-
chequer. In 1399 that King granted to William ap Tudore " de wallia armigero quern
penes se ret inuit" 10 per ann. for life, and a similar grant was made to Rhys (Arch.
Camb. 3rd series, Vol. XV, p. 380). According to the Pedigree above quoted (Hengwrt
MS. 96, which is not very clear), William and Rhys ap Tudor were the sons of Sir
Tudor by his first wife. In the subsequent reign they sided with Owen Glendower in
his wars, in which they took an active part, and, together with Owen, were specially
excluded from the pardon offered to their fellow-countrymen by King Henry IV in May
and June 1401 (Pennant's Tours, Vol. Ill, p. 329 ; Thomas's Memoirs of Owen Glen-
dwr, p. 72).


who died in 1367, by whom she had a son Meredith,
from whom the Tudor line of Kings derived their descent.
Meredith ap Tudor, being but a younger son of Sir
Tudor ap Grono, is believed to have held some office
about the person of the Bishop of Bangor. Pennant
styles him " Scutifer" others say that he was Steward
or Butler. Meredith married Margaret, daughter of
David Vychan ap David Llwyd, of Anglesey, by whom
he had a son Owen, born during his absence from home
about the commencement of the fifteenth century. Some
writers affirm that Meredith's absence from home at that
time was necessitated by his having taken part in the
murder of William de Sutton, Justiciary of North Wales.
Before 1392 he had held the important office of Escheator
of the county of Anglesey. His son Owen ap Meredith
seems to have had an early introduction to the court of
King Henry V, and when there, to have gained both
friends and fortune by his manliness and grace.
" According to the chroniclers, Owen danced himself,
like Sir Christopher Hatton, into high places. The story
runs that, in dancing he stumbled, and fell upon the lap
of Queen Catherine, wife of Henry V of England,
daughter of Charles VI of France, and so well im-
proved the occasion that after the death of Henry V she
took him for her second husband. 1 There can be no
reasonable doubt about the marriage, though it has been
questioned by Miss Strickland in her memoirs. Leland,
in mentioning Owen's death, says " he had many dayes
to fore married secretly Queen Catherine." Holinshed
in speaking of the marriage describes Owen as " a
galant gentleman and a right beautiful person, indued
with many goodlie gifts both of bodie and mind." 2 The
Queen Dowager procured for her husband, says Stowe,
" one hundred markes a yeare to live upon, and after that
he had much more good land." Their eldest son Edmund
was born at the fioyal manor of Hadham ; the second,
Jasper, at that of Hatfield ; and the third at Westminster ;
so that there could not have been much success in any

1 & 2 Arch. Camb. 3rd series, Vol. XV, pp. 379 & seq. To the -writer of this able
Memoir of Penmynydd and the Tudors, whose words I have quoted and to whom I am
indebted for almost all my informatiou about Meredith ap Tudor and his son Sir Owen
Tudor, I would refer my waders for a fuller account of the various branches of 1
Tudor Family.


attempt to conceal the marriage. The Queen, being sub-
jected to some complaint or surveillance, not perhaps quite
amounting to imprisonment, but at the same time causing
her and her husband much uneasiness, removed to the
Abbey of Bermondsey, where eventually she died on
January 3, 1437. After her death Owen Tudor was
arrested in the same year and by the King's council sub-
jected to imprisonment contrary to the King's promise,
first at Newgate and afterwards at Wallingford. He
remained in confinement, with but short intermission,
till the year 1440, when he was set at liberty by the
King, his stepson, who granted him by patent an annuity
of one hundred pounds and divers other gifts for term
of life. Two years later, there was paid from the ex-
chequer " to Owyn ap Tuder, in money paid to his own
hands in discharge of forty pounds which the present
Lord the King of his especial grace granted to the same
Owyn, to be had by way of reward, 40 &." The King
was then about one and twenty years of age and Owen
Tudor about forty- two. In another document Henry
declares that " out of consideration of the good services
of that beloved squire our Owinus Tudyr, we for the
future take him into our special grace and make him
Park-keeper of our parks of Denbigh, Wales." 1 Owen
to the end of his life remained faithful to King Henry
VI. He served the House of Lancaster in the wars
of the Roses until he was taken prisoner at the Battle
of Mortimer's Cross, near Wigmore, on February 2,
1461, where he and his, under the command of his son
Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, were endeavouring to
resist the progress of the Yorkists under Edward, Earl
of March. From thence he was taken by Sir Richard
Vaughan to Hereford, and, having been beheaded at
the Market Cross, was buried in the church of the Grey
Friars there. 2

By his wife Catherine, Queen Dowager of England,
he had, with a daughter Tacina, married to Reginald,
Lord Grey of Wilton, three sons, Edmund, Jasper, and
Owen who became a monk at Westminster and died
early. 3 Jasper Tudor, the 2nd son, was, by his

l & 2 Arch. Comb. 3rd series, Vol. XV, pp. 379 & seq. 3 History of Wales, by Jane
"Williams, p. 460.


half-brother King Henry VI, created Earl of Pembroke,
in the Parliament held at Reading in 1452, at the same
time that his brother Edmund was made Earl of Richmond.
The Earl of Pembroke took an active part in the wars
of the Roses, on the Lancastrian side ; and after the
accession of his nephew King Henry VII was advanced
to the Dukedom of Bedford on October 27, 1485. He
was afterwards made Justice of South Wales, and Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland for two years, and invested
with the order of the garter. He married Catherine, 6th
and youngest daughter of Richard Wydeville, Earl Rivers,
and widow of Henry, Duke of Buckingham, but died
without issue in 1405. 1 Edmund Tudor, the eldest son
of Sir Owen Tudor, was, on November 3, 1452, created
Earl of Richmond, with precedency of all other Earls ;
and in the same year he had a grant in fee from the King
of the mansion-house of Baynard's Castle, in the city of
London. He married the Lady Margaret Beaufort,
daughter and heiress of John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset,
and, dying in 1456, his remains were interred in the
Cathedral Church of St. David's with the following
epitaph: " under this marble stone here inclosed resteth
the bones of the Noble Lord Edmund, Earl of Richmond,
father and brother to Kings ; the which departed out of
this world in the year of our Lord, 1456, the 3rd of the
month of November ; on whose soul Almighty Jesus have
mercy, Amen." 2 His only child Henry, who was but
fifteen weeks old at the time of his father's death, was
crowned King of England on the battle of Bosworth field
on August 22, 1485, by the name of Henry VII.
He died on April 21, 1509, having married Elizabeth
eldest daughter and eventual coheir of King Edward IV,
from the issue of which marriage descended the sub-
sequent Kings and Queens of England.

William, Lord of Mawddwy, the first husband of the
Lady of Trefgarn, was the son of Griffith de la Pole,
Lord of Mawddwy in Powysland and Great Sardon in
Staffordshire, the son of William de la Pole, Lord of
Mawddwy, 3 fourth son of Griffith ap Wenwynwyn,

l & a Burke' s extinct Peerage. 3 By a ded of settlement preserved in the Welsh rolls
of 1277-8, Griffin son of Wennonwen, Lord of Ppwys, assigns to his son William the
whole land of Mauto (Mavrddwy) with all its rights, liberties, and all other appurte-
nances, excepting the vill of Landeboe (near Mallwyd) which the said Griffin had given


Prince of Upper Powys. On the Sunday next before
the Feast of St. Gregory the Pope (March 10) 1353, as

to his 'wife the Lady Hawys in dower and which should revert to the said William or
his heirs after her death, to be held by the said "William and the heirs of his body law-
folly begotten in capita by military service, of Owen the eldest son of the said Griffin
and his heirs for ever (Eot. Wall. 6-9 Edw. I, m. 11 d. de ao 60 ). By deed dated at
Westminster on May 16, 1290, the above mentioned Owen, son of Griffin, son of
Wenunwyn, Lord de la Pole, confirms to his brother William de la Pole all the land of
Maudoe in all its best limits, and appurtenances, chaces, woods, roads, and paths, for
his homage aad service, to have and to hold of the said Owen and his heirs to the said
William and the heirs of his body lawfully begotten, in fee and inheritance by
hereditary right for ever, as fully as His father ever most fully held it, three things ex-
cepted, namely military service, common tallage, and aid in the building of castles,
which the said William and his tenants are bound to do for him in the same way that
his brothers Lewelin and Griffin and their tenants are bound to do, for all services,
exactions and demands (Rot. Wall. 14-23 Edw. I, m. 7 d. de ao 18o ). The Lordship
of Maudoe, Mouthcy, or Mawddwy, which was thus made over to William ap Griffith
de la Pole, included the Parish of Mawddwy and seven out of the eight townships com-
prised in the neighbouring Parish of Mallwyd. In 28 Edw. I (1299-1300), at the
perambulation of the King's Forests of Cannock and Kinver, the manor of Sardon

Online LibraryGeorge Thomas Orlando BridgemanHistory of the princes of South Wales → online text (page 27 of 31)