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fealty, but also of raising a body of infantry from among
them to serve him in his wars with France; in which
purpose he was fully successful. 1

In the year 1186 Cadwalader ap Res (one of the illegi-
timate sons of the Lord Res ap Griffith), was privily
slain in Dyvet, and buried at the. Ty Gwyn, 'or White
House upon Taf, i.e. Whitland Abbey. 2 And in this
same year we first hear of the turbulent Maelgon ap Res
who took such a prominent part in the affairs of Wales in
the succeeding reign. He is said by the Heralds to have
been an illegitimate son of the Lord Res, by Gwervil,
daughter of Llewelyn ap Res ap Wardav Vrych ; but he
attained at one time to the chief power in South Wales,
and transmitted to his descendants a portion of his father's
territories. He is described in the chronicle as being a
man of middle height, and comely person, fierce towards
his enemies, amiable towards his friends, ready of gifts,
victorious in war, and dreaded by all the neighbouring

1 Lyttelton's Hist. Hen. II, Vol. Ill, p. 442. 2 Brut-y-Tywysogion.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 59

Princes. He appears to have been a special scourge to
the Flemings, and at this time we are told that he
" brought his power against Tenbye, and byplaine force
wan the towne, and, spoiling the same, he burned it to
ashes." 1

The year 1188 was remarkable for the preaching of
the crusade by Archbishop Baldwin, who came into South
Wales accompanied by Giraldus, the Archdeacon of
Brecknock. 2 It happened at this time, while Res was
attending the conference with the Archbishop and Ranulph
de GJanville at Hereford, that the Welsh Prince was one
day sitting at dinner in the house of William de Vere,
Bishop of Hereford, by the side of that prelate and Walter,
son of Robert de Clare, both of whom were descended
from the family of Clare. On this occasion Giraldus de
Barri, Archdeacon of Brecknock (who was nearly related
to Res) approached the table, and standing before them
thus facetiously addressed himself to Prince Res; "You
may congratulate yourself, Rhys, on being now seated
between two of the Clare family, whose inheritance you
possess." 3 For at that time he held all Cardiganshire,
which he had recovered from Roger de Clare, Earl of
Hertford. Res, a man of excellent understanding and
particularly ready at an answer, immediately replied ;
" It is indeed true that for sometime we were deprived
of our inheritance by the Clares, but as it was our fate to
be losers, we had at least the satisfaction of being dis-
possessed of it by noble and illustrious personages, not
by the hands of an idle and obscure people." The Bishop,
desirous of returning the compliment to Prince Res,
replied ; " And we also, since it has been decreed that
we should lose the possession of those territories, are well

1 Powel's Hist. 2 Giraldus de Barri, better known as Giraldus Cambrensis, the
author of many learned works now extant, was descended from an illustrious lineage,
being the fourth son of William de Barri, by his second wife Angharad, daughter of Nest
the daughter of Res ap Tudor, and sister of Robert fitz Stephen and Maurice fitz Gerald.
Giraldus de Barri was born about the year 1147, at the castle of Manorbeer, in Pem-
brokeshire. He was made Archdeacon of Brecknock in 1175, and on the death of his
uncle David fitz Gerald, Bishop of St. David's, he was nominated to that see, but his
advancement was opposed by Henry II, who was jealous of the promotion of one so
nearly allied to the Welsh Princes. 3 The father of William de Vere, Bishop of Here-
ford, was that Alberic de Vere who was killed in a London riot in 1 140. There is some
contradiction among the genealogists as to who wa the mother of William, but Prince
Res' speech is enough to decide the question. She was undoubtedly Adeliza the
daughter of Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare (whose sera was circa 1088-1123), and not the
daughter of Roger de Ivry aa some have it (ex. inf. Rev. R. Eyton).



60 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

pleased that so noble and upright a Prince as Rhys should
be at this time Lord over them." 1 They entered the
borders of Wales at Hereford. On leaving Hereford, the
Archbishop was again met by Res at Radnor, soon after
Ash Wednesday, which fell on March 2, in that year ;
and many of the nobles impelled by the preaching of
Giraldus took the cross. Among these was Eineon, the
son of Eineon Clyt, who had married a daughter of the
Lord Res ; and it seems that Res himself would have been
of the number, if he had not been dissuaded from it by
the prayers and entreaties of his wife Gwenllian, the
daughter of Madoc, Prince of Lower Powis. Giraldus
informs us that just as Res was departing from the con-
ference, when he had called together his retainers to take
council on the matter, a certain noble youth of his own
family, named Griffith, who afterwards took the cross, is
reported to have spoken to the following effect ; " What
man of courage would dislike to make such a journey
since the worst that could befall him would be to return
home again." 2

During his progress through South Wales the Arch-
bishop and his suite were entertained by Res at the
Priory of St. Dogmael, and the next day after at his
own Castle of Cardigan. 3

Before leaving South Wales Giraldus informs us that
when starting from Strata Florida for Llanbadarn Vawr
they were met, at the borders of a certain wood, by
Kenwrick, the son of Res, accompanied by a band of
active youths. The young man was tall and handsome,
with red and curly hair, being clothed with a light cloak
and undergarment only, and having his legs and feet
bare, regardless of thorns and briers. He was adorned
by nature rather than by art, having much dignity in
himself but receiving little from externals. A sermon
was thereupon addressed to the three grown up sons of
Res, namely Griffith, Maelgon, and Kenwrick, in the
presence of their father, and after the brothers had dis-
puted among themselves about taking the cross, Maelgon
at length promised to accompany the Archbishop to the

l Hoaxe's Giraldus, p. 22. 2 Giraldus Cambrensis, Itinerarium Kambriee, p. 15.
3 Meyrick's Hist. Cardigan, p. 98.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 61

Court of the King and be guided by their counsel in the
matter. 1

On reaching the river Dovey, which separates North
Wales from South Wales, the Archbishop parted company
with the Bishop of St. David's, and with Res ap Griffith,
who had conducted them with princely liberality from
the castle of Cardigan to the borders of his dominions ;
and on the following day they were deserted by Maelgon,
who found some excuse for breaking his promise to the
Archbishop and returning to his own country. 2

Henry II. died at Chinon, on July 6, 1189 ; and was
succeeded by his son Richard, who was crowned King
of England, on Sunday, September 3, 1189. The late
King Henry had always treated Res with marked respect
and courtesy, so that whenever he came to his court
he used to receive him in person, attended by his
nobles. But Richard paid him no such attentions,
and when the Welsh Prince came to Oxford, under the
safe conduct of the King's brother John, Earl of Moreton,
to do homage for his lands, he was not met with the
accustomed respect, nor received by the King in person.
This treatment was highly resented by the Lord Res,
who returned home without speaking to the King.

The conciliatory policy of Henry towards this most
eminent of the Welsh Princes had the effect of reconciling
him to the English sovereignty ; and, under the presi-
dency of one of their own native Princes, the people of
South Wales would probably have soon become accus-
tomed to their state of dependence upon the English
crown, and their interests would have been gradually
united. But the haughty Richard's want of courtesy and
due respect for his rank and position had the effect of
estranging the best friend he had in Wales, at a time
when he should have sought, by every means in his
power, to confirm the good feeling which was beginning
to grow up between the two nations.

The pride of Res was deeply offended by the slight he
considered himself to have received. He threw off
his allegiance to the English crown, and seized the



opportunity to enlarge the boundaries of his territories
and to strengthen his own dominions.

1 and 2 Girald. Camb., Itin. Kambruc.



62 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

In this same year, 1189, he caused much destruction
of property in Ros and Pembroke by fire, despoiled
Gower, destroyed the castle of Carnwyllaon, and took
other castles in Dyvet which he indolently lost again for
lack of proper guarding.

He next besieged the castle of Carmarthen ; but when
Earl John, the King's brother, came with a large army
to oppose him he relinquished the siege, and a peace was
privately made between them, upon which Prince John
returned to England. 1

About Christmas, however, Res besieged and took the
castle of St. Clare, which he gave to his son Howel Sais
together with the adjacent country. 2 He also took the
castles of Abercorran 3 and Llanstephan ; and imprisoned
in the castle of Dynevor his son Maelgon who was then
in rebellion against him. But Maelgon was soon after-
wards taken from thence by his brother Griffith, without
his father's knowledge, and delivered over to the custody
of William de Braose. 4

In the following year, 1190, Res built the castle of
Kidwelly, which he made the fairest and strongest of all
his castles ; and at this time his daughter Gwenllian died,
"the flower and ornament of all Wales." 5

In the year 1191, on the day of the Assumption of St.
Mary (August 15), he recovered his castle of Dynevor
from the English ; 6 and about the same time he lost his
son Owen, who died at Strata Florida. 7

In the year 1192 the Welshmen of Dyvet, under the
leadership of Griffith ap Res, took forcible possession of
the castle of Llanhauaden. 8 At this time Prince Res
liberated his son Maelgon from captivity against the

1 Annales Cambriae. 2 Ibid. The castle of St. Clare stood on the confluence of
Cathgenny and the Taf in the county of Carmarthen, and was probably a Welsh castle,
formed of a tumulus and wooden piles (Jones' Hist. Wai.). It was situate in the
ancient commot of Widigadaf and cantrev Mawr. 3 The castle of Abercorran was
situate at the mouth of the Taf, opposite to the castle of Llanstephan in the commot of
Talacharn and cantrev Mawr. It is the same with the castle of Laughame or Talacharn,
and is sometimes called also in Welsh history the castle of Abercowin (Jones' Hist.
Wai.). 4 Annales Cambrics. 5 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 6 Brut-y-Ty wysogion ; and
Annales Cambriae (B.). According to the (C.) MS. it was the castle of Kemmer that
he took. 7 Brut-y-Tywysogion. Owen was an illegitimate son of the Lord Res by
Sybel daughter of Ivan hir of Kaerwedros (Her. Vis. Wai., Vol. II, p. 99). 8 Gwentian
Chronicle. The castle of Llanhauaden is situate in the present hundred of Dungleddy,
co. Pembroke, 3^ miles N.N.W. from Narberth. It was formerly within the commot
of Llanhauaden and cantrev Y Coed. Llanhauaden Castle was the head of the Barony
in right of which the Bishops of St. David's claimed their seat in the House of Lords
(Lewis' Top. Die.).



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 63

will of William de Braose ; after which he besieged the,
town of Abertawi (or Swansea) with a strong force, and
when he had prosecuted the siege for ten weeks and had
almost reduced the citizens by famine to surrender, he
was obliged to abandon the enterprise on account of the
squabbles between his sons Griffith and Maelgon, and the
loss of some of his servants who had been drowned on the
preceding day. 1 It was probably at the close of that year
that " on Christmas Eve, the family of Maelgon brought
missiles with them to break down the castle of Ystrad
Meuric," which they demolished. 2 In the year 1193,
about the feast of St. Ciricius, the retainers of Howel Sais
" obtained the castle of Gwys by treachery ; and captured
Philip, son of Gwys [Philip de Gwys], the owner of the
castle, with his wife and two sons." Whereupon the
Normans and Flemings of Dyvet assaulted the town of
Llanhauaden, which was under the power of Howel, "but
they were ignominiously driven home again without
succeeding in their purpose." 3 " And when the said Howel
perceived that he could not hold possession of all the
castles, without throwing some of them down, he per-
mitted the family of his brother Maelgon to demolish the
castle of Llanhauaden. And when the Flemings heard
of this, they assembled unexpectedly against the two
brothers, attacked them, killed many of their men, and
put them to flight, and immediately afterwards the Welsh
returned and assembled about the castle, and, to their
satisfaction, it was razed to the ground. That year
Anarawd, son of Res, seized Madoc and Howel, his
brothers, and deprived them of their eyes," 4 with the
intention of possessing their territory.

Maelgon now gave up to Anarawu the castle of Ystrad
Meuric in Cardiganshire, in exchange for his brothers
Howel and Madoc whom Anarawd had detained in
captivity. This was in 1194. In the same year the
Lord Res built the castle of Rhaiader Gwy the second
time. 5 And his own sons, Howel and Maelgon, laid wait
for him, and took him prisoner ; 6 but he was released by
the means of his blind son Howel, who deceived his
brother Maelgon ; and the Lord Res recovered the castle

i Annales Cambriac. 2 Brut-y-Ty-wysogion. 3 Ibid. Compared with Annales
Cambria?. 4 and 5 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 6 Ibid, and Annales Camb.



64 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

of Dynevor, which Maelgon had kept. The sons of Cad-
wallon ap Madoc, of Melenith, at this time reoccupied
the castle of Rhaiader Gwy which they fortified for them-
selves.

King Richard returned to England from his captivity
in the spring of this year, having been absent about four
years.

In the ensuing year, 1195, Roger Mortimer came with
an army into Melenith, and drove out the sons of Cad-
wallon. The Flemings also recovered the castle of Gwys.

And then Res and Meredith, the sons of the Lord Res,
having gathered together a number of wild heads of the
country, came to Dynevor and got the castle from their
father's garrison, and the castle of Cantrev Bychan,
(i.e. Llandovery Castle) through treachery, by the con-
sent of the men of these parts. "Wherewith their father
was sore displeased, and laid private wait for them, and
by treason of their owne men (which were afraid anie
further to offend their lord and prince) they were taken" 1
at Ystrad Meuric and brought to their father, who placed
them in confinement.

In this year William de Braose won the castle of St.
Clare, and held it, together with no less than 70 of
Howel's retainers, whom he took captive therein. 2 When
Howel was informed of this he destroyed the castle of
Newer (or Dynevor?), but retained the land in spite of
the English. 3 Whether he was at this time acting in
concert with his father or with his rebellious brothers
Res and Meredith I cannot tell.

Having subdued the revolt of his sons the aged Prince
Res was now able to turn his hand against the English.
In the year 1196 he " gathered a great armie, and laid
siege to the towne and castell of Caermarthyn, and in
short time wanne them both, spoiling and destroieng the
same, and then returned with great bootie. Then he led
his armie to the Marches before the castell of Clun, which
after a long siege and manie a fierce assault he got, and
burned it ; and from thence he went to the castell of
Radnor, and likewise wanne it ; to the defense whereof
came Roger Mortimer and Hugh de Saye [Lord of

1 Powel's History. 2 Annales Camb. 3 Ibid. B.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 65

Richard's castle], with a great armie of Normanes and
Englishmen, well armed and tried soldiours. Then Rees,
which had wornie the castell, determined not to keepe
his men within the walles, but boldlie, like a worthie
prince, came into the plaine besides the towne, and gave
them battell, where his men (although for the most part
unarmed and not accustomed to the battell) declared
that they came of Brytaine's blood (whose title the noble
Romaine Emperours did so much desire, as a token of
manhood and worthines) choosing rather to die with
honour in defense of their countrie than to live with
shame, [and] did so worthilie behave themselves that
their enemies forsooke the field, with great losse of their
men, whom Rees pursued till the benefit of the night
shadowed them with hir darkness; and forthwith he laid
siege to the castle of Payne in Elvel and gat it ;" 1 but
this castle was restored by him to its owner William de
Braose, whose daughter was married to Griffith the son
of Res, and with whom he entered into terms of peace.

These gallant exploits closed the Lord Res' career.
In the year 1197 there was a great and terrible plague
throughout all the isle of Britain and France, in which
great numbers perished ; and on the viii. Kal. Maii 2
(April 24), 1197, "died Rees the sonnc of Gruffyth ap
Rees ap Theodor, Prince of South Wales, the onelie anchor,
hope, and staie of all that part of Wales, as he that
brought them out of thraldome and bondage of strangers,
and set them at libertie, and had defended them diverse
times in the field manfullie, daunting the pride and courage
of their cruell enemies, whom he did either chase out of the
land, or compelled by force to live quietlie at home. Wo
to that cruell destiiiie that spoiled the miserable land of
her defense and shield, who, as he descended of noble and
princelie blood, so he passed all other in commendable
qualities and laudable virtues of the mind; he was the
overthrower of the mightie, and setter up of the weake,
the overturner of the holdes, the separator of troopes, the
scattcrer of his foes, among whom he appeared as a wild
boare among whelpes, or a lion that for anger beateth
his taile to the ground." 3 " It is observed that this Prince
was the youngest of six towardly sons that his father had

1 Po^el's Hist. 2 Annales Theokesberiee. 3 Powel's Hist.

K



66 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

by Gwenllian, the fair daughter to the Prince of North
Wales, and that he, surviving them all, obtained the
dominion of South Wales, which he well and worthily-
ruled." 1

Our chroniclers are encomiastic of this character, says
Yorke, 2 and state that he was no less remarkable in
courage than in the stature and lineaments of his body
wherein he excelled most men.

Spes patrise, columen pacis, lux urbis et orbis ;

Gentis honos, decus armorum, fulmenque duelli ;

Quo neque pace prior, iieque fortior alter in armis. 3
His character has been well-nigh libelled by the pen of
flatterers. The second volume of the Myfyrian arch-
aeology has preserved the following strain of almost
heathen adulation; " Death in that accursed year broke
the chain of destiny to reduce the Lord Rhys ap Griffith
under his triumphant dominion, the man who was the
chief, the shield, the strength of the south, and of all
Wales ; the hope and defence of all the tribes of Britons ;
descended of a most illustrious line of Kings ; conspicuous
for his extensive alliance; the powers of his mind were
characteristic of his descent; a councillor in his court,
a soldier in the field, the safeguard of his subjects, a
combatant on the ramparts ; the nerve of war ; the van-
quisher of multitudes, &c." We find in the annals of
the church of Winchester a strange story relating to the
last days of this gallant warrior and popular Prince,
which throws a light upon the times in which he lived,
while it shows the independence of his spirit and the
reckless indifference with which he treated ecclesiastical
authority when employed for political purposes. The
Annalist informs us that Peter de Leia, Bishop of St.
David's, came to the court of King Res (as he is called)
to remonstrate with him for disturbing the peace of the
Holy church and of his master the King of England, but
when he found that his paternal entreaties were altogether
bootless, he became very angry and retired from the
interview in high displeasure. On the following night the
graceless sons of Res, under their father's instructions,
pulled the Bishop from his bed, when he had nothing on
him but his woollen undergarment and drawers fstaminia

1 Hengwrt MS. 2 Royal Tribes of Walee, p. 42. 3 Pentarchia.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. G7

tantum femoraUbusque indutunJ, and in this half naked state
they irreverently dragged him through the wood near his
house, and were hastily taking him to their lord, when he
was fortunately rescued from their hands by the men of
AYilliam de Braose. The next morning the Bishop sum-
moned his Archdeacons and all the Presbyters of his
Diocese and, in conjunction with them, proceeded to
anathaniatize both the King and his sons together with
their whole land. And not many days afterwards Res
died, with the sentence of excommunication still resting
upon him. But Griffith, son of Res, being a little more
tractable than his father, came to the Bishop, attended by
his brothers and friends, and humbly begged his pardon
for the offences they had committed, promising due sub-
mission and respect to the English King as well as to the
Bishop himself. Whereupon the Bishop, with the per-
mission and authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury,
consented to absolve both the deceased King and his living
sons, on condition that not only the sons should be scourged
but also the now decomposed body of the King himself. 2
Prince Res is said by some to have been buried in the
cathedral church of St. David, where a monument on
the south side of the altar is shown as his, and another
on the north side as that of his son Res Grig ; 3 but accord-

i I have not elsewhere met M-ith the word Staininia ; but it is presumptively
a derivative of Stamen, which, in the Glossary of Latin Words appended to
the Record Ed. of Chronicon Monasterii de Abinydon, is rendered "a woollen
undergarment, used by the monks instead of hair cloth." 2 Annales de Wintonia,
sub auno. 3 Much has been written on the subject of these monuments, but it
yet remains to Le decided to whom they really belong. Browne Willis, who is
followed by Mr. Manby, ascribes the effigy on the South side to Res ap
Tudor, Prince of South Wales ; and considers the other to represent Owen Tudor,
the father of Edmund, Earl of Richmond. He subsequently corrects the latter
statement, and assigns the second monument to Res Grig, whom he erroneously calls
the son of Res ap Tudor. Mr. Fenton reduces this tradition to its original form, and
attributes the tomb to Res ap Griffith, commonly called the Lord Res, and his son Res
Gri>:, respectively. Messrs. Jones and Freeman, the authors of the History and Anti-
quities of St. David's, from whom the above account is borrowed, affirm " It is certain
that these, and these alone of the South Welsh Princes, were buried at St. David's, the
rest of their family having been buried at Strata Florida Abbey." In corroboration of
which they give the following quotations " Anno MCXCVIII Ricardus Rex obiit.
Resus iilius Grifut Sut Wallise Princeps moritur iv. cal. Maii ; cujus corpus apud
Sane-tarn David honorifice huinatum est" (Annales Menerense* ; Anglia Sacra, II,
p. 549) ; and " Y vlwydyn honnog bu uarw Rys Gryc yn Llandeilaw Vawr, ac y
cladwyt yu Mynyw yn jmyl bed y dat " (Brut-y-Tywygogion, Myv. Arch. II, p. 456).
According to Warrington (Hist. Wai. II, p. 6), however, who quotes from MS. of
Edwd. Llwyd in Sir John Sebright's collection, and Vaughan's British Antiquity
Revived, the Lord Res was buried at Ystrad Flur in the abbey of his own foundation.
I am disposed to believe that he was buried at St. David's ; but these monuments in
St. David's cathedral are of much too late a date, judging from the style of the armour,
to have been erected ut the time of Res ap Griffith's death, in 1 1 97, or that of his son Res



68 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

ing to other accounts he was buried in the abbey of his
own foundation at Strata Florida, or Ystrad Flur.

Besides the abbey of Strata Florida he likewise
founded that of Tallagh or Talley in Carmarthenshire ; x
and was moreover a benefactor to the commandery
of Slebech 2 and other religious Houses.

The Lord Res ap Griffith married G-wenllian, daughter
of Madoc ap Meredith, Prince of Lower Powis, by whom,
according to Yorke, he had four sons and two daughters. 3

Grig, who died in 1223. The armour is that of the latter part of the fourteenth century.
The effigy on the South side (a figure of which is given in Hoare'8 Giraldus) represents
a man rather advanced in years, in a recumbent attitude, clothed in armour with his



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