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Tizor raised, booted and spurred : the head which has the conical shaped basanet and
camaille, is reclining upon a casque surmounted by the crest, on a chapeau a lion sejant.
The body armour is covered by ajupon, on the breast and back of which are embroidered
the wearer's arms [gules] within a bordure engrailed [or] a lion rampant [of the second].
It is not quite clear whether the jupon, which falls in a i tinge round the hips, is meant
to have sleeves, or whether the figure has a hauberk with short sleeves, those of the
tunic appearing beneath them. The hands are clasped ; there is a richly decorated belt
and sword ; the legs have complete plate armour, with genouilleres ; the feet have spurs,
and rest on a lion. Above it is a skreen and projecting canopy of late perpendicular
work. The figure on the North side of the altar is similar in nearly every respect, but
evidently the representation of a much younger man. The head, however, reclines on
a double cushion, and the heraldic bearings on the jupon are differenced by a label of
3 points. The arms are protected by plate armour, with elbow joints and round plates
at the elbows. The hands are broken off, but were originally clasped in prayer. Both
these figures are extremely well sculptured in a fine oolite ; and it is evident that they
both represent members of the same family. We can hardly conceive the position which
these tombs occupy being conceded to any but to persons of high rank ; and the arms
are those of Res ap Tudor and his descendants. These arms were subsequently assumed
by the Talbots who married an heiress of the family ; but there is no special ground
for supposing that any members of this family were buried at St. David's. The authors
of the History and Antiquities of St. David's are on the whole inclined to believe that
these effigies mark the resting place of the Lord Res and his son ; their conclusion
being based on " the general tradition, the conspicuous position which they occupy, and
the mark of cadency on one of the figures." And in order to account for the discrepancy
between the style of the armour and the date of their deaths, they conjecture that they
might have been put up by one of the Talbot family, whose members possessed great
power in South Wales, and were claiming greater, and seem to have regarded them-
selves as in some sort the representatives of lies ap Griffith. If the principle once be
conceded that such monuments may have been erected long after the death of those to
whose memories they were put up, there can be no means of identifying them by the
style of their architecture or the dress of the figures. If the Talbots had erected such
monuments to their remote ancestors they would also have been careful to note more
clearly for whom the effigies were intended. There is, however, another way of account-
ing for these monuments which does not appear to have occurred to the learned
antiquaries who have written on the subject. It seems to have escaped their notice
that the senior branch of this princely family, the descendants of the Lord Griffith,
eldest son of Res, and brother of Res Grig, were extant in the male line, and retain-
ing a portion of their ancient inheritance so late, at least, as the year 1355, and
probably later. And whereas they held, in addition to their portion of Cardigan, lands
also in Rhos and the lordship of St. David's, it is not improbable that they may have
been buried at the cathedral church of that city. The label of 3 points on the
armour of the younger figure seems to me rather to prove that it is not the effigy
of Res Grig, who was a younger son, seeing that the label is, almost invariably, the
mark of difference assumed by an elder son.

l Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 2 Fenton's Pembrokeshire, appendix, p. 64.
3 Yorke's Royal Tribes, p. 42.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 69

In a full and ancient pedigree, among the visitations of
Lewys Dwiin, his sons, by the daughter of Madoc ap
Meredith his wife, are stated to have been Griffith,
Cadogan, Res Grig, and Meredith Gethin j 1 of whom the
first and two last in their order appear as confirming their
father's grant to the abbey of Ystrad Flur ; but I have
met with no other notice of Cadogan, the second son
here mentioned, of whose existence I have much doubt.

According to the same authority he had likewise by
her a daughter Gwenllian, who married first Rodri ap
Owen Gwyneth, and secondly Ednyfed Fychan, 2 Lord of
Brynffenigl in Denbigh land, chief counsellor to Llewelyn
ap Jerwerth Prince of North Wales, by whom she was
mother of Grono ap Ednyfed, great, great, great, grand-
father of Sir Owen Tudor, the grandfather of King Henry
VII. Gwenllian was certainly the wife of Ednyfed
Fychan, but according to other accounts it was Anne or
Agnes, another daughter of the Lord Res, who was the
wife of Rodri ap Owen Gwyneth, 3 from which marriage
the Wynnes of Gwyder descended. Sir John Wynne, in
his history of Gwyder, speaks of the daughter of the Lord
Res as Rodri's first wife and the mother of two of his sons,
but he does not mention her name. If she was his first
wife she could not have afterwards been married to
Ednyfed, unless we suppose her to have been divorced
from Rodri on account of their consanguinity. It is
more probable, however, that she was not the same
with Gwenllian wife of Ednyfed.

The same pedigree mentions also several illegitimate
children, namely : 1 Maelgoii, by Gwervil daughter of
Llewelyn ap Res ap Wardaf Vrych. 2 Morgan, 4 by Nest
daughter of Caradoc Vychan ap Caradoc. 3 Cynwric,
by Nest daughter of Griffith Wynn ap Gwalchmai.
4 Howel Sais, Lord of St. Clare, by Ysteder 5 daughter

1 and 2 Her. Vis. "Wai., Vol. II, p. 99. 8 Ibid. p. 69 ; Giraldus speaks of this
marriage of Rodri ap Owen Gwyneth with the daughter of Res ap Griffith as an
incestuous one because they were related in the third degree (Itin. Kamb. p. 127).
Gwenllian, the mother of Res ap Griffith, and Owen Gwyneth, the father of Rodri, were
hrother and sister. 4 According to the Golden Grove Book, Morgan was own brother to
Maelgon being also the son of lies by Gwervil, daughter of Llewelyn ap Res ap Wardaf
Vrych (Lord of CilicwnO. The MSS. known as the Golden Grove Book consist of three
volumes of Pedigrees. They have lately been lodged, by the Earl of Cawdor, at the
Public Record Office, in London, with the understanding that they may at any time be
reclaimed by himself or his heirs. 5 According to the same authority (Golden Grove
Book, as W. H.) this Ysteder was foster sister to the Lord Res.



70 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

and heiress of Caradoc ap Llowrodd. 5 Cadwalader, by
Gwenllian daughter of Meredith ap Griffith ap Tudor.
6 Meredith, who was Archdeacon of Cardigan, by Eva
daughter of David Vras ap Rydderch. 7 Meredith
Iddall (or the blind), by Gwendyth daughter of Cynddelw
ap Brochwel of Llangiwg in Emlyn. 8 Owen Caerwedros,
by Sabel daughter of Ivan hir of Caerwedros. A daugh-
ter Thangwyst, by Gwendyth daughter of Cynddelw ap
Brochwel of Llangiwg. And a daughter Gladys wife of
Meredith ap Rydderch, whose mother is not mentioned.

Besides these, many other sons and daughters are
ascribed to him by various writers, as Anarawd and
Madoc, who are mentioned in the Welsh Chronicle ;* a
daughter who married Enieon Clyd, Lord of Elvel ; 2 a
daughter who married Enion ap Res, Lord of Werthry-
neon or Gwrthryneon ; 3 a daughter who married William
Martyn, Lord of Kernes ; 4 Aiicreta, wife of Bledri, Lord
of Dyvet ; 5 Catherine, wife of Cadivor ap Dyfnwal, Lord
of Castell Howel in the commot of Gwynnionyth, in
Cardiganshire ; 6 and Elen, wife of Griffith ap Ivor Bach
and mother of his son Res ap Griffith. 7

The state of morals at the courts of the Welsh Princes
was very lax at this period. It was scarcely less so,
indeed, at the court of King Henry II ; but the harems
of the former must have rivalled those of the Eastern
Monarchs. And it is observable that in Wales it was by
no means uncommon in those times for the illegitimate
sons, when eminent, to share the paternal inheritance
with those that were born in wedlock.

We have seen that the charter of Res to the abbey of
Ystrad Flur was witnessed by three of his legitimate sons.
The pedigree gives also another son Cadogan of whom I
find no mention elsewhere. If there were such a person
he was probably dead before the year 1184, the date of
the charter above mentioned. Of Griffith, the eldest son,
we shall speak hereafter as Lord of South Wales. Res,
also, and his posterity will be spoken of in the subsequent

1 and 2 Brut-y-Tywysogion ; according to Giraldus (Itin. Kamb. p. 14) " JEneaa
JEnece Claudii Jilius, Elvenice Princeps," married a daughter of the Lord Res ap Griffith.
If this he so the father and son must have married two sisters ; but Giraldus may
possibly have confounded the father with the son. 3 Brut-y-Tywysogion. * Fenton's
Pembrokeshire, p. 623. 6 Burke' s Die. of Lan. Gentry sup., p. 112. 6 Meyrick's Hist.
Cardigan, p. 149. 7 Clark's Glamorgan Pedigrees, under Lewis of Van.






PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 71

history. This Res Vychan (otherwise called Res Grig)
became a person of consequence ; and his descendants,
by dint of their activity and time serving policy,
assumed, for a while, the chief place among the Princes
of the house of Dynevor.

Meredith Gethin the youngest son of Res, was in
rebellion against his father in 1195. He became Lord of
Llandovery and the Cantrev Bychan, in the land of
Carmarthen, after the death of his father. In conjunction
with his brother Res, he took possession of the castle of
Dynevor in the year 1198, at which time their brother
Griffith was in the hands of the English. Meredith was
slain at Carnwyllaon in the year 1201, when his brother
Griffith took possession of the castle of Llandovery and
the Cantrev in which it was situated.

This Meredith is erroimpusly said, by the heralds, to
have married the daugnter and heiress of Howel ap
Jerwerth, Lord of Caerleon upon Usk, and to have
had by her a son Griffith hir, Lord of Caerleon, from
whom the present Lord Tredegar derives his descent. 1

It is certain, however, from the several inquisitions
taken after the deaths of the Lords of Caerleon, that this
descent is wrongly given. 2 From these inquests it appears
that Howel ap Jerwerth was succeeded by his son
Morgan, who was Lord of Caerleon in 1236. Gwervil
or Wirvil, the daughter and heiress of Morgan, was

l The following is the descent of Griffith ap Meredith given in tho lolo MS.
" Grufydd ap Meredydd Gethin ap yr Arglwydd llhys was Lord of Caerlleon upon Usk,
and of the territory of Meredydd ; and ho built the castle of Machen, in Caerlleon ; and
he was Lord of Llandovery and Talley, and he huilt the castle of Llandovery ; and in
that castle he died on St. Mary's Eve in August [Aug. 14], and was buried at Strata
Florida. And the mother of Grufydd ap Meredydd Gethin, was Gwenllian Verch Sir
Jorwerth ap Owen "Wan, Lord of Caerlleon upon Usk. Meredydd ap Grufydd ap
McreJydd Gethin, Lord of the possessions of Meredydd and Caerlleon upon Usk, built
the castle of Newport upon Usk. The mother of that Meredydd was from Llanaeron.
And Sir Morgan ap Meredydd was his on by the daughter of Cadwgan ap Madoc,
Lord of Radnor, by the daughter of Philip ap Meyric ap Gwas Teilo, of Gwent. The
wife of Sir Morgan ap Meredydd was Grissel Verch David ap Meyric, of Gwent, and of
that Grissel this Sir Morgan had a daughter called Angharad Verch Morgan ; to whom
the following Englyn was composed ;

Prosperity to the beauteous maid of Caerlleon,

Angharad, daughter of Morgan ; splendid as the gold ;

Of the wealth dispensing hand ; best of daughters,

Of the hue of the drifted snow.

And this Angharad was mother of Morgan ap Llewelyn ap Ivor." If I am right in my
conjecture the Caerleon heiress was not the mother, but the wife, of Griffith (ap
Meredith Gethin), and not the daughter but the great granddaughter of Jerwerth ap
Owen Wan. Inq. p.m. 33. Hen. Ill, No. 46 ; Inq. p.m. C. Edw. I, No. 70; Inq.
p.m. 5. Edw. Ill, No. 16. Compare also Arch. Camb. 1st series, Vol. Ill, p. 331 et ieq.



72 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

married to a certain Griffith, whose son Meredith ap
Griffith was found to be 14 years of age in 1249, and
to have the right of inheritance, if he could prove his
legitimacy, which he afterwards established and accord-
ingly held the property till the year 1272-3, -when he was
forcibly dispossessed of it by Gilbert de Clare during the
absence of Edward in the Holy Land. Meredith was
succeeded by his son Morgan ap Meredith, whom I take
to be the Morgan, that was in arms against the King in
1294, in conjunction with Madoc of North Wales, and
Maelgon Vychan of West Wales. His daughter and
heiress, Angharad Verch Morgan, Lady of St. Clare, was
married first to Llewelyn ap Ivor, Lord of Tredegar in
Monmouthshire, from which marriage the present Lord
Tredegar is descended; and secondly to David ap
Llewelyn of Eydodin, Esq. If, therefore, there is any
foundation for this traditional descent of the Morgan
family from Meredith ap Res, Lord of Llandovery, it is
more likely to have been through Griffith who married
the heiress of Morgan ap Howel ap Jerwerth, and who
may possibly have been the son of Meredith, son of the
Lord Res. But I know of 110 evidence of this. It is
recorded in the Welsh Chronicle that Meredith ap Griffith,
Lord of Hirvryn, died on the morrow of St. Lucy, the
Virgin (December 14, 1270), in the castle of Llandovery,
and was buried in the chapter House of the Monks, at
Strata Florida. But there must be an error in the date,
if this be the same with the Meredith ap Griffith above
mentioned, who is stated by an inquisition of 6 Edw. I,
to have been dispossessed of his Monmouthshire property
in 1272-3. 1



i Arch. Carnb. 1st series, Vol. Ill, p. 237.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 73



CHAPTER VI.

After the death of Res ap Griffith, which occurred on
April 24, 1197, his eldest legitimate son, Griffith ap Res,
proceeded to the King's Court ; and having been acknow-
ledged as his lawful heir and done homage to the King,
he returned home to take possession of his dominions.
In this, however, he was opposed by his brother Maelgon,
who had been ejected from his lands by his father.
Maelgon formed an alliance with Wenwynwyn, son of
Owen Cyveilioc, Prince of Upper Powis, and speedily
re-entered Cardigan accompanied by the forces of the
latter. With this powerful aid he gained the castle of
Aberystwith together with the town, after killing many
of the inhabitants and taking several prisoners; and
about the month of August he further succeeded in cap-
turing his brother Griffith, whom he gave into the custody
of Wenwynwyn. Maelgon now took possession of the
land of Cardigan ; his brothers Res Grig and Meredith,
the younger sons of Res ap Griffith, were about this time
released from prison; 1 and Wenwynwyn proceeded
against Arustli, 2 which he conquered, taking captive
Llewelyn ap Jerwerth and David ap Owen, Princes of
the House of Gwyneth.

In the following year, 1 198, the Lord of Powis delivered
over Prince Griffith ap Res to the English, in exchange
for the castle of Carrec Huva, and Griffith was imprisoned
in Corf Castle. At the same time Maelgon completed his
conquest of Cardigan by making himself master of the
castles of Aberteivi and Ystrad Meuric which had still
been held for his brother Griffith.

"That year" says the chronicler "the youngest sons
of Lord Res took possession of the castle of Dynevor," 4

1 Annales Cambriae. 2 The cantrev of Arustli, which is partly in the present county
of Montgomery and partly in that of Radnor, was taken from Owen Cyveilioc, the
father of "NVenwyiiwyn, in 1167, by the Lord Res ap Griffith, to whom it was confirmed
by King Henry II in 1171. It was thus recovered by the Jxirds of Powis in 1197 ;
since which time, with slight interruptions, it remained constantly in their possession.
3 Annales de Wintonia, p. 68. 4 Brut-y-Tywysogion.

L



74 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

which, according to Powel, they won from the Normans ;
so that the latter would seem to have taken advantage
of the death of the Lord Res and the difficulties of his
successor to make themselves masters of the greater
portion of Carmarthenshire.

Wenwynwyn subsequently turned his arms against the
English, and gathered a strong body of Welshmen who
joined him for the purpose of invading the English
territory. With these allied forces he marched into
Radnorshire, and proceeded to attack Pain's Castle, a
notable stronghold in Elvel, perhaps originally built by
Pain Fitz John, a powerful and active minister of Henry
I on the Western Marches, and at this time held by the
family of De Braose. The castle must have been well
defended, for the Welsh army besieged it for nearly three
weeks with doubtful success; and "when the English
had intelligence of that, they liberated Griffith ap Res
[de Braose's son-in-law], whom they had in prison, and
collected the strength of England to accompany him,
with the intention of pacifying the Welsh. And then the
Welsh would not accept peace of the English, but, after
obtaining the castle, they threatened to burn the towns,
and carry off their spoils; and the English, not brooking
that, attacked them, and in the first battle put them to
flight, making a vast slaughter of them ; and in that year
Griffith ap Res, manfully got possession of his share of his
territory from Maelgon his brother, excepting two castles,
namely Aberteivi and Ystrad Meuric. As to one of them,
namely, Aberteivi, Maelgon swore upon several relics, in
the presence of monks, after taking hostages for peace
from Griffith, that he would deliver up the castle and
hostages together to Griffith on a fixed day. And that
oath he disregarded, giving up neither the castle nor the
hostages." 1 But, says Powel, "as soone as Maelgon got
the pledges, he fortified the castell, and manned it to his
owne use, and sent the pledges to Gwenwynwyn there to
be kept in prison. But shortlie after, by God's helpe,
they brake the prison and escaped home." 2

In the following year, 1199, Maelgon got possession of
the castle of Dynerth, which Griffith had built or restored ;

l Brut-y-Tywysogion. 2 Bowel's Hist. Wai.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 75

and of the men he found there, he slew some, and im-
prisoned others. On the other hand Griffith possessed
himself, by stratagem, of the castle of Cilgerran, in Pem-
brokeshire. 1 It was at this period that John succeeded to
the English crown ; and Maelgon took advantage of this
opportunity to pay his court to the King, and thus obtain
his powerful assistance against his brother. In order to
purchase this he made over the castle of Aberteivi, and
the adjacent commot of Iscoed Bisberwern or Isherwen,
which he sold to the King for 200 marks, because he felt
himself unable to hold them against his brother Griffith. 2
For this surrender the King, by his charter bearing
date at Poictiers on the 3rd of December in the first
year of his reign (1199), concedes to his beloved and
faithful Maelgun, son of Res, for his homage and faithful
service, the four cantreds which are called Kaerdigan,
together with Kilgerran and Emelin, as well those of
them which he has already acquired as those which are yet
to be acquired from the King's enemies ; so that Mailgun
should serve him faithfully and remain faithful to him
against all men. And Mailgun for himself and his heirs
gives up and quit claims to the King and his heirs for
ever the castle of Kaerdigan with a certain commot
adjacent to the said castle. 3

A few months later Maelgon obtained a confirmation of
the King's grant, whereby the latter concedes to him the
four cantreds of Kardigan, excepting the castle of Kardigan
and the commot called Bisbirwern adjacent to the said
castle, which the aforesaid Maelgon has given up to the
King. This charter, which is dated from Worcester on the
llth of April in the 1st of King John (1200), is witnessed
by Geoffry fitz Peter, Earl of Essex, William Mareschal,
Earl of Pembroke, William Earl of Surrey, and others. 4

1 Brut-y-Tywysogion. 2 This perfidious betrayal of his country's cause brought
upon Maelgon the malediction of the clergy and people of all Wales (Annales Cambriai).
3 Rot. Chart. a<>. 1. Job., memb. 2. 4 Rot. Chart. a<>. 1. Job. memb. 15. Some doubt
seems to have existed as to which of these charters was first issued. King Richard
died on Tuesday, April 6, 1199 : and at first sight it might be thought that this charter,
which is dated at Worcester on April 11, in the first year of his reign had been issued
immediately after the news of Richard's death had been received in England. It would
seem to have been so understood by Maelgon, the son of this Maelgon, from the order
in which he produced the two charters in a trial at Westminster in the 25th of Henry
III. But I have followed the Editor of the Record Edition of the Charter Rolls, and
also Sir Harris Nicolas, who shows, in his " Chronology of History," that the first
regnal year of King John commenced on May 27, 1199. Moreover the Prince was
apparently in Normnndy at the time of his brother's death. Mr. Eyton su^nnrta thi



76 PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES.

It is probable that Maelgon's charter would have
availed him little at the time. The King's writs would
have had no force in a country where his rule was not
acknowledged ; and, during Griffith's lifetime, it does not
appear that Maelgon ever got possession of these his
brother's territories which had been so liberally bestowed
upon him by the English monarch ; but it served as
a pretext for future interference on the part of the
English crown, and rendered it easier for the King to
deprive the sons of Griffith of their inheritance, during the
family disputes which followed upon the death of their
father. In the meantime the King retained the important
fortress of Cardigan which has been described as the key
and lock of all Wales.

In October of the same year, 1200, Griffith is himself,
apparently, at peace with the King, from whom he
receives a summons and a safe-conduct to come to the
King's court, bearing date from Chelewerth (Chelsworth)
on the 22nd of October ; and the King issues his letters
patent to the Sheriff of Pembroke, and his barons, knights,
&c., of Ros and Pembroke, apprizing them of the issue
of the above safe-conduct, and charging them, in the
meanwhile, to levy no forfeit on him or his lands. 1

Whether this summons was obeyed or not I do not find.
I imagine that Griffith was at this time in possession of
the whole of Cardigan, except the castle of Cardigan with
its adjacent commot of Bisberwern (which would have
included but a small portion of the commot of Iscoed).
And perhaps we may also except the castles of Dynerth
and Ystrad Meuric, which may possibly have remained
in the hands of Maelgon with their adjacent lordships.

It would seem, from the King's letter having been
addressed to the Sheriff of Pembroke, and the Barons,
Knights and others of Eos and Pembroke, that Griffith
also held lands in those parts. These lands will have
involved the castle of Cilgerran and the adjoining

reading, and says that April 11 anno regni Regis Johannis primo is certainly April 11,
1200. It is a good illustration of the mistakes likely to arise from King John's dating
his diplomas abnormally. It is well known that he dated them not, like other Kings,
from the date ef his predecessor's death but from the day of his own coronation, he not
being successor to the crown dc jure but only de facto. Moreover he was accustomed
to date from a moveable feast, so that in some of his regnal years a certain number of
days come twice over, and in others certain days of the ordinary year do not occur at all.
l Rot. Chart. Pat. a- 2. Job. memb. 28 in dorso.



PRINCES OF SOUTH WALES. 77

lordship of Emlyn, which Griffith had recently taken
from ^f aelgon. It is possible that he may have also held
the commot or lordship of Trefgarn in the cantrev of
Khos, which was subsequently held by his descendants
under the Earls of Pembroke; but with respect to this
records are deficient.

We have no mention, at this period, of Ystrad Tywy,
and I am unable to discover whether Griffith retained
any portion of his father's dominions in those parts.
We shall see that he subsequently took possession of
the castle of Llandovery and the cantrev Bychan upon
the death of his younger brother Meredith ; which had
probably been recovered from the Normans, in 1198, at
the same time with the castle of Dynevor and the



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