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Manual of conchology. Second series: Pulmonata (Volume series 2, vol. 16) online

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towards the ends, lighter in the middle, with snow-white band


below the suture on all, or all but the earliest, whorls. Smooth
and glossy, with excessively fine striae only behind the lip.
Basal keel short and strong. Aperture oblong, oblique, the
lip expanded or reflexed, pink on face and back, a white spot
at its upper insertion. Columella truncate deep within.
18 x 6 to 20 x 6!/2 mm., with 7% to 8 whorls.

Central Jamaica: Manchester (C. B. Ad.) ; a variety with
the subsutural band much narrower at Peace River, Man-
chester (Chitty) ; Balaclava, St. Elizabeth (P. W. Jarvis).

Pupa splendens Menke, PFR., Symbols ad Hist. HeL, i, p.
45, no. 51 (1841). Torquilla hornbeckii VILLA, Dispositio
Systematica Conch, terr. et fluv. in coll. Villa, p. 57, no. 12
(1841). C. maugeri var. tricolor C. B. A., Contrib., p. 163.
CHITTY, Contrib., p. 11. C. maugeri PFR. in Philippi,
Abbild., iii, pi. 3, f. 13;Conchyl. Cab., pi. 7, f. 37. DESK, in
Fer., Hist, pi. 164, f. 29, 30tHelix ignifera Fer., Prodr.,
p. 61, no. 495 (nude name) .

This form differs from citrina only in its dark color. The
intermediate whorls vary from brown to olive, and there is a
local form found near Peace River in which they are gray-
white or yellowish (figs. 54, 55). Examples of this pale race
measure from 16 x 6 to 19 x 6.2 mm.

The names splendens, hornbeckii and tricolor were all
based upon the same dark variety, though both Pfeiffer and
Villa considered the pale shells (citrina) to be specifically
the same as the dark ones.

The original description of Pupa splendens is as follows:
Shell subfusiform, rimate, apex truncate, very smooth, glossy,
fulvous or green, girdled at the suture with white ; whorls 8,
flattened, the last not larger than the penult., carinate at the
base; aperture suborbicular, peristome reflexed, roseate, the
margins converging, joined by a thin callous, right margin
dilated, columellar margin strongly folded within. Length
8.5, diam. 3 lines (Pfr.).

In figure 53 there should be some fine striae on the last
whorl, as in fig. 64 of the same plate. They were omitted by
the lithographer.


13a. Var. rosealabris (Chitty).

" Named from its beautiful rose-colored lip. Shell robust,
short, shining; coloring same as in var. tricolor [splendens] ;
keel short, pink ; no white line as in var. tricolor, or, at most,
a very microscopically thin one. Lip oblique and elongated.
Whorls 7, very fine striation extending only over one-fourth
of the last whorl, but more so than in var. tricolor. Length
.72, breadth .25 inch (C. m. var. rosealabris Chitty, Contrib.,
p. 8).

Habitat Maroon Town? (Chitty). Not seen. It would
seem to be related to albida as splendens is to citrina.

135. Var. citrina (C. B. Adams). PL 12, figs. 63, 64, 65.

" Shell more or less robust; sulphur yellow; sometimes
pearl-white when the lip is pure white; with a pure ivhite,
well-defined narrow stripe next below the suture; tinged with
red at the end of the last whorl; with excessively fine striae
behind the lip only " (Ad.).

Central and western Jamaica: Manchester (C. B. Adams) ;
Mandeville and Spur Tree Hill, in the same parish (Hender-
son). Balaclava, St. Elizabeth; Spring Garden and Albert
Town, Trelawny, and Ft. William, Westmoreland (P. W.
Jar vis) .

C. maugeri var. citrina C. B. A., Contrib., p. 164. C. mau-
geri PFR., in Phil., Abbild., iii, pi. 3, f. 13&. SOWERBY, C.
Icon., xx, pi. 15, f . 134&, c. DESK, in Fer., Hist., pi. 164, f .
31, 32.

This is one of the commonest varieties in collections, easily
known by the opaque-white subsutural band on a yellow or
whitish ground, the smooth surface and short basal keel. In
some localities the last part of the last whorl is pink- tin ted,
and the lip pink; often the first whorl or two are similarly
colored. In others there is no pink whatever. The tinted
shells form a transition towards pale forms of splendens.

Pupa fusiformis C. B. Adams. Shell fusiform, glossy, very
finely striate, opaque, ashen, decollate. Five or six whorls
lost, planulate; eight whorls remaining, not very convex,
white-banded, the band below the suture. Lip solid, white,


rounded, sinuous, scarcely continuous above; umbilicus nar-
row. Length after decollation .8 inch, width .27 inch [20 x
6.75 mm.] (C. B. Ad.).

Pupa fusiformis C. B. A., Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., Jan. 1,
1845, p. 14. Cyl. m. var. fusiformis C. B. A., Contrib. no. 9,
p. 164. Not Pupa fusiformis Deshayes, 1832.

In his arrangement of the varieties of maugeri, Adams
places this between citrina and albida, remarking that " it is
of a pearl or ashy- white color." It seems, from the descrip-
tion, to be very similar to citrina and albida, and, in any case,
must be dropped, as the name is preoccupied. Locality un-

13c. Var. ALBIDA (C. B. Adams). PL 12, fig. 66.

Shell fusiform, glossy and smooth, except for some very
fine striae behind the lip, bluish-white, the suture marked with
a fine white line; apex and a space behind the lip sometimes
faintly pink-tinted. Keel very short, blunt. Aperture
longer than wide, oblique, the peristome reflexed, moderately
thickened, white; outer lip retracted slightly above; columel-
lar lip projecting in a slight angle near the insertion. Colu-
mella more or less truncate in an oblique view in the aperture.
Length 18, diam. 6 mm., whorls 7%. Length 20, diam. 5.5
mm., whorls 8%.

Bristol, Trelawny (P. W. Jarvis).

Cyl. maugeri PFR. in part, Monographia, ii, 384; iii, 581;
iv, 712; vi, 356 (includes numerous forms of the splendens
and levis group). Cyl. maugeri var. albida C. B. ADAMS,
Contrib., p. 165.

Type locality unknown, but the Jarvis collection contains
typical examples from the locality noted above. It differs
from citrina by the fine white sutural line, not widening into
a band on the lower whorls, and sometimes inconspicuous.

Adams thus describes albida: ll Shell like var. citrina, but
the white stripe reduced to an ill-defined line, slightly tinged
with yellow on the penult whorl, with the red tinge very
faint. " No locality is mentioned.


14. A. ALBOANFRACTUS (Chitty). PL 19, figs. 41, 42.

Small, but stout in figure; smooth and glossy, the latter
part of the last whorl densely, finely striate; pale yellow,-
fading to opaque-white on the last half or more of the last
whorl. Keel distinct but low. Aperture oblique; peristome
but little thickened and slightly retracted at the ends. Colu-
mella strongly truncate in most individuals. Length 14.5,
diam. 4.8 to 5.2 mm., whorls 7% to 8. Chitty 's type meas-
ured .62 x .22 inch. Habitat unknown, perhaps Northside,
according to Chitty.

C. m. var. alboanfractus CHITTY, Contrib., p. 8 (Oct., 1853).

Like concinna, but without bands or streaks, and with the
peristome sinuous. It differs from paivana chiefly in the
opaque- white last whorl.

14a, Var. bicolor (Chitty).

" Shell short and robust. Lip and penult whorl white,
gradually growing into a pure rich yellow to the truncate
apex ; very shining, with lines of growth only perceptible
under a strong lens. Whorls 6, o Length .6, greatest breadth
.24 (15x6 mm.). One is longer, 7y 2 whorls, length .64,
breadth .21 " (16x5.25 mm.). (Cyl. m. var. bicolor Chitty,
Contrib., p. 10.)

Habitat unknown. It seems, from the description, to be
near alboanfractus and paivana, if, indeed, it is not identical
with the latter.

14&. Var. paivana (Pfeiffer). PI. 12, figs. 58-62.

" Shell subperf orate, obese-fusiform, broadly truncate,
rather solid, smooth, glossy, waxen whitish. Spire swollen
below the middle, obese; 7 whorls remaining, the upper ones
flat, lower a little convex, the last whorl narrower, somewhat
acutely thread-keeled at base. Aperture slightly oblique,
oblong; columella with a tooth-like fold within; peristome
white, reflexed, the ends joined by a thin callous, right margin
sinuous, columellar margin somewhat toothed, angular out-
wardly, below the insertion. Length 13.5 to 14.5, diam. 5.5
mm." (Pfr.).



Cyl. paivana PFR., Novit. Conch., pt. 22, p. 258, pi. 65, f.
8, 9 (May, 1865) ; Monogr., vi, p. 357. GLOYNE, J. de C.,
1875, p. 122.

The small size, uniform yellow or dingy yellow tint and
abruptly truncate columella readily distinguish this form,
which is not uncommon. The yellow tint fades in time to
dirty white. Except for excessively fine striation on the latter
part of the last whorl, the surface is nearly smooth. The keel
is longer than in A. splendens citrina. Both size and form
vary rather widely, specimens measuring : 15 x 5.3 mm. ;
17.2 x 6 mm. ; 16.5 x 5.2 mm. Figures 58 and 59 are copies of
Pfeiffer's. Gloyne has reported paivana from Mt. Diablo,
but whether the specimens were correctly identified or not is
an open question.

15. A. DOHRNIANA (Pfeiffer). PI. 16, figs. 23, 24.

11 Shell subperf orate, subfusiform, slender, smooth, glossy;
coffee- colored, with a whitish band at the suture. Spire
slightly tapering downwards, and slowly tapering upwards
from the middle, narrowly truncate; suture simple, little im-
pressed. Nine whorls remaining are flattened, the last one
scarcely higher than the preceding, rib-striate anteriorly, the
base with a somewhat compressed keel. Aperture oblique,
sub circular, the peristome rose-flesh colored, expanded, the
margins joined by a rather thin callous; right margin pro-
duced upwards at the insertion; columellar margin sinuous,
somewhat toothed above. Length 17.5, diam. 4.66 mm.;
length of aperture with peristome 4, width 3.75 mm." (Pfr.).


Cylindrella dohrniana PFR., Malak. Bl., xviii, 1871, p. 119 ;
Novit. Conch., iv, p. 74, pi. 121, f . 14, 15 ; Monogr., viii, 423.

I have not seen this form, which apparently differs from
A. splendens chiefly by its slender shape and the rib-striation
of the back of the last whorl.

16. A. PULCHELLA (Chitty).

" This pretty shell in color resembles var. tricolor. Shell


small, not over robust, shining. Last whorl and part of the
penult., and the three upper whorls of the decollated apex, of
a deep rich brown; intermediate space of a light olive-brown.
Lip and behind the lip rose-pink except where it is inter-
rupted by the sharp white keel, which extends over one-half
of the last whorl. Next below the suture is a gradually-
widening white line, commencing at one-half of the penult,
whorl and terminating at the rose-pink behind the lip.
Whorls iy 2 . Transverse striae well marked on one-half of
the last whorl, obsolete above. Lip very oblique, with a deep
sinus on the left side. Length .64, breadth .21 inch " (CyL
m. var. pulchella Chitty, Contrib., p. 8).

Manchester? (Chitty, two specimens). Specimens from
Mr. Jarvis' collection (pi. 13, figs. 10, 11) from the Cockpit
country near Troy, St. Elizabeth, agree fairly with Chitty's
description, except in the paler intermediate whorls. The
glossy shell is whitish, with a brown or fleshy tint, the upper
whorl dark brown. The last whorl, and the lower part of the
preceding whorl, are also dark brown, with a widening white
band below the suture, and another on and above the basal
keel. The face and reverse of the sinuous lip are rose-pink.
The broad median dark belt on the latter part of the last
whorl runs directly into the pink and brown at the back of
the lip in some specimens, but in that figured (pi. 13, f. 10)
a white streak intervenes. The columella is more or less trun-
cate within, and the columellar margin of the lip is deeply
notched at the insertion, the edge being reflexed, and either
adnate or leaving a small umbilical chink. The basal keel is
strong, and longer than in A. splendens. The surface is
smooth except for some fine striae near the end of the last
whorl. Specimens measure from 17 x 5.7 mm. to 18 x 5.4
mm., with 7% to 9 whorls. One of this lot is figured. Ex-
cept in having wider white bands at suture and keel, these
shells are similar to those below referred to var. pulla.

A. dohrniana seems to have the coloration of pulchella, but
differs by its more slender contour. A. splendens is larger
than pulchella, without a white basal band, and with less
deeply notched lip-ends.


16a. Var. pulla (Chitty). PL 11, figs. 67, 68, 69, 70.

Fusiform, swollen in the middle; dark brown at the ends,
paler in the middle, the last whorl with a slowly widening
creamy band below the suture. Smooth and polished, with
some very fine striae on the latter part of the last whorl only.
Keel long and very strong, its latter part creamy-white.
Aperture long, the lip well expanded, flesh-tinted or creamy,
sinuous ; columellar margin very deeply notched at the inser-
tion, dilated and reflexed, closely applied over the umbilical
chink, closing it. Columella strongly truncate in oblique
view. Length 15, diam. 5 mm., with 7 whorls.

Maroon town, St. James (Chitty).

C. m. var. pulla CHITTY, Contrib., i,.p. 9 (Oct., 1853).

Remarkable for the closure of the axial chink by the re-
flexed and adnate columellar margin. Otherwise it resem-
bles A. paivana, except in color.

Chitty 's type measured .68 x .22 inch (17x5.5 mm.), and
is thus described: " Shell small, rather slender, dark red-
brown, almost black at the back of peritreme. Lip cream-
white, and so also around the back of it, and a white line run-
ning along the top (below the suture) of one-half of the last
whorl, narrow and gradually diminishing. I have but three
specimens before me, not the best I imagine, and, though the
brown body-color is good, each seems covered with a white sub-
stance which scales off on application of a steel instrument, as
though the substance were the natural exterior. Whorls 7%,
with deep suture, generally shining ; with transverse striae but
slightly developed on the last whorl. At the top of the left
side of the labrum is a very deep, well-marked sinus. Aper-
ture very much lengthened, and keel very sharp. Length
.68, breadth .22 inch."

17. A. SINUATA (C. B. Adams). PL 11, figs. 71, 72.

: * Shell not robust and rather thin, with the lip remarkably
sinuate ; of a dingy pearl-white, with, on the last whorl, a fine
white line below the suture and another on the anterior keel.
Lip pale red, with a tinge of brown behind. With excessively
fine striae on the back of the last whorl " (C. B. Ad.).

ANOMA. 3 1

Eastern Jamaica: the east part of Portland (C. B. AJ.) ;
Mooretown (P. W. Jarvis).

Cyl. m. var. sinuata C. B. A., Contrib., p. 164.

There are in the collection of the Academy only two poor,
worn specimens, one of which is figured. They measure
17.6x5.4 mm. with 8 whorls, and 17x4.7 mm., with Sy 2
whorls. The mouth and lip are like pulla, but the axial
chink, though very narrow, is not wholly closed, and the keel
is less strong, though still quite strong and much longer than
in A. splendens. The " east part of Portland " of Adams'
time is now middle Portland, since the union with that parish
of St. Thomas-in-the-East, a parish which once included the
John Crow Mts. and coast.

In the collection of P. W. Jarvis there are two fresh shells
of this species from Mooretown, Portland. They are glossy,
bluish-white, with a faint pink tint at the summit. The last
whorl becomes faintly straw-tinted, the keel and suture white.
Both face and back of the lip are rose-pink.

Group of A", solida.

Shell conic above, robust below, with well-rounded (rather
than tapering) last whorl, and a rather narrow, often incon-
spicuous, keel ; back of the last whorl rib-striate.

18. A. STRIATA (C. B. Adams). PL 16, figs. 40-47.

Shell rimate, obesely fusiform, thin but moderately strong ;
white, typically uniform, but sometimes tinted with red-
brown at the base. Surface somewhat glossy, finely rib-
striate, the striae weaker on the upper whorl or two. Whorls
somewhat convex, the last tapering, with a rather low, cord-
like keel below, subobsolete near the columellar lip; suture
strongly ascending to its termination. Aperture nearly ver-
tical, oval, longer than wide, the peristome thin, broadly ex-
mded and reflexed, white ; the outer and columellar margins
wel and in a plane, not sinuous, converging above, where a
short, thin parietal callous unites them. Columella seen in
oblique view to be truncate below. Length 19, diam. 6.6
mm., whorls 7 to


Jamaica: Waterloo, in the back part of Manchester
(Adams); Troy, St. Elizabeth (Jarvis).

Cyl. maugeri var. striata C. B. A., Contrib. no. 9, p. 165
(April, 1851). Cyl. macrostoma PFR., P. Z. S., 1857, p. Ill;
Conchyl. Cab., p. 73, pi. 9, f. 15-17; Monogr., iv, 712.
SOWERBY, C. Icon., xx, pi. 3, f. 26. GLOYNE, J. de Conchyl.,
1875, p. 122 (Manchester).

Quite distinct by its thin, much expanded lip, the very
short parietal callous, striate surface, etc. In one lot before
me the last whorl is reddish-brown, this color^ fading on the
preceding whorls to corneous white in the upper half of the
shell (fig. 40). Figs. 45, 46, 47 are copied from Pfeiffer's
figures of macrostoma,, which is exactly synonymous with.

19. A. SOLIDA (C. B. Adams).

The forms here included under A. solida are closely related
to the east Jamaican A. nigrescens, but the shell in A. solida
is stronger, the lip is thicker, the spire does not taper so
rapidly, and the color-patterns differ.

Pfeiffer's description of C. blandiana and "variety 1"
thereof (see pi. 16, figs. 25, 26) apply exactly to typical
solida. The several varieties included may be determined by
the following key:

I. Striation even, fine and close on the spire, not coarser on
the last whorl; pale yellowish; peristome white
and thick; columella strongly truncate; 16.5-18 x
6.3-7 mm., with 6%-7 whorls.

A. s. striatula, no. 16/.
II. Striation stronger and coarser on the latter part of the

last whorl.

1. A slowly widening white band on the last whorl be-
low the suture.

a. Black-brown at both ends; lip thick, pink or
flesh-colored, a pink or white streak behind
it. 19.5 x 6.7 mm., whorls 7%.

A. solida, no. 16.


aa. Gray-white or yellowish, with white lip and a
widening white subsutural band.

A. s. valida, no. 16a.

2. No distinct white band below the suture.
a. White, a tinge of red at both ends.

A. s. conica, no. 16&.

aa. Pale umber, darker near end of last whorl, lip
white ; lightly striate on upper whorls, reg-
ularly and rather coarsely so on the rest.

A. s. fusca, no. 16c.

aaa. Large and robust, pearl-white, sometimes red-
tinted at the ends, lip white, a large irreg-
ular black spot behind it.

A. s. corpulenta, no. 16dL
aaaa. Pale yellow or pearl-white ; lip white.

A. s. unicolor, no. 16e.

Typical A. solida (C. B. Adams). PI. 18, figs. 20, 21.

Shell rimate, the lower half obese, upper half rapidly taper-
ing, truncate; solid. First 1% or "2 whorls and the last ivhorl
blackish-brown, intermediate whorls pale, roseate, the penult,
one often olive-tinted ; on the last whorl the suture is bordered
below by a white line widening into a band on the back; lip
bordered behind with flesh-color or whitish. Surface glossy,
finely but rather weakly striate, the stria? becoming strong
and close-set riblets on the last half of the last whorl. Suture
weakly crenulate near the apex. Basal keel weak and thread-
like, stronger near the lip. Aperture vertical, bluish or pur-
plish inside, with a white band above. Peristome thick, with
very convex face, pink, but paler or white at the ends, which
are widely separated, joined by a transparent parietal cal-
lous; outer lip slightly sinuous; columellar lip calloused and
scarcely retracted at the insertion. Columella with a heavy,
deeply-placed fold, indistinctly truncate below, as seen in the
aperture. Length 19.5, diam. 6.7 mm., whorls 7~y 2 .

Central Jamaica: vicinity of Peace River, in the eastern
part of Manchester (C. B. Ad.).

Cyl. maugeri var. solida C. B. A., Contrib. no. 9, p. 162


(April, 1851). C. Uandiana and var. 1, PFR., P. Z. S., 1852,
p. 68; Conchyl. Cab., p. 71, f. 33, 34; Monogr., iii, p. 582
(1853). Cyl. m. var. valid* C. B. A., Contrib. p. 165.

19a. Var. valida (C. B. Ad.). PL 18, figs. 22, 23.

Similar in form, size and sculpture to solida; gray-white
or with a slight yellow tint; the last whorl often whiter, and
with an opaque-white line below the suture, widening into a
band on the back. Lip white throughout, usually somewhat
more sinuous than in solida. m

Near Peace River, Manchester (C. B. Adams, P. W. Jarvis).

Although widely separated from solida in Adams 7 arrange-
ment, this is only a white or albinistic race of that species.
Probably Pfeiffer's C. blandiana var. no. 2 belongs here. It
is the var. 6 of the Monographia.

19&. Var. conica C. B. Adams.

* ' Shell widest in the penult, whorl ; white, with a tinge of
red at both ends " (C. m. var. conica C. B. A., Contrib. p.

No locality is given for this inadequately-described form,
which is placed by Adams in his group of " strongly striated
varieties, light-colored, not fasciate." It may belong under
A. nigrescens.

19c. Var. fusca (C. B.. Adams).

' * Shell short, robust, but moderately thickened ; pale umber
color, darker near the end of the last whorl ; lip white ; lightly
striated on the upper whorls, in the rest regularly and rather
coarsely striated " (Cyl. maugeri var. fusca C. B. A., Contrib.
p. 165).

Maroon Town, in Hanover (Adams). Not seen. It seems
to belong to the solida series.

19d Var. corpulenta (C. B. Adams).

' ' Shell large and robust, but moderately thickened ; pearl-
white, sometimes with a tinge of red on the upper whorls and
anteriorly; lip white; with a large, irregular black spot be-


hind the lip ; coarsely striated near the end of the last whorl,
otherwise with the striae of the lower half of the shell most
lightly impressed." C. m. var. corpulenta C. B. A., Contrib.
no. 9, p. 165).

Inhabits St. Elizabeth (Adams). I have not seen speci-
mens of this race.

19e. Var. unicolor C. B. Ad.

" Shell of medium size and form; pale yellow or pearl-
white, with a white lip; strongly striated on the back of the
last whorl, finely striated on the middle whorls." (Cyl. m.
var. unicolor C. B. A., Contrib. no. 9, p. 165.)

Porus, in the east part of Manchester (Adams). Known
to me by the above description only.

Chitty, in his Contrib. no. 1, p. 10, thus defines a sub-
variety : a. * * It is less shining, the striae are coarser ; it is less
robust, and it seems less liable to decollation. Out of three
specimens, all I have, two have apparently lost only the very
apices, having 13% whorls remaining, and the third has 10%
whorls left. Near Maroon Town, St. James."

Still another variety of solida from Porus, in eastern Man-
chester, is glossy, sculptured like solida, but rather smoother,
dark at the ends, but apparently without a subsutural white
band. The specimens are not sufficiently fresh for exact de-

19/. Subsp. STRIATULA (C. B. Adams) , PL 16, figs. 36, 37,
38, 39.

" Shell thick, short, robust; pale greenish yellow, some-
times with a tinge of pale brown or horn color; lip white,
thick and well expanded; with fine, regular, approximate
striae, which are obsolete only at the summit " (C. B. Ad.).

Stouter in figure than solida and valida, usually suffused
with reddish-brown on the last whorl, the suture whitish ; "keel
delicate, narrow and low throughout; very closely, finely and
evenly rib-striate, the striae not coarser on the last whorl; be-
coming weaker on the first whorl or two. Aperture some-
what oblique, livid brown inside; peristome white and thick-


ened, in a plane, the outer lip but slightly sinuous. Colu-
mella strongly truncate, as seen obliquely in the aperture.
Axis sinuous in the last whorl.

Length 18, diam. 7 mm.; whorls 6% to 7.

Length 16.5, diam. 6.3 mm.; whorls 6y 2 .

Cyl. maugeri var. striatula C. B. A., Contrib. no. 9, p. 165.

While this form resembles solida in shape, the widely sep-
arated ends of the lip, and the delicate basal keel, it differs
notably in the even, fine striation and strongly truncate colu-
mella, constant in several lots before me. Its locality is un-
known. I think that it will eventually be separated specifi-
cally from A. solida. Possibly Pfeiffer's figures, 31, 32, of
C. blandiana (my pi. 16, f. 25, 26) represent striatula, but
they look more like A. nigrescens var. rufilabris.

20. A. NIGRESCENS (C. B. Adams).

Markedly conic above, the last two whorls stout, of about
equal diameter; keel slender and rather low, the last whorl
well rounded, coarsely rib-striate, at least on the latter part.
Aperture wide, rounded below, subvertical, the lip well re-

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