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a large elongated patch of bright red, which does not remain well
in alcohol. The ovotestis is large and irregularly globular, yellow-
green in color, with two blackish broad sulci. A strong ligament
has its origin on the ovotestis, close to the beginning of the her-
maphrodite duct.

Subfamily DOLABELLIN.E Pilsbry.

Aplysiidse in which the pleuropodial lobes are scarcely mobile, or
separable, united behind enclosing a large gill chamber ; their for-
ward insertions contiguous, parted by the genital groove only ; the
dorsal slit short. Genital orifice under the posterior part of gilL
Radula with the rhachidian tooth reduced to a narrow, cuspless
vestige, side teeth excessively numerous, narrow, with long simple

Shell well-developed, calcareous, and posterior area of body de-
fined by a groove and ridge in Dolabella, the only genus known.

This subfamily stands conspicuously apart from other Aplysiidce
in the posterior position of the genital foramen, and the peculiar

A group of teeth from the median part of the radula of D. cali-
fornica Stearns is drawn in fig. 17 of pi. 67, showing two rhachidian
with several adjacent lateral teeth. The cusps of the laterals be-
come longer further from the middle of the radula, as in fig. 18,.
profile view of a lateral from middle of one side. On the outer
edges of the membrane the teeth are smaller, but of the same form.

The place-relations of pleuropodial lobes, gill, genital pore, etc.,,
are shown in the diagram, pi. 66, fig. 14 (D. calif ornica) .

Genus VII. DOLABELLA Lamarck, 1801.

Dolabella LAM., Syst. Anim. sans Vert., p. 62 (1801) type D.
callosa L,8im.=scapula Mart. Aplysia RANG, et al.

General form conic, wide behind, narrower in front. Integument
more or less warty. Head bearing in front a pair of subcylindric


buccal tentacles slit above ; rhinophores or tentacles much nearer to
the anterior margin than to the dorsal slit, similar to those of Tethys.
Eyes minute, in front of rhinophores ; posterior area of body defined
by an obliquely transverse groove and ridge. Pleuropodial lobes
united except for a dorsal slit, more open at the ends, the anterior
insertions of lobes contiguous, parted only by the genital groove.
Mantle not nearly covering the gill, produced in a folded siphon be-
hind. Gill-cavity very large. Genital orifice under the posterior
part of gill, penis very long, near right buccal- tentacle. Opaline
gland multiple.

Shell solid and calcareous, hatchet-shaped, loosely coiled, the free
spire obliquely decurved, heavily calloused; sinus deep and con-
cave ; margins reflexed.

Type D. scapula Martyn.

Distribution, tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific and Australian
seas, and west coast of Mexico.

Dolabella, while resembling Tethys in general appearance, differs
from that genus in several important respects. The epipodial lobes
are united behind and shortened in front, and their anterior ends
are contiguous (see pi. 66, fig. 14, dotted lines) ; the posterior part
of the body is marked off by a transverse ridge or frill ; the common
female orifice and vas deferens (pi. 66, fig. 14, g. p.} is situated far
backward under the hind part of the gill (fig. 14, G.) ; and corre-
sponding to this removal of the genital pore, the penis is greatly
lengthened. The shell is mainly calcareous, and has the spire free
and heavily calloused.

The distribution of the genus is restricted compared with Teihys,
the Atlantic Ocean and communicating seas being without repre-
sentatives ; but the individual species seem to be more widely diffused
than in the other genus. Extreme points in the known distribu-
tion of the group are the Red Sea and Cape on the west, west coast
of Mexico, Sandwich and Viti Is. on the east ; and southward, New
South Wales is the limit.

The species need revision further than that here attempted, as
there are several named forms of rather doubtful status. The shells,
with one or two notable exceptions, furnish only differential char-
acters of indifferent value.

Synopsis of Species.

a. Shell large, broad, with a saucer-like appendage above, gigas-
aa. Shell narrow, arched, the length about twice the width,



aaa. Shell wider, irregularly triangular, the spire calloused.

b. Integument of body bearing conspicuous tubercles or
foliations ; posterior area with fringed boundary.

c. Conspicuously spotted or blotched, teremidi, hasseltii.

cc. Uniform or nearly uniform green, scapula.

bb. Integument smoothish or somewhat warty ; boundary of

posterior area simple, ecaudata; californica.

(Z). hemprichii and D. guayaguilensis are omitted from the above


D. GIGAS Rang. PL 65, figs. 4, 5, 6.

Length as much as 30 cm. Violet and gray, with conic simple
warts rounded at their summits.

Shell large and solid ; convex, but with a wide curved depres-
sion near each edge outside; very pale buff outside, porcelain-white
within; shining and sculptured with strong concentric wrinkles on
both sides ; sinus narrow and deeply curved, its edge broadly flaring
backward, and with an extremely narrow reflexed margin. Spire
well curved inward, with a rounded lump of callus at the apex within.
Upper curve of the spire bearing a very large, thin, erect, saucer-
shaped accessory callous plate. Cuticle broadly reflexed across the
back of the spire, and continued in a wide, tapering reflexed border
down the convex margin of shell. Length 80, breadth 55 mill.

Reunion (Desh.) ; Mauritius (Lienard, Mobius) ; Red Sea (Cum-

Aplysia gigas RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 48, pi. 3, f. 4. Dola-
bella gigas SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. la, b. MART, in
Mobius' Mauritius, p. 306. DESK., Moll. Reun., p. 53.

This is the largest species of the genus, and is very readily distin-
guished from all others by the broad saucer-like accessory plate aris-
ing from the upper margin. The soft parts are known from spec-
imens collected by Mobius, and briefly described by von Martens,
but not yet figured.

D. SCAPULA Martyn. PL 26, figs. 26, 27, 28 ; pi. 27, figs. 29, 30.

Length 30 to 38 cm. Much swollen posteriorly, tapering for-
ward. Dorsal slit rather short, submedian, commencing forward of


the middle of the animal's length, its borders contiguous, not capable
of being much separated. Posterior disk round, large, bounded by
a conspicuously fringed ridge. Entire surface of body bristling with
acute more or less elongated processes.

Color, dark or bright-green.

Shell solid, loosely coiled, covered outside with a strong yellow or
yellow and brown cuticle; sculptured with irregular, wavy wrinkles
of growth. Spire very heavily calloused above and at the inside
edges ; sinus very deep and very concave ; margin of growth very
convex, especially below ; back with a broad reflexed border along
the left margin, a narrow border along the edge of the sinus. Length
50, breadth 40 mill.

Amboyna (Martyn) ; Moluccas (Rumph.) ; Timor (Peron) ; Wai-
qiou and Rawak, and Islet of Pangai-Modou, Tongatabu (Quoy &
Gaim.) ; Paramatta River (Angas), Port Jackson and Bellenger
River (Brazier), E. Australia; Dungeness and Darnley Is., Torres
Straits; Low I., Trinity Bay and Home Is., N.-E. Australia (Braz-
ier) ; Mauritius (Peron, Q. & G., Ad., et al.~) ; Reunion (Desh.) ;
Seychelles and Amirante Is. (Dufo) ; Natal (Krauss).

Patella scapula MARTYN, Univ. Conch., iii, pi. 99 (17 ) ; Chenu's
reprint Bibliotheque Conchyliogique (1), ii, p. 26, pi. 34, f. 3.
Dolabella scapula ANGAS?, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 227. ? Doris verracosa
GMEL., Syst. Nat. (13), p. 3103 (1788). BARBUT, The Genera
Vermium, pi. 4, f. 1. Dolabella callosa LAM., Syst. An. s. Vert.
(1801), p. 62 (founded on Rumphius, Mus., pi. 40, f. 12). Dolabella

CUVIER, Ann. du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., v, p. 437, pi. 29, f. 1-3

(1804). D. rumphii Cuv., Regne Anim., ii, p. 398, pi. 34, f. 1.
LAM., An. s. Vert, vi, (2rne pt.), p. 41 (1822) ; and edit. DESH., vii,
p. 699 (1836). ADAMS & REEVE, Zool. Samarang, Moll., p. 65, pi.
18, f. 4. MARTENS in Mobius' Beitr. zur Meeresfauna Maurit., p.
306. KRAUSS, Die Stidafrik. Moll., p. 72. SMITH, Zool. coll. H.
M. S. Alert, p. 89. BRAZIER, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 88.
Aplysia rumphii RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 46, pi. 1. QUOY
& GAIMARD, Voy. de 1'AstroL, Zool., ii, p. 303, pi. 23, f. 4, 5.
Dolabella peronii BLAIJSV., Diet. Sci. Nat., xiii, p. 395 (1819);
Manuel de Malacol., p. 473.

Allied to D. hasseltii, but the dorsal slit is more anterior and the
color nearly uniform. It seems to be very widely distributed over
the Indo-Pacih'c life-area. It is eaten in Ambovna.


It is extremely doubtful whether Doris verrueosa Gmel. was based
on this species ; a reference to Rumphius inclines me to think it was
a warty rather than filamentous species. The figure in Rumphius
does not represent it.

D. TEREMIDI Rang. PL 63, figs. 9, 10, 11.

Length 13'1 cm. Very wide posteriorly, narrowed in front;
dorsal slit more anterior than in most species, its margins thin, more
easily separated ; tentacles arising close to each other. Surface
bristling with moderately long pointed tubercular processes; ridge
bounding the large posterior disk somewhat fringe I; excurrent
siphon quite long.

Greenish, spotted with black, fawn and white, the white spots
forming circles more or less complete; mantle sky blue; gills a
delicate rose color.

Shell resembling that of D. rumphii, but more lengthened and
narrower, the cuticle thicker and browner. Length 51 mill.

Tahiti and Borabora, Society Is. ; Ualan, Caroline Is. (Lesson &
Garnot) ; Reunion (Desh.) ; San Giacinto, Philippines, (Chierchia).

Aplysia teremidi RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 48, pi. 3, f. 1-3.
Dolabella teremidi LESSON, Voy. autour du Monde La Coquille,
Zool., ii, pt. 1, p. 293. DESH., Moll, de 1'Ile Reunion, p. 53.
MAZ. & Zucc., Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, iii, 1889, p. 49. D. temnida
GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv, p. 97. Teremidi, Borabora Islanders'

This species is evidently most nearly allied to D. hasseltii; but
apparently is smaller, with more anterior dorsal slit, and compara-
tively larger shell. It is used for food by the natives of the Society
Islands. Deshayes' identification of it from Bourbon requires con-

D. HASSELTII Ferussac. PL 64, fig. 3.

Length 19 cm. Body much swollen behind, tailless. Dorsal
slit long, continued mticb in front of the middle of the animal's
length. Posterior disk very large, bounded by a conspicuously
fringed ridge. Entire surface bearing long foliated fleshy processes.
Green, closely dappled with large brown spots, blackish in the
middle, and ofien with some pale and black dots. Shell unknown.
Java (van Hasselt) ; Philippines (Chierchia).


Dolabella rumphii VAN HASSELT, Algem. Konst en Letter-bode,
1824, p. . Aplysia hasseltii FER. in RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys.,
p. 49, pi. 24, f. 1 (1828). Q. & G., Zool. de 1'Astrol., ii, p. 306, pi.
23, f. 1-3. MAZZARELLI & ZUCCARDI, Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, iii,
1889, p. 47.

This species is known only by a drawing by van Hasselt, copied
by Rang, and here reproduced. It may prove identical with the
(prior) D. teremidi, but is larger, with more developed foliated ap-
pendages on the body and fringing the border of the posterior disk.

The following form described from the Sandwich Islands, is, per-
haps, a variety :

D. variegata Pease.

Oblong, rugose, covered with small acute tubercles and more or
less acute ridges; the tuberculations are scabrous and furnished, as
well as the different portions of the body, with pale, soft cirrhi,
which are most conspicuous on the head. The posterior portion is
obliquely truncated, from which part the body gradually tapers to
the head ; the surface of the truncation is convex, with the upper
margin acutely elevated. The lobes of the mantle are closely
appressed, the left overlapping the right, leaving two openings on
the back, one a little in advance of the truncation, and the other on
its center. Dorsal tentacles stout, deeply grooved laterally and
somewhat swollen. Head convex above ; oral tentacles short, stout,
grooved laterally and much dilated outwards. Foot rugose, trun-
cated in front, and acutely rounded behind, widest posteriorly.
Color greenish-olive, variegated with brown, white and green ; inside
of the lobes light brown dotted with white; a stripe of tawny brown
along sides of the foot. Foot dark orange. Length 10 inches.

Quoy and Gaimard collected a form which they refer to this
species as a variety, at Mauritius. This may or may not prove to
be the same as the Java species, but the differences between the
figures demand notice and comparison. For these purposes Quoy
and Gaimard's description here follows :

Var. PI. 28, figs. 33, 34, 35, 36.

Very large, conical, truncate ; roughened by fringes and tuber-
cles ; dirty dark green, variegated with brown and buff spots. M.
Rang, in his beautiful monograph of the Aplysias, has figured a
species drawn by van Hasselt in Java, having much in common


with one observed by us at the Isle of France, which we do not
doubt is a variety of it. Our individual is 9-10 inches long, very
plump, especially behind, the head being small and oval, a little
swollen and well distinguished from the foot, the mouth large and
rounded. The entire body is covered with coarse tubercles and
papillae, some of which are branching; they are most numerous be-
hind the head. The foot is slightly differentiated from the upper
surface, and is deep sienna color, with greenish tints in some spec-
imens ; Flanks and back are dirty green mingled with yellow, with
blackish plaques in some places, especially on the rather rounded
hind part. Others have brown and yellowish spots on the sides.
Shell very large, the spire extremely rugose. This mollusk emits a
great quantity of violet liquid. It was found in great abundance
during October and November in the warm, quiet waters of the ilots
aux Cerfs, at Mauritius.

Compared with the original figure of D. hasseltii, this form is more
sparsely blotched with dark, and the dorsal slit is much shorter and
does not extend so far forward. The value of these characters can
only be decided by a comparison of abundant material.

D. ELONGATA Sowerby. PI. 27, figs. 31, 32.

Soft parts unknown. Shell oblong, arched, much attenuated, con-
centrically slightly wrinkled within, radiately subplicated, callus
spirally plicated, tumid, widely expanded over the back, widely re-
flected upon the margins as far as the end ; terminal margin angu-
lar, epidermis brown tending to orange. (Sowerby').

Seychelles (Brit. Mus.).

D. elongata SOWB., Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 1, f. 2a, b (Oct., 1868).

It is barely possible that this may be a monstrous example of
Dolabella rumphii. It presents, however, an appearance so ex-
tremely different, that it would hardly be just to leave it without a
name. (Sowb.)

D. HEMPRICHII Ehrenberg.

Six inches long ; warty ; pale green, the posterior corona and two
dorsal bands olive-blackish and rugulose. Body elongate conic,
attenuated forward, obliquely truncate and very thick behind, with
an exactly circular posterior area. Length 6, breadth 2 inches.
Surface warty, especially in a circle around the posterior area and
in two bands along the back, the remaining parts being more
glabrous. Round posterior area bounded by a crispate, contractile


membrane. Dorsal slit 21 lines long, ending in a round orifice
above the middle of posterior disk. Tentacles over two inches from
anterior end of slit, 6-9 lines from buccal tentacles. Shell hatchet-
shaped, 16 lines long, with deflexed rudimentary twisted spire.

Near to D. rumphii in size of shell and form of body, but without
cirri, etc.

Cosseir, Red Sea.

D. hemprichii EHRENB., Symbolse Physicse, etc., Decas prima,
(1828 or later).

D. ECAUDATA Rang. PI. 66, figs. 11, 12, 13 (type) ; pi. 25, figs. 4,
5 (tongana Q. & G.).

Under the above name may be united several described forms
agreeing in having the body almost smooth, with low tubercles only,
which disappear in large part in alcoholic specimens; tentacles aris-
ing unusually near each other ; posterior area or disk bounded by a
fleshy ridge which is plain and wavy, not serrate or bearing pro-

The color in life is green ; preserved specimens varying from
blackish-olive to dirty buff.

Shell having the general form of that of D. rumphii but narrower,
the border of growth straighter, less convex ; shoulder rather less
produced upward. The cuticle is thin, yellow, fading to whitish
above ; margins having rather narrow reflexed borders.

Rawak and Waigiou, Moluccas ; Islet of Pangai-Modou, near Ton-
gatabu (Quoy & Gaimard) ; Upolu (Godeffroy Exp., in coll. A. N.
S. P.) ; Home Is., N.-E. Australia (Brazier).

This species is most nearly allied to D. californica Stearns, but the
shell of that has the internal border of the shoulder thickened and
rugose and the apical callous heavier and rougher, and the two are
widely separated geographically. As my synonymy of ecaudata is
not based upon a study of types, I give below the descriptions of the
several forms included.

D. ecaudata Rang. PI. 66, figs. 11, 12, 13. Length 13* cm.
Smaller thau D. rumphii, and having no trace of a tail. Surface of
body having above, in front, some flat tubercles. Border of the pos-
terior disk not fringed, but merely irregularly undulated. Posterior
tentacles arising very close to each other. Color, greenish.

Shell more calloused on the lower surface of the summit than in


D. rumphii, and cuticle of a paler color, very thin and yellow.
Length 28 mill.

Waigiou and Rawak (Quoy & Gaimard).

Aplysia ecaudata RAKG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 47, pi. 2 (1828).
D. ecaudata BRAZ., Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., ii, p. 89.

This species is smaller than D. rumphii, to which it has great re-
semblance. It is sufficiently distinguished by the absence of a fringe
around the posterior disk, and the lack of processes roughening
the whole surface of the body. The tentacles are placed nearer to-
gether than in other species. The anterior part of the body has
some but slightly projecting tubercles, and sometimes brownish

D. truncata Rang. Length 10 cm. Body tail-less, pale, shaped
as in the preceding species, covered throughout with obtuse tubercles.
Posterior tentacles close, but less so than in D. ecaudata.

Shell glassy ; white, the summit thick, without callosities, show-
ing 1J whorls below. Length 18 mill.

Waigiou and Rawak (Quoy & Gaimard).

A. truncata RANG, Hist. Nat. Aplys., p. 47 (1828).

The individual upon which this species was based by Rang is not
in condition for detailed description or figuring. It was proposed by
him as a species with doubt, and merely to call the attention of
naturalists who may handle material from the locality to this form.

D. tongana Quoy & Gaimard. PJ. 25, figs. 4, 5. Body conic,
cylindrical, tuberculate, glaucous. This species is a little smaller
than rumphii, of a more lengthened form, a little cylindric. Its
ears are less wide, and the papillae are replaced by little rounded
tubercles, only very slightly raised, which disappear upon preserva-
tion in liquor. The color is generally glaucous. While it inhabits
with rumphii, it cannot be confounded with it, nor can it be taken
for the young, the length being 6 or 7 inches. The shell is quite
small, white, incurved, with a brown spot at the middle of the larger
curve, a character perhaps accidental.

Islet of Pangai-Modou, near Tonga (Q. & G.) ; San Giacinto t
Philippines (Chierchia).


Aplysia tongana Q. & G., Voy. de 1'Astrol. Zool., ii, p. 305, pi. 23,
figs. 6, 7 (1832). Dolabella tongensis GRAY, Figs. Moll. Anim., iv,
p. 97 (1850). D. tongana MAZ. & Zucc., Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli,
iii, 1889, p. 50.

D. CALIFORNIA Stearns. PI. 66, figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18.

Description of alcoholic specimens: Length 12 to 14 cm.
Oblong-ovate, broadly rounded behind, Aplysia-like in front. Buc-
cal tentacles ear-like, short and folded about at the middle, not pro-
duced toward the mouth ; tentacles conic and slit ; the very minute
eyes in front of them and more separated. Mouth a vertical slit in
a papillose disk. Swimming lobes arising at or behind the middle
of the animal's length, contiguous. Posterior subcircular area de-
fined by a groove with smooth raised anterior edge, and enclosing a
cord. Mantle having a large shell-foramen and a long posterior
siphonal fold (fig. 14, S). Genital foramen under the back part of
the gill (fig. 14, g.p).

Color (in alcohol) dark olive, or dull brown with more or less
black maculation. In life it is said to be " a dark brown and the
surface covered with warty papillae."

Shell solid, with a brown cuticle. Apex with a roughened re-
flexed callus, continuing along the dorsal margins as a reflexed
border over the cuticle.

Mulege Bay, Gulf of California, in pools left by the tide (Fisher) ;
West coast of Mexico (Jones).

Dolabella californica STEARNS, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1878,
p. 395, pi. 7, f. 1, 2 (shell), Feb. 11, 1879 ; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.,
xvi, pp, 341, 342, 1892 ; xvii, 1894, p. 158. PILSBRY, Nautilus, ix,
p. 73.

In external appearance, this species seems nearest to D. ecaudata
and tongana, but the posterior area is defined by a far less conspic-
uous frill, which does not extend to the edges of the dorsal slit.
Dolabella guayaquilensis, a species known by the shell only, is stated
to have the margins " scarcely reflected, callus small, narrow, not
continued upon the margins," while in the present species the mar-
gins are bounded by unusually broad reflexed callous bands. Traces
of sparsely scattered wart-like papillae are visible on some specimens,
mainly posteriorly, but these are not very distinct in the alcoholic


examples. Two of the original lot collected by Fisher are before
me, the smaller one being drawn in my figure, and another specimen
of a dark olive color, collected by Dr. W. H. Jones on the " west
coast of Mexico," has also been examined.

D. GUAYAQUILENSIS (Petit) Sowerby. PI. 64, figs. 1, 2.

Shell small, thin, wide, oblong, rather straight, with margin
scarcely reflected; back striated : callus small, narrower, tumid, not
continued upon the margins ; epidermis pale gray. (Sowb.)

Guayaquil (Brit. Mus.)

D. guayaquilensis Petit, SOWERBY, Conch. Icon., xvi, pi. 2,f. 6a, b
(Oct., 1868).

A glance at the figure of the young Dolabella rumphii will be
sufficient to explain the difference between the two species, and to
show that the small shells from Guayaquil are not the young of D.
rumphii. (Sowb.^)

Spurious and doubtful species of Dolabella.

Dolabella fragilis'Lzm., An. s. Vert., vi, (2d pt), p. 42(1822),
figured by Delessert, Recueil, pi. 25, f. 9a-c, is the shell of Tethys

Leuconyx tyleriana Ad., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), xi, p. 18, supposed
to be allied to Dolabella, is the detached process (myophore) of
Photos costata.

Dolabella rondeletii Cuvier, Regne Anim. (first edition, 1817), ii,
p. 398, founded on Rondelet's Libri de Piscibus Marinis, p. 520,
woodcut, is Tethys leporina Linn.

Dolabella sp. Two figures given in M. E. Gray's Figs. Moll.
Anim., iii, pi. 270, copied from sketches made by Templeton in
Ceylon, probably represent (1) D. ecaudata, and (2) D. scapula.

Dolabella lepus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., p. 44, is Tethys lep-
orina f

Dolabella Icevis Blainv. = Tethys depilans Linne.
Dolabella dolabrifera Cuv. = Dolabrifera dolabrifera Cuvier.




1 ' H

I *&&


























The genus SYMPTERUS Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, on
Tabl. de PUnivers et des Corps Organises, 1815, p. 142, is placed by
Rafinesque between Laplysia and Dolabella. It is an absolutely
nude name.

Genus NOTARCHUS (page 135).

APLYSIA SALTATOR* Forbes. A. corpore globoso, griseo albo
nigroquemaculato, tuberculato, tuberculis mucronatis ; sinu branch-
ali parvo ; pede augustissimo, tentacules brevibus.

Long. 2 unc. ; Altitude 1 T V Hab. 20-30 fms. Serpho Bay
[^Egean Sea]. (Forbes, in Rep. Brit. Asso. Adv. Sci., 1843, p. 187).

Family OXYNOEID^E Fischer.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

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