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developed on middle and lateral teeth. Marginals with bifid inner
and simple outer cusps. Genital system (pi. 62, figs. 22, 23, H.
arbustorum) showing the features usual in Helicigona throughout.
The two simple mucus glands are very long; dart sack containing
a curved dart (fig. 22) like that of H. lapidda. Diverticulum bound
to uterus by a wide membrane traversed by blood vessels.

Distribution, middle and north Europe, upper Pliocene and Loess
deposits. In the modern fauna this species or group of species, is
distributed from the northern boundary of the Olive zone (Pyre-
nees and Alps) to Sweden, enjoying a far greater range than any
other member of the genus Helicigona, especially in its ability to
withstand the cold. The number of local races is remarkable, and
Ttheir study is much complicated by the fact that forms with a simi-
lar aspect occur in widely separated localities, probably due to par-
allel development. Typically many of these varieties are very
different, but intermediate forms seem to abolish most boundary
jlines ; so that Kobelt, in his latest contribution on the snbject, is not
willing to endorse even the main forms as species (Iconogr. n. F.,
vi, p. 60).

The spelling of this name given above is that of Leach, Beck
and other early authors. Von Martens has changed the name to
" Arionta" on etymological grounds. The single well defined spe-
cies H. arbustorum, is a typical Helicigona in anatomy, having the
diverticulum bound to the uterus by a broad membrane, the two
long, cylindrical mucus glands inserted on vagina, and other feat-
ures diagnostic of that genus. The American species referred to
Arionta by authors present nothing of the sort ; the diverticulum has
no membrane ; the mucus glands are bulbiferous and inserted on
dart sack, etc., etc.



H. arbustorum L., iv, 117. v. picea Zgl., iv, 117.

v. conoidea West., iv, 118. wittmanni Zow.

r. calcarea Hogb., iv, 118. v. jetschini Ulic., iv, 117.






HELICIGONA. 307

H. arbustorum Linne. subalpina Scholtz.

v. canigonensis Boub. /. costulata Kob.

canigoniea Fag. v. dorise Paul., iv, 117.

v. fagoti Bgt. v. rudis Miihlf., iv, 118.

v. xatarti Far., iv, 118. v. corneoliformisLess.

v. repellini Charp., iv, 118. v. styriaea Ffld., iv, 119.

v. alpicolaFer. H. sethiops Biz., iv, 118.

alpestris Z., iv, 118. H. camprodunica Kob., iv, 118.

Other named forms of H. arbustorum, some of which have doubt-
less good claims to racial distinction, are: Var, thamnivaga, hypni-
cola, themita Mabille ; var. dravica, vibraiana, musdorfensis, illusana
Servain ; var. sendtneri, excelsa, septentrional is Clessin ; var. albu-
lana, feroeli, knitteli, nazarina, trachia (Bgt.) Serv. ; var. creticola
Morch. ; var. trochoidalis Roffisen ; var. depressa Held. ; var. baylei
(Lecoq) Moq. ; var. gotlandica; oelandica West. Also forma
flavescens, albina, rufescens, draparnaudia, poiretia, boissieria,
thomasia Moquin-Tandon ; /. efasciata Westerlund ; /. lutescens,
luteofasciata, fuscesens D. & M. (=marmorata Taylor) ; /. mor-
bosoalbina Rossm. ; /. nigrescens Locard, /. fusca Fer. ; /. cincta
(=pallida Tayl.), sinistrorsum Taylor ; /. minima and major Pfr.

Subgenus ELONA H. & A. Adams, 1855.

Elona H. & A. AD., Gen. Rec. Moll, ii, p. 211, type H. quimperi-
ana (June, 1855). Not Elona Moq.-Tand., 1855. Sterna ALBERS,
Die Hel., p. 93, 1850, same type (preoccupied). See HESSE, Jahrb.
D. M. Ges., xii, 1885, p. 45, pi. 3, f. 1 (anatomy).

Shell umbilicate,^cwor&oiW, the spire slightly concave, periphery
broadly rounded ; corneous with a few varicoid white stripes ;
aperture lunar, slightly oblique ; lip white, expanded above, reflexed
below, the ends distant. Type H. quimperiana Fer., pi. 43, figs. 19,
20, 21.

Jaw with 11-16 narrow ribs. Genitalia (pi. 62, figs. 24, 25, 26,
2"i , H. quimperiana) differing from the typical Helicigonas in. hav-
ing the mucus glands shortened into triangular sacks (fig. 26) and
the dart sack is inserted in a sort of calyx at base (fig. 27). Dart
curved at the end, with lens-like section (fig. 24).

This group contains a single French species remarkable for its
Chloritis-like shell and the peculiar mucus glands. The latter con-



308 HELICIGONA.

sist of short lobes, somewhat as in Eulota ; but unlike that genus,
they are inserted on vagina well above the dart sack, so there can be
no doubt that they are merely a shortened form of the finger-like
glands characteristic of Belogona Siphonadenia.

H. quimperiana Fer., iv, 116. Brittany; Spain'.
kermorvani Coll.
corisopitensis Dh.

Subgenus ISOGNOMOSTOMA Fitzinger, 1833.

Isognomostoma FITZ., Syst. Verzeichniss der in Erzherzogthume-
Oesterreich vorkommenden Weichthiere, p. 97, sole species, /. per-
sonatum Eitz., =H. personata Drap. Isognomonostoma TRYON
Triodopsis of modern European authors, not of Rafinesque !
Plicostoma SCHLUTER, Syst. Verz., 4, 1838. See for anatomy Schu-
berth, Archiv f. Naturg., 1892, p. 11, pi. 1, f. 15-18 (Good!)

Shell depressed-globose, with low convex spire, narrow or closed
umbilicus and rounded or faintly angular periphery ; surface smooth,,
hirsute in quincuncial pattern. Aperture oblique, ear shaped ;
peristome flatly reflexed, thickened within, toothed on outer and basal
margins; terminations connected by a raised, tongue-like parietal
process. Type H. personata, pi. 43, figs. 31, 32.

Jaw with about 5 strong ribs, dentating the cutting margin ;
radula with large triangular mesocones on middle and inner lateral
teeth ; marginals with a bifid inner dnd simple outer cusp. Genital
system (pi. 62, fig. 19, H. personata) with penis as usual in the genus;.
2 long mucus glands ; an elongated dart sack containing a dart
of typical Helicigone form, base dilated, shaft slender and round,,
spreading into a two-bladed, laurel-leaf shaped head. Diverticulum
bound to uterus by a broad membrane, as usual in Helicigona.

Distribution, middle Europe and Siberia.

The anatomy of this group is typical of HeUcigona (Campytcea),
having the diverticulum membrane found in that genus only, (re-
moved in the figure), as well as the characteristic form of mucus-
glands and dart. These features of the genital system, as well as
the strongly ribbed jaw, show that the association of H. personnfa
with " Gonostoma " is entirely illusory. In fact Schuberth, in his-
anatomical characterization of "Anchistoma" (" Gonostoma "4-
" Triodopsis ") was obliged to make an exception of If. personata^



HELICIGONA. 309

and to compare it with Campy Icea ; but strangely enough he does
not alter the current classification of the species. The resemblance
of H. personata to the American Triodopsis is merely a case of
incomplete parallelism. The two groups are readily separated by
observing the form of the parietal barrier. Dr. H. von Ihering has
-ably discussed the relationships of H. personata, ranking it, of
course, in Campy Icea.

H. personata Drap., iii, 147. H. subpersonata Midd., iii, 147.

isognomostomos Gin. pt.
v. debilis West.

Subgenus TROPIDOMPHALUS Pilsbry, 1894.

Shell with the general characters of Chilostoma, but subangular
around the umbilicus, and quincuncially punctate or papillate (as
in some members of the H. planospira group). Type H. lepidotri-
tha A. Braun, pi. 71, figs. 59, 60.

The lower Miocene forms for which this section is proposed have
the verge of the umbilicus subangular as in most (but not all)
Chloritis (con/, p. 118) and many species of Eulota; and in fact
the group may belong to Eulota rather than to Helicigona. At all
events, the closest resemblance is traceable between H. lepidotricha
and certain southeast Asian Eulotas. On theoretical grounds, how-
ever, I am disposed to believe that Eulota has no extensive past
history in Europe, being a recent straggler from East Asia ; and
this is supported in the main by palseontological evidence.

A thorough study of the Miocene Helices is necesssary to deter-
mine whether the peculiar sculpture which occurs in so many forms,
is a character assumed simultaneously by many subgenera and
genera, or an indication of actual genetic relationship. Not much
evidence can be adduced in favor of the latter view from the recent
fauna, for species of widely different genera exhibit the hairs or
papillae arranged in obliquely decussating series : In HYGROMIA,
H. consona, lanuginosa, etc.; in HELICIGONA, hairy members of the
planospira group ; in THYSANOPHORA, T. stigmatica and its allies ;
in EULOTA, numerous oriental species. The list could be indefi-
nitely increased. It will be perceived from this that those authors
who insist upon the presence of Chloritis in the European Miocene
fauna, stand upon narrow and insecure footing.

H. robusta and trichophora Reuss., from the lower Miocene of
Tuchoric, evidently belong to this group.



310 HELICIGONA.

Section Metacampylcea Pilsbry, 1894.

Shell solid, sublenticular, acutely keeled, the spire obtuse-conic.
Aperture oblique, subrhombic ; outer and basal lips reflexed, thick-
ened within, the columellar insertion dilated, partly or wholly clos-
ing the narrow umbilicus. Surface minutely granulate, and with
larger papillae disposed in quincuncial order. Type H. rahtii A.
Braun, pi. 71, figs. 45, 46.

In its acute carination, the lower Miocene H. rahtii is comparable
to H. lapicida or banatica of the recent fauna, but its sculpture is
that of H. setosa Zgl. The lip differs somewhat from that of any
living " Campylaea," but not more than various species of that
group differs from one another. Metacampylcea probably stands in
much the same relation to Tropidomphalus as Helicigona (lapicida)
does to Chilostoma (planospira, etc.).

H. papillifera Klika and possibly H. obtusecarinata Sandb., are to
be referred here, but the latter may belong to the ancestral TacJiea
stock.

Subgenus GALACTOCHILTJS Sandberger.

Galaetochilus SANDB., Land und Susswasser Conchyl. der Vor-
welt, p. 387 (for H. pomiformis, mattiaca, ehingensis and cornumili-
tare).

Shell subglobose, with low, conoid spire of about 4 whorls, the
last large with rounded periphery, subangular around the narrow,
partly or nearly closed umbilicus, slowly descending in front.
Aperture truncate-oblong, oblique ; lip obtuse, expanded on outer
and basal margins, dilated at columellar insertion, partly closing
the umbilicus. Surface smooth except for growth striae. Type H*
ehingensis Klein, pi. 71, figs. 47, 48.

This group contains several species from the lower Miocene, H.
pomiformis A. Braun, Ehingensis Kl., mattiaca Stein. I am dis-
posed to believe it an off-shoot from the "Campylaea" phylum.
Some specimens of H. arbustorum exhibit much the same subangu-
lation around the umbilical region.

Subgenus MESODONTOPSIS Pilsbry, 1894.

Shell large, depressed, with convex and very obtuse spire and
covered umbilicus. Whorls 5, convex, the last ornamented with two



CYRTOCHILUS-HELIX. 3 1 1

broad bands above and one below the periphery, deflexed in front.
Aperture half round, oblique ; lip broadly reflexed throughout,
dilated and adherent at the columellar insertion. Surface smooth-
ish. Type H. chaixii Mich., pi. 71, figs. 61, 62.

This group differs from the pentateeniate Helices in having the
lip more reflexed, and not forming a columellar plate. I think
it allied more to the " Campylseas," with which it agrees in the color
pattern (distinctly visible in specimens before me) and the general
features of the aperture. I consider Tacheocampylcea the most
nearly allied group of the recent fauna (conf. pi. 43, figs. c3-35).
The resemblance to Mesodon is merely superficial. It is likely that
H. brocchii Mayer from the upper Pliocene belongs here rather than
to Galactochilus. It is umbilicate and one-banded above ; but I
have not seen that species, nor H. ludovici Noul. and ornezanensis
Noul. from the Miocene freshwater chalk of southwestern France,
which may also find a place in this group. The type, H. chaixii, is
from the middle Pliocene of Hauterive.

Genus (?) CYRTOCHILUS Sandberger.

Oyrtochilus SANDB., Land u. Susswasser Conchyl. der Vorwelt, p.
386 (for H. expansilabris&andl).'). Not Cyrtochilus Jak., 1875, or
Meek, 1876, nor Cyrtochila Feld, 1874.

Shell globose-conoid, with 5 convex whorls separated by linear
sutures, the last whorl large, ventricose, broadly constricted behind
the lip; surface of all but first whorl obliquely costulate and deco-
rated with minute papillae arranged in quincuncial order. Aperture
oblique; outer and basal lips expanded, columella narrow, vertical,
closing the umbilicus. Type H. expansilabrts Sandb., pi. 71, fig.
50.

The 'shell has the figure of H. platychela of Sicily, but it is
sculptured like a hairy Chilostoma. The single species is from the
lower Miocene of Hochheim.

Genus HELIX Linne, 1758.

Helix LINNE (in part), Syst. Nat., x, p. 768. LAM., Syst. Anim.
s. Vert., 1801, p. 94, H. pomatia on\y.-{-Pomatia, Tachea> Otala,
Macularia, Iberus, Eremina, Euparypha, Hemicycla, etc., etc.

See for anatomy A. SCHMIDT, Der Geschlechtsapparat der Sty-
lommatophoren in taxonomischer Hinsicht, in Abhandl. naturwis-



312 HELIX.

senschaftl. Vereins fur Sachsen u. Thiiringen in Halle, i, pp. 1-52,
pi. 1-5, 1856, and Zeitschr. f. Malak., 1850, vii, p. 1-13, pi, 1
(darts); Ibid, 1849, p. 49. C. BRANCSIK, Sexualapparate einiger
Moll, des Trencsiner Comitates in Jahresheft des naturw. Vereins
der Trenc. Com., Trencsin, 1890, p. 19-22, pi. 1-3. R. LEHMANN,
Die lebenden Schn. u. Musch. der Umgebung Stettins u. in Pom-
meru,1873. MoQ.-TAND.,Hist. Nat. Moll. Terr, et Fluv. Fr., 1855.
O. SCHUBERTH. Beitr. zur Vergleich. Anat. des Genitalapparates
von Helix, in Arch. f. Naturg. Iviii, i, 1892, p. 1-65, pi. 1-6. POL-
LONERA, Bull, della Soc. Mai. Ital. xii, 1885, p. Ill (best figs, of
dentition). ERDL, in Moritz Wagner's Reisenin der Regentschaft
Algier, 1836. PAASCH, Archiv f. Naturg., 1843 and 1845. F,
WIEGMANN, Jahrb. d. m. Ges. iv, 1877, p. 195, pi. 6-8. BAUDELOT.
Ann. Sc. Nat. (4), Zool. xix, 1863. ASHFORD, Journ of Conch.,
Leeds, Vol. iv, 1883-'85. v. IHERING, Morph. u. Syst. des Genital-
apparates von Helix, Zeitschr. f. Wissenschaftl. Zool. liv, 1892, p.
386-520. C. F. JICKELT, Fauna der Land u. Susswasser Moll.
Nord-Ost-Afrika's, in Nova Acta Acad. Ca3S. Leop.-Carol. Germ.
Nat. Cur. xxxvii, 1875, et al. See for paleontology of Helix:
SANDBERGER, Land- u. Siisswasser-Conchyl. der Vorwelt, with the
authorities cited therein ; KLIKA, Tert. Land- und Stisswasser-Conch.
N. W. Bohmen, (c/. BTTG., Verb. K.-K. Geol. Reichsanst., 1891, p.
228) ; PENECKE, Zeitschr. D. geol. Ges. xliii, p. 346 ; OPPENHEIM,
Denkschr. k. Akad. Wissensch. Ivii, p. 113 (c/. TAUSCH, Verh. K.-
K. Geol- Reichsanst, 1891, p. 198, and de GREGORIO, Ann. deGeol.
et de PalSont. 10 C Livr., 1892), etc., etc.

Shell varying from globular to depressed and from rounded to
acutely keeled, imperforate or narrowly umbilicated, rather solid,
with about 5 whorls ; surface striate, ribbed, malleated or granir
lose. Five-banded, or having fewer or no bands by the absence or
coalesence of some or all ; rarely having more bands by splitting of
bands or interpolation of lines. Lip either expanded, reflexed or
thickened 1 within. Type H. pomatia, frontispiece, fig. 7, (See pi-
44).

Animal with a tough, granulose or reticulate integument, marked
by two or few grooves along back, the tail depressed, with a slight
median line or none; facial grooves well developed on both sides.
Labial processes large ; sole undivided. Mantle with a small right
body lappet, and a long left one, usually interrupted across the






HELIX. 313

back. Right eye retractor passing between primary branches of
genitalia. (Frontispiece, fig. 7).

Jaw well arched, stout, with 3-9 strong ribs denticulating both
margins (pi. 67, figs. 1, 4, 7, 8, 9). Radula normal, having the
cusps of median and lateral teeth about as long as the squarish
basal plates, side cusps small or wanting. Marginals with a long,
oblique bifid inner cusp and a small simple or bifid ectocone (pi. 67,
figs. 2, 3, 5, 6, 11).

Genital system characterized by a short penis passing into the epi-
phallus, which bears the retractor (distal ly inserted on lung floor)
and branches into vas deferens and a flagellum, the latter rarely
wanting. One dart sack present and well developed, containing a
four-bladed dart, with short neck and crenulated base. Mucus
glands two, varying from simple to multifid, but always composed of
smooth, tubular coeca ; inserted on each side of vagina immediately
above entrance of dart sack; both the dart sack and mucus glands
lying free in cavity, not bound together by a stout membrane. Sper-
matheca globose, on a long duct, which usually bears ad iverticulum.
Ovotestis compact, imbedded in the side of the liver (frontispiece
figs. 5, 6, H. pomatia).

.Distribution, Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor.

Helix is distinguished from Helicigona mainly by the form of the
dart and the free diverticulum ; this being invariably bound to
oviduct by a wide membrane in Helicigona.

The genus Helix contains the most highly organized and complex
snails of the family Helicidce. Like the European type of Homo,
but unlike most highly specialized forms, their specialization has
evidently fitted them for meeting widely diverse conditions of exist-
ence. Their powers of reproduction as well as the ease with
which they adapt themselves to circumstances of climate and envi-
ronment new to them, are remarkable. They love the light, and
for the most part are not exterminated by the destruction of their
native forests, but accepting kindly the new conditions, live and
multiply in vineyards, gardens and around tilled fields. As colo-
nists they rank with man, the dog and the horse. Various species
live and thrive in the United States, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina, S.
Africa, New Caledonia, Australia, etc., etc. None, even of the most
widely distributed Helicoids of other genera such as Eulota similaris,
iiave so wide a range of climate ; and the species of Helix which



314



HELIX.



have founded colonies in climates foreign to them, outnumber the
colonized members of all other Helicoid genera together.

The causes of this adaptability are obscure. Perhaps the rather
unusual toughness of the external integument and the unrivalled
complication of the genitalia are factors of importance, the first
allowing them a wider range of station with greater variety and
opportunity of feeding, the second producing more perfect eggs. It
is noteworthy that the dentition is of a very generalized type, show-
ing no tendency toward the specialization seen in the radulse of
Polymita, Oxychona, Papuina, or the entire series of genera group-
ing around Acavus, Helicophanta and Panda. Such high modifica-
tion of dentition as these genera show, must restrict them to the
special conditions and food which produced it, and would constitute
a bar to^ their wide dispersal, which is not present in the genus
Helix. The jaw is of high type, but the same efficient odontogna-
thous form has been developed in many genera.

With the exception of Euparypha and Eremina, no divisions of
Helix can be based upon anatomical characters, for the features
intergrade throughout, offering merely specific differences. The
various " sections " of the genus rest wholly upon conchological char-
acters, which though quite appreciable to the eye, are often extremely
difficult to define in words so that they may be distinguished.

The genus Helix is abundantly represented in the Tertiary depos-
its of middle Europe, by species belonging without doubt to the
modern groups, although in many cases they are practically inter-
mediate between some of the latter. The HELICOGENA or Pomatia
group is not known with certainty below Pleistocene deposits,
although it is barely possible that the Oligocene H. globosa Sowb.
belongs here. I do not think this likely; and the evidence at hand
indicates that the group arose upon non-European soil, and spread
northward or northwest in a few specific forms which have split in
comparatively recent times into numerous species. TACHEA, how-
ever, has an extensive range in time, a considerable number of forms
appearing in lower Miocene deposits, some showing certain features of
Iberus, others with more conoidal spire than usual in normal recent
Tacheas, but still having the characteristic columella and band pat-
tern. H. bohemica, H. moguntina and H. hortulana are examples?
being the " Coryda " of some European authors, so-called on account
of the trifling incident of a raised spire. Such forms as H. crepidos-
toma Sandb., with keeled earlier whorls, are also to be regarded as



HELIX. 315

a manifestation of this group. In the upper Miocene, H. sylvana,
sylvestrina, etc., represent this group. In late Pliocene and Post-
Pliocene times, Tachea was represented by numerous forms, such as
sepulta Mich., tonnensis Sandb., and those described by Nevill from
Mentone. The section OTALA (Macularia Auct.) has a similar his-
tory, appearing at about the same time, in moderately characteristic
forms, many with the malleation of the recent species, as seen in
H. nayliesi, etc. HEMICYCLA, now confined to the Canary Islands,
seems to have had a wide range in the Miocene, some species, such
as asperula Dh. being excessively similar to recent forms. The iso-
lation of the Canaries has evidently preserved there this ancient
race. There are a number of Tertiary forms of Europe known to
me by figures or poorly preserved specimens only, which will event-
ually no doubt form new groups.

If. doderleiniana All. of the Sicilian Pliocene seems to represent
a section distinct from Otala, although allied to that group, which
may be called Allolcemus. It is distinguished by the extraordinary
expansion of the last whorl toward the aperture, after a wide shal-
low constriction, causing the throat to be quite narrow, although the
mouth is expanded and the outer lip flaring. General form globose-
depressed. The specimen before me is from Palermo, collected by
Benoit.

It has not been considered necessary to give varietal names to the
band variations of these five-banded Helices. They may better be
expressed by the well known formula originated by Martens pere
(Ueber die Ordnung der Bander an den Schalen mehrerer Land-
schnecken, 1832), and explained in the Introduction to this vol-
ume.

Synopsis of sections and subgenera.
I. Penis provided with a flagellum.

a. Baso-columellarlip straightened and widened by a callous plate
within.

b. Imperforate, globose-conic, periphery round, smoothish ;

usually yellow or white, banded Tachea*.

bb. Imperforate, globose-depressed, periphery round, smooth

or malleated, solid ; uniform, or speckled and banded

Otala.

bbb. Globose-depressed, malleated, ribbed or granulate, dark,
usually banded Hemicycla.



o!6 HELIX.

bbbb. Globose or depressed, smooth or striate, with spotted
bands Iberus (in part).

aa. Baso-columellar lip concave, not wide or flat.

b. Large, globular ; lip simple or expanded Helicogena.
bb. Depressed, often keeled, ribbed or striate, 0-4 banded

Iberus (part) ; Levantina.

II. Penis without flagellum ; shell chalky.

a. Globose-depressed, heavy, the lip expanded or thickened ; bands

few or none Eremina.

aa. Globose or depressed, decussated above, the outer lip not in the

least expanded, thickened within ; bands many, rarely none

Euparypha.

Section Helicogena Ferussac, 1819.

Helicogena (part) FERUSSAC, Tab. Syst. Fam. Limacons, p. 27.
Rrsso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., p. 60, first species H. pomatia.
-CHARPENTIER, Cat. Moll. Suisse, 1837, p. 5, for H. pomatia only.
HARTMANN, Gastr. Schw., p. 98 (for H. pomatia}. Moq.-Tand.,
Hist. Nat. Moll. Fr. ii, p. 179. Pomatia Leach, in TURTON'S Man-
ual of the Land and Freshwater Shells of the Brit. Is., 1831, p. 45.
BECK, Index Moll., p. 43, and of authors generally. f Lucena,
HARTMANN in Syst. Erd- u. Siisswasser Gastr. Eur., p. 40, 1821.
Pomacea PERRY, Conchology, pi. 38, 1811 (in part; but diagnosis
agrees better with Ampullaria species also included).

Cantareus Risso, Hist. Nat. Eur. Merid., p. 64, (Helix naticoides
sole species). MOQ.-TAND., I. c., p. 186. Canthareus AGASSIZ,
Nomencl. Zool., 1847. Tapada GRAY, in Turton's Manual L. and
Frw. Sh. Brit. Is. edit. 1840, p. 127, H. aperta sole species.

Cryptomphalus Agassiz in CHARPENTIER, Catal. Moll. Terrest. et
Fluv. de la Suisse, in Neue Denkschriften der allg. Schweizerischen
Gesellsch. fiir die gesammten Naturwissensch. (=Nouveaux Mein-
oires de la Societe Helvetique des Sci. Nat.) i, 1837, p. 5, for arbus-
torum, aspersa, sylvatica, nemoralis. MOQ.-TAND., 1. c. p. 174,



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