George W. (George Washington) Tryon.

Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species (Volume 15) online

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place, 0'02 inch (Wats.).

Near Gape York, N. E. Australia, 6-8 fms. (Chall.).
Utriculus amphizostus WATS., J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 336 ; Chall.
Gastr. p, 652, pi. 48, f. 11.

This species is very like Utriculus truncatulus (Brug.) ; but that
has much stronger longitudinals, no spirals, and an oblique crown,
sloping down from left to right on which side the top of the mouth
and outer lip rise in a rounded loop very considerably above the top
of the body whorl (Wats.).



RETUSA. 225-

R. FAMELICUS Watson. PI. 21, fig. 6.

Shell long, narrow, subconically cylindrical, with straight out-
lines, abruptly truncate above, with a deeply impressed papillary
apex, rounded and slightly tumid in front, harshly striate above
and delicately so below. Sculpture : Longitudinals the lines of
growth are very slight, but round the top of the shell is a coronal of
folds forming ridges and furrows of about equal strength ; these ex-
tend over the top and into the hollow crown. Spirals round the
top, harshly scoring the coronal, are four or five deep, but not broad r
sharp cut furrows, parted by flat surfaces of about twice their
breadth ; below these to a fourth of the length, there are distant
furrows so obsolete as to be almost invisible ; below this the whole
surface is superficially scratched with delicate sharp-cut fretted fur-
rows parted by broadish flat intervals. Color translucent white*
Mouth the entire length of the shell, being considerably produced
posteriorly, wkere it is slightly enlarged ; in the middle it is nar-
row, the two sides being almost perfectly parallel, in front it is elon-
gately oval ; in its entire shape it resembles a spoon. Whorls 4 t
but the earlier ones are so deeply sunken, and the hole in the
crown (where alone they are visible) is so small, that it is difficult
to count them ; the apex is papillary. Suture slight. Outer lip
rises straight from the crown, with a slight inclination in towards
the center, is narrowly rounded above, and advances straight for
about two-thirds of the shell's length, at which point it is slightly
expanded and then becomes somewhat patulous ; it sweeps rather
freely round to join the pillar. Top small, oblique, harshly radia-
tingly striate and deeply narrowly impressed. Inner lip long and
straight, slightly convex in front, oblique and slightly concave on
the pillar which is bluntly toothed in front, and has a very narrow
scarce patulous prominent edge with a minute furrow behind it.
Alt. 0*18 in., diam. 0'06. Mouth breadth at same place, 0019
inch (TFafe.).

LevuJca, Fiji, 12 fms. (Challenger).

Utriculus famelicus WATSON, J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 338 ; Chall. Rep.
Gastr. p. 653, pi. 49, f. 1,

This species, whose thin and famished look suggested the name
chosen, belongs to the group of which the Mediterranean Utriculus
striatala (Forbes) may be taken as a type, though in that species
the features attributed to the subgenus Sao (of Cylichna) are much
more strongly developed. Compared to this species of the Chal-



t
226 RETUSA.

lenger, Cylichna fijiensis E. A. Smith is broader, not squarely trun-
cate above, and not so plicate around the top of the body. Utricu-
lus phiala A. Adams, from Japan, is not nearly so long and narrow,
and is more cylindrical. Cylichna decussata A. Adams, which is
like in sculpture, is shorter, less cylindrical, and the outer lip
rises much higher behind. Cylichna pyramidata A. Adams, which
is puckered above, is much less cylindrical and is smooth in the
body.

E. SIMILLIMA Watson. PL 21, figs. 9, 10.

Shell small, short, truncately conical, with straightish outlines, a
perforated crown, and a small papillary apex, rounded and tumid
in front. Sculpture : Longitudinals the lines of growth are very
slight ; but round the top of the shell is a coronal of delicate folds
forming ridges and furrows of about equal strength ; these extend
over the top and into the perforation of the crown. Spirals
round the top is a slight but marked constriction ; above this the top
converges, and is finely scored" with small close-set furrows ; the rest
of the shell is superficially scratched with delicate, sharp-cut, fretted,
remote furrows parted by flat surfaces ; on the base the furrows are
closer and coarser, and the intervals rounded. Color translucent
white. Mouth the entire length of the shell, being considerably
produced posteriorly, where it is enlarged ; in the middle it is nar-
row and slightly bent, in front it is large and oval. Whorls 3 to 4 ;
the apex is papillary but very small and so deeply immersed as to
be doubtfully visible. Suture very difficult to distinguish, but ap-
parently impressed. Outer lip rises from the inner side of the per-
foration and bends in over it so as partially to cover it ; it arches
freely round and is not at all emarginate ; it runs pretty straight
forward for about three-fifths of its length, at this point it is slightly
constricted and contracted, but immediately bends to the right and
curves very regularly round the base, where it is patulous. Top
contracted, rounded, oblique, harshly radiatingly striate, and deeply
narrowly impressed. Inner lip convex, tumid in front, oblique and
slightly concave on the pillar, which is feebly toothed, and has a
very narrow, scarcely patulous, prominent edge, with a minute fur-
row behind it. Alt. O'l in., diam. 0*047. Mouth breadth at same
place 0-024 inch ( Wats.).

Torres Straits and Winder's Passage, N. E. Australia, 3-11 fins.

Utriculus simillimus WA* s., J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 340 ; Chall.
Gastr. p. 654, pi. 49, f. 2.



RETUSA. 227

This species exceedingly resembles the young of Ulriculus fameli-
<cus Watson, but is very much broader in proportion to its length.
Cyliclma fijiensis E. A. Smith is much larger and slimmer (Wats.).

R. EUMICRA Crosse. PI. 23, figs. 43, 44.

Shell imperforate, small, thin, subcylindrical, shining, smooth,
subpellucid, white ; spire nearly flat, the apex strongly projecting ;
whorls 3 J, the last large, nearly as long as the whole shell; aper-
ture narrow, enlarged toward the base. Alt. 4, diam. 2 mill. (C.
& F).

Spencers Gulf, S. Australia.

Bulla eumiera CROSSE, Journ. de Conchyl. 1865, p. 40, pi. 2, f. 7.
Utriculus eumicras ANG., P. Z. S. 1865, p. 188.

R. APICULATA Tate. PI. 23, fig. 45.

Similar to U. eumicrus Crosse, but distinguishable by its sunken
spire, the papillary apex of which is exserted beyond the level of
the body whorl. The anterior extremity of the shell is more gradu-
ally tapering, and the shoulder of the body whorl is less abruptly
arched, consequently U. apieulatus is more fusiform than its ally.
It is also much larger.

King George's Sound, S. W. Australia.

Utriculus apieulatus TATE, Trans, and Proc. and Rep. Philos.
Soc. of Adelaide, for 1878-9, p. 138, pi. 5, f. 3.

R. ORYCTUS Watson. PI. 21, fig. 5.

Shell subcylindrically oblong, tumid below the middle and
rounded in front, obsoletely striate in the lines of growth, truncate
above, when the crown is sharply angulately edged and excavated
with a papillary apex. Sculpture: Longitudinals the ordinary
ridges and furrows in the lines of growth are feeble, except on the
crown, where the old lip edge scars are strongish, close and hair-
like. Spirals none, except that round the edge of the crown there
runs a sharp angulation in continuation of the outer lip. Color
ivory-white, somewhat streaked longitudinally. Mouth a little
longer than the body, and at the top, to a small extent, enlarged,
slightly curved on the inner side, and there in front gibbous ; on
the outer side It is nearly straight. Whorls 3 ; the last encircles
all the rest, which only appear on the crown, where each rises above
its predecessor in a round-faced curve ; the first is papillary and
immersed, the last rises above on the margin in a sharp edge and is



228 RETUSA.

a little tumid in front. Suture slightly impressed. Outer lip
rounded and cut off backwards above, angulated at its upper outer
corner, straight with a slight medial contraction, rounded and patu-
lous in front ; its edge line is very regularly curved. Top deeply
excavated, with a sharp edge. Inner lip: there is a very thin
glaze ; the line across the body is much curved, the narrowing for-
ward of the body beginning early and being considerable ; the pil-
lar is very oblique, subtruncate, very bluntly and faintly toothed,
with a narrow expanded sharpish bordered edge, and an almost im-
perceptible umbilical chink behind it. Alt. 0*13 in., diam. 0'07.
Mouth breadth at same place O'Ol inch (Wats.).

Ascension Island, 420 fms. (Challenger).

Utrieulus oryctus WATS., J. L. S. L. xvii, p. 337 ; Chall. Gastr.
p. 653, pi. 48, f. 12.

The very sharp outer rim of the crown in this species is character-
istic. The species slightly resembles a large and stumpy Cylichna
umbilicata (Mont.), but is posteriorly squarer and more truncate
the whole top is different, the line of the pillar is straight in its
obliquity, not roundly hollowed, and there is no spiral sculpture.
(Wats.).

R. ANTARCTICA Pfeffer. PL 23, fig. 47.

Shell very thin, whitish, cylindrical-ovate, the width five-ninths
the altitude; spire elevated, the vertex oblique. Whorls 3, separ-
arated by a channelled suture, the last whorl three-fourths the
length of the shell, tapering toward the base. Aperture narrower
above, much dilated below, the outer lip slightly flexuous, sub-
auriculate above, obtusely rounded below ; columella strongly ar-
cuate, without fold. Alt. 2-7 mill. (P/r.).

South Georgia.

Utrieulus antarcticus PFFR., Jahrb. Hamburgischen Wissensch.
Anstalten, iii, p. 109, pi. 3, f. 5, 1*86.

Described from a single specimen found among roots of Hydroids.
It is excessively fragile. The attenuation of the body-whorl below
is its principal peculiarity.

R. INVOLUTA Philippi. Unfigured.

Shell small, cylindrical, transversely striated above and below,
milk-white ; apex retuse and with a profound pit like an umbilicus ;
aperture linear, very narrow, suddenly dilated at the base, very ob-



RETUSA. 229

tusely plicate; external-basal angle of aperture very prominent ; lip
thin, contracted in the middle. Alt. 3i, diam. 1 lines (Ph.).

China (Largilliert).

Bulla involuta PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1851, p. 64.

Has much affinity to B. convoluta Brocchi, but shorter, striated
above and below, and base of the aperture suddenly dilated (Ph.}.
The generic position is very doubtful. Perhaps it is a Cylichna.

R. SEMINULUM Philippi. Unfigured.

Shell small, subcylindrical, a little attenuated toward the base,
very smooth, milk-white; spire short, obtuse, distinct; aperture
linear, a little dilated at the base, obsoletely folded. Alt. H, diam.
I lines (PA.)-

Manila.

Bulla semmulum PHIL., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 1851, p. 64.

This species is like B. obstricta Old., B. obtusa Mont , but differs
in having the base of the shell attenuated and the aperture much
narrower (Ph.).

Subgenus PYRUNCULUS Pilsbry, 1894.

Sao H. & A. ADAMS, Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 21, Sept., 1854, type
S.pyriformis A. Ad. Conf. SMITH, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), ix, p.
354, 1872.

Not Sao Billberg, Enum. Ins., p. 135, 1820 (Crustacea*), nor Sao
Barrande, 1846 (Trilobita) ; nor Sao Kolliker, 1853 (Siphonophora,
forskaliides).

Shell pyriform, \vide below, narrowed above, the aperture as long
as the shell, and of similar shape, columella thickened. Spire de-
pressed and rather shallowly or deeply umbilicated. Surface gen-
erally with some basal spiral strise. Soft parts unknown.

Adams' name Sao being thrice preoccupied, has been changed to
Pyrunculus. The systematic position of the species cannot be defi-
nitely settled until the soft parts are known Adams considering
the group a subgenus of Atys, Smith placing it under Cylichna,
while Fischer has Sao as a subgenus of Tornatina. The characters
of the shells' apex seem more like Retusa than Cylichna, so that it
may be advisable to retain it as a section of that genus for the pres-
ent.

R. PYRIFORMIS A. Adams. PL 33, fig. 68.

Shell small, ovate, greatly dilated at the base, gibbose, shining,
white, smooth, pellucid, apex truncated, obsoletely longitudinally
16



230 RETUSA.

sulcated, above and below transversely striated ; spire not visible,
apex slightly umbilicated ; aperture narrowed above and greatly
dilated below ; outer lip acutely truncated above ; columella reflected,
rather callous in the middle ; umbilicus deep (Ad.).

China Sea (Cuming)-

Bulla (Atys) pyriformis AD., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 589, pi. 125, f.
128. Sao pyriformis AD., Gen. Rec. Moll., ii, p. 21.

R. NITIDA A. Adams. PL 33, fig. 65.

Shell very small, obovate, white, opaque, shining, dilated at the
base, apex rounded and deeply umbilicated, transversely striated
above and below ; aperture produced above and narrow, inferiorly
dilated ; columella simple, reflected ; umbilicus small ; outer lip
rounded superiorly and arched (Ad.).

Shores of Borneo (Cuming).

Sulla (Atys) nitida AD., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 589, pi. 125, f. 127.

R. LAGENULA A. Adams. Unfigured.

Shell cylindrical-pyramidal, swollen below, the umbilical region
impressed, transversely striated, the striae rather distant ; dull white ;
apex perforated ; aperture linear, much dilated below ; inner lip
short, thickened ; outer lip straight, posteriorly produced, anteriorly
rounded and arcuate (Ad.).

Gulf of Pe-chili, 5 fms. (Ad.)

Sao lagenula AD., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), viii, p. 139.

R. FOLLICULUS A. Adams. Unfigured.

Shell ovate, umbilicate, rather solid; base dilated, gibbous;
smooth, transversely striated posteriorly ; apex profoundly perforate.
Aperture dilated in front, narrow behind ; inner lip thickened ; outer
lip strongly produced behind and acuminately angular (Ad.).

Tabu-Sima, Japan, 25 fms. (Ad.).

Saofolliculus AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), ix, p. 160.

The only species resembling this is S. pyriformis A. Ad., from the
China Sea; but that species is much more ventricose, and more
attenuated posteriorly ( Ad ).

R. PHI ALA A. Adams. Unfigured.

Shell cylindrical-pyramidal, attenuated anteriorly [?], subcon-
stricted below the summit, rimate, transversely striated above and
below ; vertex profoundly perforated ; aperture linear, coarctate



RETUSA. 231

behind, dilated in front ; inner lip straight, elongated, simple ; outer
lip strongly produced behind (Ad.*).

Mino-Sima, Japan, 63 fms.

Sao phiala AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), ix, p. 160.

The peculiar contraction at the anterior part of the body-whorl
just below the apex, the produced outer lip, and the straight simple
inner lip are the chief peculiarities of this species (Ad.).

R. ELLIPTICA A. Adams. Unfigured.

Shell small, white, thin, elongate-ovate, subdilated in front, longi-
tudinally streaked, transversely striated above and below ; aperture
linear, dilated below ; inner lip straight calloused in the middle ;
outer lip with arcuate margin, posteriorly produced, rounded (Ad.).

Tsu-Sima, Japan, 16 fms.

Sao elliptica A. AD., Ann. Mag. N. H. (3), ix, p. 160.

A small white, longitudinally strigose, ovate species, differing in
form and appearance from any other of the group (Ad.).

R. PELLYI Smith. Unfigured.

Shell pyriform, the base double as wide as the top ; white, trans-
versely, distantly striated at base; vertex umbilicated, surrounded
outside by a lira (decussated by curved longitudinal, rather evanes-
cent striae). Aperture narrow above, produced above the vertex,
greatly dilated below. Columella short, thickened ; umbilical region
perforated. Alt. 4, diam. 2 mill. (S.).

Persian Gulf (Col Pelly).

Cylichna (Sao) pellyi E. A. SMITH, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), ix,
p. 354 (May, 1872).

Considerably larger than C. nitida A. Ad., and proportionately
narrower towards the upper end.

R. OBESIUSCULA Brugnone. PI. 23, figs. 60, 61.

Shell 5 mill, high, 3 mill, wide, subsonic-oval, truncated obliquely
above, shining and smooth, with fine and numerous striae of growth,
stronger toward the summit ; last whorl ventricose. Aperture nar-
row and linear above, below enlarged, rounded and everted a little
to the left, the outer lip gently curved and projecting a little above
the apex ; columella rather straight, inclined to the left, bending
outwards, and with an obscure fold in the middle. The apex with
a narrow, funnel-shaped, sharp edged umbilicus ; base with a small
umbilical slit partly covered by the reflection of the columella.



232 RETUSA.

Cyliclina obesiuscula BRUGNONE, Bull. Soc. Mai. Ital., Ill, p. 39,
pi. i, fig. 7, 1877. Diaphana conulus VERRILL, Proc. U. S. Nat.
Mus., Ill, p. 382, 1880; Trans. Conn. Acad., V, p. 543, pi. Iviii, fig.
25,1882; VI, p. 273, 1884. Retusa f obesiuscula Brugn., DALL,
Blake Gastr., p. 49.

Pliocene of Messina, (Seguenza) ; of Palermo (Brugnone) ; U. S.
Fish Commission Stations 870, 949, 2595, 2602 and 2614, in 63-168
fms., living in about 100 fms.

This species is quite distinct from Sulla conica or conulus of De-
shayes, Wood, Sars, etc., from C. hcernesi and C. ovata, with all of
which it has been confounded by various authors, especially Jeffreys.
Professor Verrill in referring to it noted the discrepancies. (Dall).

R. OVATA Jeffreys. PI. 30, fig. 11.

" Larger (than Cyliclina umbilicata) narrower at the apex, and
conical ; the upper angle of the outer lip is higher and more pro-
jecting " (Jeffr.).

Cyliclina ovata JEFFREYS, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1870, Pore. Exp., p.
156 ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 5th ser., X, p. 34, 1882. WATSON,
Chall. Rep., p. 664, pi. xlix, fig. 9, l885. Utriculus conulus G. O.
SARS, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norv., p. 287, pi. 17, fig. 17, l878. Cylichna
umbilicata var. conulus Jeffr., Brit. Conch., IV, p. 414; V, p. 223.
Not Sulla conulus Deshayes, Cyliclina conulus of Weinkauff, or
Sulla conulus of Searles Wood. Retusa ? ovata DALL, Blake
Gastr., p. 49.

North Atlantic (Porcupine and Triton Expeditions); Say of
Biscay (Travailleur Expedition) ; Azores (Josephine, Porcupine and
Challenger Expeditions); West Indies; off Pernambuco (Challen-
ger Expedition) ; Straits of Florida, 150-465 fms. (Dr. Rush) ;
East Coast of North America, 124-400 fms. (U. S. Fish Commis-
sion) ; range 100-1000 fms. over a muddy bottom in all parts of
the North Atlantic, with temperatures from 40 to 62 F.

R. C^ELATA Bush. PI. 23, fig. 69.

Shell rather thick, opaque white, with a slightly lustrous surface
of moderate size, somewhat conical in shape, with a truncated tip
and an elongated tapering base. Spire concealed within a very
deep pit ; the two or three whorls are distinctly visible in an end
view and are crossed by numerous delicate, little curved riblets
which curve over the top of the body-whorl extending down a short
distance, and gradually blend with the flexuous lines of growth.



VOLVULA. 233

Commencing about the middle of the whorl and covering the base
there are numerous, fine, punctate, spiral lines, very much crowded
anteriorly. Aperture very narrow, expanded anteriorly ; outer lip
a little produced at the top, bending round somewhat abruptly, then
following the outline of the body-whorl, and joining the inner lip in
a regular curve ; inner lip much thickened at its base, with a
minute umbilical chink behind it. Color yellowish-white. (Bush).

Alt. 3, diam. 1-5 mill. (Bush).

Cape Hatteras, N. (?., rare in 15-43 fms. (U .8. F. C.), Fernandina
Florida.

Cylichna ccelata BUSH, Trans. Conn. Acad., vi, p. 468, pi. 45,
f. 15. Retusa ccelata DALL, Blake Gastr., p. 45.

Genus VOLVULA A. Adams, 1850.

Volvula A. AD. in Sowerby's Thesaurus Conchyliorum, ii, p. 558.
Not Volvulus Oken, Lehrb. Naturg., 1815 (Moll.), nor of Brulle,
Hist. Nat. Ins., 1835, (Coleoptera). Volvulella R. B. NEWTON,
Syst. List Edwards Coll. Brit. Oligocene and Eocene Moll., p. 268,
1891. WRhizorus MONTF., Conch. Syst., ii, p. 338, 1810.

Shell external, subcylindrical or long-oval, tapering at both ends,
the body-whorl more or less produced in a beak or spine above.
Spire concealed ; apsrture as long as the shell, very narrow, the
outer lip simple, produced above ; columella somewhat thickened,
with the trace of a fold. Type V. acuminata.

Animal with a squarish frontal disc, produced in two processes
behind, as in Retusa, in front of which are the eyes. No epipodial
lobes ; foot shorter than the shell, (pi. 60, figs. 9, 10, V- acuminata).

The shell differs from Tornatina and Retusa in its attenuation at
the ends, the upper extremity of the body-whorl being produced
into a sort of spine in the typical species. The animal closely
resembles Retusa in external features, but it is not known whether
radula-teeth are present or not.

The generic term Volvula is not preoccupied. The names Vol-
vulus of Okeu, and Volvulus of Brulle seem to be sufficiently dis-
tinct in form to preclude any danger of confusion with Volvula.

V. SMITHII Pilsbry, n. n. PI. 26, fig. 65.

Shell minute, elongate-ovate, rostrate above, polished, white,
transversely striated at both ends, smooth in the middle ; aperture



234 VOLVULA.

narrow above, dilated below ; columella thick. Alt. 5, diam. 3 mill.



Whydah, W. Africa.

Volvula cylindrica E. A. SMITH, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 738, pi. 75, f.
29. Not F. cylindrica Cpr.

Peculiar for the beaked apex and the (about 12) spiral striae at
the upper and lower portions. ($.).

V. ACUMINATA Bruguiere. PL 26, figs. 61, 62 ; pi. 60, figs. 9, 10.

Shell oval-cylindrical, elongated, about three times as high as
wide, convoluted, acuminate at the summit, rounded at base, the
spire concealed. Thin, translucent and shining, with very weak
spiral strise toward the summit and the base. Aperture very nar-
row, nearly linear, wider at base ; lip simple and sharp, flexuous,
rounded at base ; columellar margin rounded. Columella visibly
twisted, arcuate and thickened. Color hyaline white. Alt. 2'7,
diam. 1 mill. ; sometimes larger.

Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, Atlantic from Norway to the
Gulf of Gascony, laminarian and coralline zones ; Gulf of Suez
(Cooke).

Bulla acuminata BRUG., Encycl. Meth., i, p. 376, 1792.
PHIL., Enum. Moll, Sicil. i, p. 122, pi. 8, f. IS. Volvula acumi-
nata A. AD., Thes. Conch., ii, p. 596, pi. 125, f. 152. BUQ. DAUTZ
& DOLLF., Moll. Rouss., p. 534, pi. 64, f. 4, 5. COOKE, Amn. Mag.
(5), xvii, p. 130. M. SARS, Bidrag til Kundskab orn Christian-
iafjordens Fauna, 1870, p. 62, pi. 11, f. 19-22 (living animal).
Ovula acuminata FORBES & HANLEY, Hist. Brit. Moll., iii, p. 500
pi. 164B, f. 3. Cylichna acuminata JEFFR., Brit. Conch., iv, p. 411;
v, p. 222, pi. 93, f. 1 ; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), v, p. 448. Bulla
fucicola CHIEREGHINI, BRUSINA, Bib. Malac., ii, Ipsa Chier.C onch.,
p. 117, 1870, (no description).

There can be no doubt that the slender Volvula of the Mediter-
ranean is the type of Bruguiere's description ; his measurements
corresponding closely to specimens, which are about three times as
long as wide. His reference to Plancus (De Conchis minus notis,
etc.) is less happy, for the figures cited can hardly be believed to be
this shell. Whether V. oxytata Bush and V- persimilis Morch are
the same 1 do not know, as I have not seen specimens of them ; but
there is nothing in the descriptions, so far as I can see, to distinguish
the American forms from the Mediterranean. Chiereghini's B.



VOLVULA. 235

fucicola is a (posthumous) nude name, absolutely unknown except
for Brusina's statement that it is the B. acuminata Brug.

Var. BREVIS Pilsbry. PI. 60, fig. 11.

Shell regularly spindle-shaped, or forming an elongated oval
which is pointed above and broad below ; it is thin, almost trans-
parent, and glossy ; sculpture slight spiral strise at each end, and
very faint microscopic lines in the same direction on the interme-
diate space ; the strise near the apex are fewer and more remote
than those near the base; epidermis inconspicuous; color, clear
white. Mouth very long, commencing at the top in a short and
slightly recurved spike, and gradually widening towards the base,
where it is expanded and rounded ; outer lip flexuous, with a sharp
edge ; inner lip consisting of a mere film on the upper part and in the
middle, but thickened and reflected at the base, so as to give the
pillar the appearance of having a short fold ; pillar twisted, and
bending a little to the left. (Jejfr.).

Alt. 3-75, diam. 1-87 mill.

Northern Europe ; Mediterranean.

This form is far stumpier than the typical V. acuminata, the
diameter being nearly one-half the altitude. The references to
Forbes and Hanley, Jeffreys (Brit. Conch.), and Adams in the
above synonymy, belong to this form.

V. OXYTATA Bush. PL 26, fig. 63.

Shell rather small, somewhat cylindrical, with a sharp, spike-like



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