George W. (George Washington) Tryon.

Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species (Volume 7) online

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Shell more pyriform than G. fimbriata , the teeth are coarser,
the marginal spots are uniformly larger, and the painting of the
extremities is brownish purple, even in small and worn speci-
mens. It is closely allied to the larger forms of C. fimbriata.

Length, '6-*9 inch.

Japan, Australia.
C. FELTNA, Gmel. PL 4, figs. 52-55, 59, 60.

Greenish blue, freckled all over with olive, sides and base
yellowish, spots on the sides large and black, teeth strong.

Length, -5-' 7 5 inch. Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Yar. " a," C. ursellus, Ginel. (figs. 54, 55), is smaller, the base
is whitish and more flattened. ,

Var. "6," C. fabula, Kiener (figs. 59, 60), shell shortened,
gibbous, back elevated.

The animal of C. felina is pale, black-dotted.

C. HIRUNDO, Linn. PL 4, figs. 56, 57.

The olive freckles of the preceding are here supplanted by
minute brown dots, and the extremities are painted with blackish-
brown spots ; base white, teeth conspicuous.

Length, -6-*8 inch. New Caledonia, Australia, Indian 0.

C. OWENI, Sowb. PL 4, figs, 45, 58, 68-70 ; PL 5, fig. 73.

Shell generally broader, and more margined than C. hir'undo,
marginal dots more numerous ; the teeth are smaller and extend
more over the base of the shell.

From a careful comparison of specimens of this shell with
those of C. Menkeana, Desh. (PL 4, figs. 69, 70, from Deshayes ;
PL 4, fig. 58 ; PL 5, fig. 73, from Sowerby), both of which were
received from Mr. "Sowerby, I do not hesitate to place the
latter as a synonym. The only noticeable difference is in the
marginal dots, which in Menkeana sometimes run together,

170 CYPE^A.

giving a solid brown appearance. Specimens of C. Oweni,
received from Mr. J. F. Bailey, of Melbourne, Victoria, are
rather elongate, yellowish, and have a faded appearance, but
decorticated shells are fawn-color.

C. NEGLECTA, Sowb. PL 4, figs. 61, 62, 63, 66, 67.

Differs from C. hirundo, in the teeth, which are smaller, more

numerous, and extend over the base of the shell. The back is

usually ornamented with a brown blotch.

Length, *5-'75 inch. Australia, Mauritius,

C. coffea, Sowb. (figs. 66, 67) is a small varietj-, the teeth

of which continue over the dorsal margin of the posterior


C. CYLINPRICA, Born. PI. 5, figs. 79, 80, 81.

Bluish, freckled with minute fulvous-chestnut specks, and a
large misshapen central blotch; extremities painted on each side
with a conspicuous blackish-chestnut spot; the marginal dots are
very few in number, and are confined to the left side ; aperture
anteriorly dilated, outer teeth large, inner fine, and elongated
partially across the base ; teeth and base whitish.

Length, 1-2-1*5 inches.

Ceylon, Australia, New Caledonia.

C. subcylindrica, Sowb. (fig. 81), is a more ovate variety, with
teeth 'less strong, those on the columella being confined to its
margin ; the marginal dots are nearly obsolete.

C. TABESCENS, Sol. PI. 5, figs. 82, 83, 84.

Whitish, freckled with pale 3'ellowish brown, three-banded
with semilunar spots of a little deeper shade. Spire depressed,
teeth and base whitish. Length, -7-1 '5 inches.

Neiv Caledonia, Loyalty Is., Australia.

C. TERES, Gmel. PL 5, figs. 86, 87.

The gradation is fine from the more slender forms of C.
tabescens to this species, but the more sudden bend of the
aperture, more produced extremities and the increased number
of teeth are sufficient to distinguish it. Length, '75-'9 inch.


Weinkauff, believing that the C. tabescens of authors is the
true C. teres, Gmel., has named this species C. subteres.

CYPR^EA. 171

C. CAURICA, Linn. PI. 5, figs. 88, 89, 90.

Whitish, mottled with minute yellowish-brown specks, sides
whitish to pale orange, ornamented here and there with dark
conspicuous spots, base orange tinged with gray, teeth very
strong, whitish, extending parti-ally over the base on each side.

Length, '9-1*8 inches.

Indian and Pacific Oceans.

A most abundant species, varying from long and rounded
forms, with thin sides, to those short and depressed, with
thickened sides. The dorsal surface is frequently ornLrbonted
with a reddish-brown spot. A blackish-brown variety from
New Caledonia is the 0. obscura, Kossiter.

C. ORUENTA, Gmel. PL 6, fig. 97.

Differs from the preceding in the delicate dorsal coloring,
which is interrupted by more or less distinct white spots of
unequal size ; the side spots are purple and the interstices of the
teeth bright red ; the teeth on the columella are usually confined^
more to the margin of the aperture. ' Length, -8-1 '8 inches.

Indian Ocean, N. S. Wales.

C. STOLTDA, Linn. PL 5, figs. 91, 92, 85 ; PL 6, fig. 7.

Bluish, painted with minute chestnut dots, with a large brown
central square spot connected with half-square spots of the
same color at each corner, base paler blue, teeth and extremities
dark orange, the teeth extend somewhat over the base, mar-
ginal dots very small. Length, 1*11*5 inches.

Ceylon, Borneo, Sandwich Is. (?), N. Caledonia.

C. brevidentata, Sowb. (fig. 85), is a variety in which the
teeth are short, rounded and fewer in number ; they are con-
fined to the margin of the aperture, and are not tinted ; the
dorsal appearance is like incompletely colored specimens of

C. Crossei, Marie (PL 6, fig. 7), is another variety in which
the extremities are greatly produced and curve upward, the
central spot of the typical stolida is here extended into a band
and the whole shell has the distorted appearance so peculiar to
many of the species from New Caledonia. The teeih are large,
white and extend over the base of the shell.

172 CYPR-ffiA.

C. ERYTHR.EENSIS, Beck. PL 5, figs. 93, 94.

Differs from C. stolida in the absence of the four corner
lateral spots, the colorless teeth, the narrower and more
tapering form, and the uniform smallness of the shell.

Length, '65-'85 inch.

Red Sea.
C. CHRYSALIS, Kien. PI. 4, figs. 64, 65.

Canary, obscurely banded, with extremities tinted deep
orange, teeth very fine ; no spots or other markings on the
shell. Length, *65 inch.

Habitat ?

Believed to be the young form of some other species. I do not
know this species, nor can I get any further information than
that derived from Kiener.

Section II. (Aricia, Gray, pars) Shell ovate, thick, margined,
with flattened base.

Group A. Shell smooth.
* Not spotted.

C. VENTRICULUS, Lam. PI. 6, figs. 95, 96.

Shell rather angulated, back bluish white, ornamented with
four carnelian bands, sides dark chestnut, tinged above with red,
smoky white beneath, with a number of very fine stria 1 rising on
the margin ; base livid white. Length, 1-8-2*2 incho.

Annaa /., Pacific 0.

The younger shell is pale fulvous, encircled with four carnelian
bands, and the adult is a truly solid mass of enamel.

C. ARENOSA, Gray. PI. 6, figs. 1, 2.

Base more convex than the preceding, the back has a similar
ornamentation, but the margins are ash-brown, arenaceously
striated above, and the base is ivory-white ; teeth fine and
numerous. Length, l'l-l-5 inches.

Annaa /., Central Pacific.

The young shell is pale brown, with four carnelian bands.

C. SULCIDENTATA, Gray. PI. 6, figs. 3, 4.

Differs from C. arenosa in the teeth, the interstices of which
are deeply excavated, the colors are duller and the base is smoky

CYPR^EA. 173

white ; some specimens are of a bright yellow color, with the
bands dark buff. Length, 1-8 inches.

Australia, South /Seas, Sandwich Is.

C. TESSELLATA, Swn. PI. 6, figs. 5, 6.

Back yellowish brown, with three broad bands, sides tessellated
with square brown and white spots, the two upper spots on both
sides chestnut; base variegated brown and white.. teeth small,
numerous and tinged orange. Length, 1/2 inches.

New Zealand, Sandwich Is. (?)

** Dorsal surface spotted.

C. MAURITIANA, Linn. PL 7, figs. 8, 9, 10, 11.

Back humped, brown, covered with light brown or white spots
of irregular size, sides and base dark brown, almost black ; teeth
prominent, margin angulated. Length, 2-3-4 inches.

Samoa, New Caledonia, Borneo, Ceylon.

The young shell (fig. 11) is first fulvous-brown, with bands
of a yellowish hue arranged in waves, later the waves become
massed, leaving the yellow in triangular flame-like spots ; the
margins do not thicken and become angulate until after the
development of the teeth.

This mollusk must possess great muscular power, for its shell
is the heaviest and most solid of the genus.

C. CAPUT-SERPENTIS, Linn. PI. 6, figs. 98-100; PL 23, fig. 59.

Reddish or blackish brown ; the spots on the back having the
appearance of snow-white specks of unequal size ; extremities
tipped with white ; base grayish white, teeth conspicuous, white.

Length, -95-1-35 inches.

Indian and Pacific Oceans.

The young shell (fig. 100) is ashy blue, with a single, rather
broad central band. A more elongate variety (PL 23, fig. 59) of
a uniformly darker color and with margins less angular, has been
wrongly identified by authors as the G* caput-anguis, Phil. Com-
pared with caput-serpentis, Pease says it is smaller in size, and
the spots are smaller, but specimens labeled caput-anguis and
sent to the Philada. Acad. Nat. Sciences by Mr. Brazier, who
collected them at Ballenger River, N. S. W., are fully as large as
the typical form. The animal of C. caput-serpentis is
tentacula red-spotted.


*** Spots extending over the base.
C. MAPPA, Linn. PI. 7, figs. 12-14 ; PI. 8, fig. 1 7-

Back violet-brown, arranged in longitudinal lines of a hiero-
glyphic character, dorsal line whitish and peculiarly branched ;
sides and base whitish to pink, teeth saftron-red, numerous, and
confined to the interior of the aperture ; base sometimes orna-
mented on the columellar side with a violet blotch.

Length, 2'3-3'4 inches.

New Caledonia, Java, Indian 0.

C. nigricans, Montr. (PL 8, fig. 17), is a rostrate variety from
New Caledonia, the dorsal surface of which is black.

Length, 3'85 inches.

C. ARABICA, Linn. PI. 8, figs. 18, 19, 23, 24.

Back livid brown, with a line ornamentation similar to C.
niappa, the dorsal line is straight and the spots more numerous,
those on the sides being dark-brown, base tinged brownish ; teeth
reddish brown ; extremities blackish. Length, 1-6-3 inches.

Samoa, New Caledonia, Australia, Indian Ocean.

Young shell bluish, banded with brown waves. Animal black-
brown, with a yellow edge to the foot. C. eglantina, Duel. (fig.
24), is a grayish variety with white spots, improperly credited
to California.

An oblong, rostrate, dark-brown or nearly black form, with
black spots and a whitish base and beaks, found at New Cale-
donia, has been incorrectly identified as eglantina. For this
variety I propose the name niger (fig. 23).

C. RETICULATA, Martyn. PI. 8, figs. 20-22.

DiUers from C. Arabica, its nearest ally, in being broader
and having more thickened sides, the dorsal spots are more
crowded and sometimes run together, presenting a clouded sur-
face ; base dull milky -white to bluish, the columellar side orna-
mented with a dark reddish brown blotch near the middle of
the shell ; teeth stronger than those of C. Arabica, but similarly
colored ; aperture wider. Length, T4-3 inches.

In di (in and Pacific Ocean*.

This species sometimes very closely resembles the preceding.
It <;an, however, be distinguished by the increased number of the


spots, and the comparative absence of the hieroglyphic markings
so peculiar to the typical C. Arabica.

The young shell is very much like that of Arabica. The small
variety, G. intermedia, Gray (fig. 20), differs in having a
creamy-white base without the brown blotch, it being ornamented
instead with numerous small brown spots that extend over the
margins; the dorsal spots are much smaller. Length, 1-1*8 inches.

By an error of the printer the illustration of fig. 20 is marked
natural size. The figures should be erased.

C. HISTRIO, Meusch. PI. 8, figs. 25, 26.

More pyriform than G. reticulata, sides less thickened, base
white, without the brown-blotch ornamentation.

Length, 2-5-3 inches.

Tonga Tabou ; Indian Ocean.

Although some monographers have placed this with the
synonomy of G. reticulata, yet I have always been able to sepa-
rate the two. There is, however, a close relationship between
Arabica, reticulata and histrio, but not more so than is to be
found in many other groups belonging to this interesting family.

C. ARABICULA, Lam. P,l. 9, figs. 35, 36.

Bluish green, very closely reticulately painted with brown ;
margins re4dish brown and spotted with black, extremities pro-
duced angularly, base whitish, teeth fine, deeply cut.

Length, '9-1-2 inches.

Acapulco ; Gulf of California (Stearns).

C. GEMMULA, Weink. PI. 7, figs. 15, 10.

Grayish yellow, longitudinally closely lined with chestnut-
brown ; margins like those of the preceding species.

Length, about '8 inch.

Red Sea.

Weinkauff says of this species that it presents on the dorsal
surface, the appearance of G. Arabica in miniature, while its
base resembles arabicula.

C. STERCORARIA, Linn. PI. 9, figs. 27, 28.

Greenish blue, the brown spots frequently running together t


giving the back a clouded appearance ; sides and base brown ;
teeth whitish. Length, l'S-3'2 inches.

West Africa.

Young shell ashy brown, banded. When the shell presents a
humped appearance on the back, it forms the C. ralta*, Lam.,
which can hardly be said to be even a variety, since the young
shells of stercoraria are all more or less humped.

C. SCOTTI, Brod. PI. 9, figs. 29, 30.

Pule ashy blue, clouded with yellowish brown ; sides and base
very dark brown ; aperture narrow ; teeth small, nearly obsolete
on the coluiiH'llar side. Length, 2'8-3"5 inches.

Wext Australia.

A peculiar oblong boat-shaped shell with the extremities pro-
duced and curved upwards.

C. THEKSITES, Gask. PI. 9, figs. 31, 32.

Shorter and more gibbous than C. Scotti, teeth on the outer
lip much stronger ; the colors are deeper and the dorsal spots
are more clouded ; base near the aperture white.

Length, 2-75-3 inches.

South Anal ml io.

Specimens of this richly-colored shell huve been found painted
almost jet-black.

C. MARGINATA, Gask. PI. 9, figs. 33, 34.

Very light brown, some of the dorsal spots running together,
giving an irregular lined appearance. Length, 2*25 inches.

* A Hal re Ha.

This shell has such an immature look that it is most likely the
young of C. thersites. It is very rare.

C. DECIPIENS, E. A. Smith. PI. 10, figs. 39, 40.

Smaller than C. thersites, back higher and more humped,
base flatter and of a rich orunge-red color, which extends over
the sides of the shell ; body-whorl within the aperture, white.

Length, 2*25 inches.

North Australia.
C. VENUSTA, Sowb. PI. 10, figs. 44, 45.

Cream-color with a cinnamon tin^e, variegated with rather
large orange-brown spots of irregular size, and irregularly dis-


tributed, the cinnamon tinge slightly deeper at the extremities,
base white ; teeth thick and faint purplish white.

Length, 3 inches.

Dampier's 7s., West Australia.

This shell, which Dr. J. C. Cox has lately published under the
name C. Thatcheri, was fully described in the Annals and Mag.
Nat. Hist., xix, 1849, by Mr. Gr. B. Sowerby, notwithstanding
the statement in Thes. Conch, that a no publication strictly so-
called " of G. venusta, " can now be proved." The species is vev\ r

Group B. Shell sometimes nodose or tuberculated.
C. Mus/Linn. PL 10, figs. 41, 42, 43.

Shell oval, marbled with olive-brown, especially near the sides,
which are but faintly margined ; dorsal line pale, and bordered
with brown spots, which are sometimes scattered over the dorsal
surface ; posterior extremity ornamented with a large brown
spot, base ash-brown, teeth brown, nearly obsolete on the colu-
mella, which is stained dark brown. Length, 1 '25 1*75 inches.

Atlantic 0., Mediterranean.

Fossil near Plaisantiu.

The name C. bicornis (fig. 43) has been suggested for the
nodose examples.

Young shell, ventricose, pale ash-brown, and longitudinally
peculiarly waved.

C. LEUCOSTOMA, Gask. PL 10, figs. 37, 38.

Differs from C. mus in being more solid ; the dorsal line is
branched, and the spots on the sides are more numerous and
distinct, the base is white and the teeth are nearly obsolete.

Length, 2 inches.

Mocha, Arabia.

C. MONETA, Linn. PL 10, fig. 4G ; PL 11, figs. 51-54 ; PL 23, figs.

Color varying from white to deep yellow, back sometimes
encircled with u faint orange or red ring, margins very thick,
base tuberculated to smooth, teeth obtuse.

Length, -6-1-5 inches.

Maldive 7s., Australia, Taheiti, Japan.

178 CYPR^A.

G. icterina, Lam. (PL 23, fig. 62), is a smooth, elongate

C. Barthelemyi, Bernard i (PL 11, figs. 53, 54), is a distorted
variety from New Caledonia. Length, 1-45 inches.

C. ethnographica, Rochebr. (PL 23, fig. 63), is a small tuber-
culated form, ornamented with a j-ellow ring.

G. mercatorium, Rochebr. (PL 10, fig. 46; PL 11, fig. 52), is
dirty yellowish, lightly olive-tinted, and not so strongly tuber-

G. atava, Rochebr. (PL 23, figs. 64, 65), is a small example of
C. mercatorium.

G. pleuronectes, Rochebr. (PL 23, figs. 66, 67), resembles
somewhat the C. icterina.

C. vestimenti, Rochebr., is another name for the distorted
variety Barthelemyi.

G. camelorum, Rochebr. (PL 23, fig. 68), is a small smooth
oval form, which Dr. Rochebrune says he has collected alive in
large quantities on the .West Coast of Africa.

G. plumaria, Rochebr. (PL 23, fig. 69), is a narrow-bunded
form, credited to the Sandwich Is. It appears to be a less
developed atava.

Dr. Rochebrune, in a monograph of the mollusks of Cape
Verd Is., says he has fished G. moneta alive at Senegal.

The species is found fossil in the conglomerate of Santiago,
C. Verd.

C. ANNULUS, Linn. PL 11, figs. 57-61 ; PL 23, figs. 70-72.

Smooth, smoky white; dorsal surface ornamented with a deep
orange ring, which encircles a bluish or grayish centre ; teeth
strong, base smooth. Length, -45-1-2 inches.

Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Fossil in the Tertiary of Southern Europe. Dr. Layard found
specimens in the ruins of Nimrod, which had the appearance of
having been used for adornment.

G. Noumeensis, Marie (fig. 59), is a New Caledonian variety

CYPR^EA. 179

having double orange lines on the dorsal surface. Length, 1-2

C. Hamyi, Rochebr. (PL 23, fig. 70), is a rosy white, yellowish-
tinted and spotted shell from Zanzibar ; it is probably a small
annulus. The spots referred to are not shown on the figure
given by Dr. Rochebrune, but appear on that of annulus.

G. Harmandiana, Rochebr., is well represented by figs. 60, 61.

G. Perrieri, Rochebr. (PI. 23, figs. 71, 72), is one of those forms
connecting annulus with obvelata.

In the report of the Voyage of the Samarang, Mr. Arthur
Adams sa} T s that while at Singapore, he observed the fry of G.
annulus (fig. 58) adhering to the mantle and other parts of the
animal in conglomerated masses of minute transparent shells,
which, when placed in a watch-glass of salt water, became dis-
integrated, and detached individuals were observed quitting the
rest and moving in rapid gyrations by means of two winged
membranous expansions. When at rest they returned to the
mass or adhered to the edge of the watch-glass.

This and the following species are protably only varieties of
C. moneta, but the differences are usually so well marked that
they can be easily separated. The museum of the Acad. Nat.
Sciences of Philadelphia, however, contains a series of these
shells showing how they pass from one to another in regular

Dr. Rochebrune, who -has studied this group with a view to
differentiation (Monograph of the genus Monetaria, Bull. Soc.
Malac., France, 1884), has selected a certain number of tliese
transitory forms for specific description, the names of which
have been given above ; it would be easy to multiply them to
almost any extent.

C. OBVELATA, Lam. PI. 11, figs. 55, 56.

Sides thickened and puffed out, giving the dorsal surface an
oval, intrenched appearance ; back blue, teeth -very strong.
Length, *6-l inch.

New Caledonia, Samoa, Australia.

180 CYPR./EA.

Section III. (Luponia, Gray, pars.} Shell pyriform or pyri-
formly ovate, usually spotted.

Group A. Shell smooth, not margined.
* More or less ventricose or inflated.
C. AURANTIUM, Martyn. PI. 11, fig. 48.

Shell unspotted, back, teeth and interstices bright orange,
base, sides and extremities white. Length, 3*6 inches.

Fiji Is., Solomon Is., Loyalty Is.

The large and finely colored specimens come from the Loyalty
Is., while those from the Fijis are smaller. This species, though
an old one, is yet quite rare ; good specimens costing about
$10.00 each. The highest order of dignit} r among the Friendly
Islanders, is typified by the permission to wear this shell as an

C. PRINCEPS. Gray. PL 11, fig. 47.

Yellowish, tinged with rose-purple, fainter towards the base,
profusely painted in ^the middle with waved yellowish-brown
hieroglyphic markings, clouded on each side with a large rhom-
boidal dark-clouded blotch ; extremities adorned with three
irregular concentric brown lines, the middle of which is the
strongest, on the posterior extremity are several finer light
brown concentric striae ; sides ornamented with blue and brown
spots, more or less distinct ; base and teeth white.

Length, 3-9 inches.

Persian Gulf, New Guinea.

Though one of the oldest, this species is still of the greatest
rarity, and for a long time the British Museum possessed the
only specimen known to exist. Lately Dr. J. C. Cox, of
Sydney, N. S. W., has secured a fine example, which he states
was found on the southern shore of New Guinea .

C. TIGRIS, Linn. PL 11, figs. 49, 50 ; PL 15, fig. 8, (Dentition >.

Whitish or yellowish, sometimes clouded with chestnut-brown,
promiscuously painted with rather large blackish blue clouded
spots ; base white ; teeth large, sometimes bifurcate.

Length, 2*5-4 3 inches.

Indian <m<l J'/icifw Oceans.

Young shell (fig. 50) chestnut to whitish, ornamented with

CYPR^EA. 181

interrupted bands or zigzag rusty-brown flashes. In its growth,
this species exhibits a curious variety in the style of coloring.
It is first chestnut, the color then breaks up into close-set waved
blotches, then a coating of white follows, upon which is deposited
a series of zigzag flames. There is a second layer of white
enamel which nearly obscures these zigzag markings, and a
number of dark spots are deposited. These are again over-
spread by a third white coating intermixed with numerous rich
black and brown spots. The soft parts adhere so firmly to the
shell that they cannot be removed until decomposition has taken

C. PANTHERINA, Soland. PI. 12, figs. 62, 63.

Whitish to chestnut-red, profusely adorned with small
blackish-brown spots, which sometimes run together, sides and
base whitish, aperture gaping anteriorly, teeth small.

Length, 2-3 inches.

Red Sea.

The last coating of enamel is sometimes dark reddish brown.
Younger shell ashy green, mottled with red and yellow.

C. UMBILICATA, Sowb. PI. 12, figs. 65, 66.

Differs from the preceding in being more depressed anteriorly,
the extremities are more produced and beaked, and the aperture
is more sinuous ; spire deeply umbilicated, teeth brownish-
tinted ; dorsal spots light brown. Length, 3 to 3'6 inches.

New South Wales.

Dr. J. C. Cox, in Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., for 18 7 9, reported
an almost pure white variety from Circular Head, N. S. W., for
which he proposed the varietal name alba.

C. LEUCODON, Brod. PI. 12, figs. 69, 70.

Reddish or yellowish brown, sprinkled here and there with
rather large round white spots, base pale brown, marked trans-
versely with fine striae, teeth white, strong on both sides.

Length, 3-4 inches.

Habitat ?

The only specimen known is in the British Museum. The
broad teeth and deeply undercut interstices are very like those
of C. sulcidentata.

182 -CYPB^A.

C. VITELLUS, Linn. PI. 13, figs. 72, 73.

Fulvous bay-color sprinkled with snow-white spots of various
sizes, sides olive-brown, arenaceous, striated, base and teeth
whitish. Length, l'2-2'7 inches.

Indian Ocean, Australia, New Caledonia.

Young shell olive-ash, obscurely banded, unspotted. This
species is strongly characterized by the sand-like strine of the

C. NIVOSA, Brod. PI. 12, figs. 67, 68.

Differs from the preceding in its more oblong form, more
irregular and confused arrangement of spots, and entire

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