George Walker.

A new treatise on chess: containing the rudiments of the game explained on ... online

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at K. sixth, or K. Kt. sixth. Observe, moreover, that if you ad-



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WALKER ON CHESS. 123

vance P., be must not take it with B., because in tbat case you would
win by seating K. at K. B. sixth, but he should first play K. to Kt
second, and might then take the P. — If, instead of moving the Pawn,
you move R. to Q. R. fourth, attacking B., he must be careful not to
play B. to adv. K. B. sq., because you might then move R. to K. B.
fourth, and as he would be forced to retreat B., you would then ad-
vance P., and win by moving K. to B. sixth. — If the Bishop were
not of a color to command the seventh sq. of the file on which the P.
moves, the Rook and P. would win, except in one or two peculiar
cases, given by Salvio and Cozio. The same theory holds good
with respect to every Pawn but the Kt. P., against which the Bishop
cannot draw under any circumstances ; ex. gr.

White.— K. at K. R. fifth sq., R. at a Kt. seventh, and P. at K.

Kt sixth.
Black.— K. at K. Kt sq., and B. at Q. fifth sq.

White has the move, and plays

1. K. to Kt fifth sq. I. B. to K. sixth sq. ch.

2. K. to K. B. fifth sq. 2. B. returns to a fifth sq.
8. Pawn advances. 3. K. to R. second (best).

4 R. to Q. Kt fourth sq. 4. If he take P. with B., you

check at K. R, fourth ; if Black then interpose B., you vnn it
in two moves, and going instead to Kt. sq. you play K. to ^t
sixth, and force the game. B. to Q. B. sixth sq.

5. R. to K. Kt. fourth sq., and the game is easily won. — A little
comparative examination will point out why there exists this
difference between the Kt P. and the others.

ROOK AND BISHOP, AGAINST ROOK.

Whether the Rook and Bishop can win against the Rook, in
EVERY POSSIBLE SITUATION, is a problem yet unsolved. Carrera,
Philidor, Ponziani, and other great authorities, maintain the cer-
tainty of the proposition, which is denied by Salvio, Sarratt,
Lewis, and Cochrane. — Philidor has given us a beautifully
played position in which the Mate is certainly forced, but as it does
not appear that the weaker power can be compelled to take up a
similar situation, his analysis proves nothing relative to the general
question. As the position given by Philidor has been repeated
** ad nauseam" by every writer since, I prefer giving some newer
examples of positions which are either won or drawn '* by force ;"
adding with real diffidence, that, in my own opinion, the Rook and
Bishop draw against R., except in some peculiar cases.

FIRST position.

White.— K. at Q. B. sixth sq., Rook at Q. R. sixth, and Bishop

at Q. B. fifth.
Black. — King at Q. B. sq., and R. at Q. Kt second sq.



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124 WALKER ON CHBSS.

White to move, and win by force.



1. R. to adv. a R. sq. ch.


1. R. interposes.


2. R. to Q. R. seventh sq.


2. R. to a Kt. seventh sq.


3. R. to K. Kt seventh sq.


3. R. to Q. seventh sq.


4 R. to K. B. seventh sq.


4. R. to adv. a sq. (A.) (B.)


5. R. to Q. R. seventh sq.


5. R. to adv. Q. Kt sq. (C.)


6, B. to a R. third sq.


6. R. to a Kt. sixth sq. (D.)


7. B. to 0. sixth sq.


7. R. to a B. sixth sq. ch.


8. a B. covers.


8. R. to a Kt sixth sq.


9. R. to Q. B. seventh sq. ch.


9. K. to Kt sq.


10. R. to K. seventh sq.


10. K. to comer.


11. R.to K. fourth sq.


11. R. to a Kt seventh, a Kt




eighth, or Q. Kt second sq.


12. R. to R. fourth sq. ch.


12. K. to Kt sq.


13. B. to a sixth sq. ch.


13. K.toaB.sq.


14. R. checks.


14. R. covers.



15. Rook gives Checkmate, taking R.



(A.)

4. R. to Q. sixth sq.
6. King to Kt sq.
6. R. to Q. B. sixth, to prevent B.
from checking at Q. sixth.
7. R. to K. fourth, and Black must take B. with R., &c



6. R. to Q. R. seventh sq.
6. R. to a R. fourth sq.



(B.)



6. 6. to K. seventh sq.

0. R. to K. B. fifth sq.

7- B. to a sixth sq. ch.

a R.toaKtfifth8q., &c



4. R. to a sq.

5. R. to K. Kt, or K. R. sq.

6. K. to Kt sq.

7. K. to B. sq.



(C.)

5. K. to Kt sq.

6. R. to a R. fourth sq. 6. R. to adv. Q. B. sq.

7. R. to K. fourth sq., and Black must take B. with R.

(D.)

6. K-toKtsq.

7. R. to K. B. seventh sq. 7* K. to corner.

8. R. to K. B. fifth sq. 8. R. to Q, Kt second sq.

9. R. to K. B. fourth sq. — If Black now move R. to K. Kt. second

sq., or Q. Kt sixth sq., you Mate in four moves.

SECOND POSITION.

White.— K. at a R. sixth, R. at a sixth, and B. at Q. R. fifth sq.
Black. — K. at Q. R. corner sq., and R. at Q. Kt second sq.



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WALKER ON CHESS. 125

White can win in this position, by bringing K. to Q. B. sixth sq.,
which is done as follows :

1. B. to a Kt sixth sq. 1. R. to R. second sq. ch. (A.)

2. K. to a Kt. fifth sq. 2. R. to K. R. second (B.) (C.)
a K. to a B. sixth sq. 3. R. to K. R. sq.

4. B. to Q. B. seventh sq. 4. R. to K. Kt sq.

5. R. to a fifth sq. 6. R. to K. Kt third sq. chg.

6. B. covers. 6. R. to K. Kt second sq.

7. R. to K. fifth sq. 7. R. to K. R. second sq.

8. R. to adv. K. sq. ch. a K. to Q. R. second sq.

9. Mates in two moves.

(A.)

1. R. to a Kt sq.

2. B. to Q. 6. seventh sq. 2. R. to Q. B. sq.

3. K. to a Kt. sixth sq. a R. to K. Kt sq.

4. R. to CL fifth sq., and then, playing B. to Q. sixth, wins in a

few moves.

(B.)

2. R. to a Kt second. (C.)

3. K. to Q. B. sixth sq. a R. to Q. Kt sq.

4. R. to Q. fifth sq. — If he check at Q. B. sq., you cover with B.,

and Mate or win R. next move. — If he return to Q. Kt se-
cond, you play R. to Q. fourth ; and if, instead, he play R.
along the last line, you check with R. at Q. R. fifth sq., &c.

(C.)

2. R. to Q. R. eighth sq.
a K. to a B. sixth sq. a R. to adv. Q. B. sq. ch.

4. B. covers. 4. R. to adv. Q. Kt sq.

5. R. to Q. fourth sq., and then Mates in four moves at most

THIRD POSITION.

White.— K. at K. Kt sixth, R. at K. sixth, and B. at K. Kt fifth.
Black. — K. at K. Kt sq., and Rook at K. B. second.

This position is taken from Lolli, who says that White cannot
win, for Black can always prevent him from bringing K. to K. sixth,
and B. to K. fifth, without which you can never force the game..
The same position may occur at each angle of the board, and is not,
therefore, unlikely to be frequently gained, through the incautious
play of the attacking party. Lolli declines giving the moves, on
account of the immense space they would occupy.

FOURTH POSITION.

White.— K. at a fifth sq., R. at a R. sixth, and B. at Q. fourth.
Black.— K. at Q. second, and Rook at K. B. second sq.
The game b drawn.



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126 WALKER ON CHESS.

FIFTH POSITION.

White.~K. at K. B. fifth sq., R. at Q. R. sixth, and B. at K. B.

fourth.
Black. — K. at K. B. second, and Rook at Q. second sq.
The game is drawn.

sixth position.

White.— K. at a fifth, R. at K. R. seventh, and B. at a fourth.
Black. — K. at Q. sq., and Rook at Q. eighth. — Drawn game.

ON STALEMATE.

Stalemate is generally obtained by the rashness of an adversary,
who is so eager to give Checkmate, that he overlooks the position of
your King and pieces, should you have any remaining on the board.
One example will illustrate this, as well as a hundred.

White.— K. at K. R. sq., and P. at K. R. third.

Black.— K. at K. B. fifth, a at a R. seventh, and P. at K. R.

fifth.

Black has the move, and ought to move K. to your K. Kt. third
sq., which would oblige you to play K. to Kt. sq., on which he would
give Checkmate with Q.; eager, however, to confine your K., he
plays Q, to your K. B. second sq., and the game is drawn, for he
gives you Stalemate.

Many situations arise, in which, by sacrificing a piece, you force
your adversary to give you Stalemate ; the following position is very
instructive, though simple.

White. — K. at K. R. sq., and R. at K. Kt second sq.
Black. — K. at K. B. sixth, and Q. at K. sixth sq.

White having the move, draws the game, thus : — L R. to Kt.
third sq. ch.— If he take R. with K., he gives you Stalemate, and if
he move K., you take his Queen.

ON PERPETUAL CHECK, &c,

A perpetual check draws the game, and frequently gets you out
of difficulty; observe the following position: —

White. — K. at K. R. sq., Q. at Q. B. second, B. at K. B. second,

Pawns at K. Kt. second, and K. R. second.
Black.— K. at K. Kt sq., Q, at K. B. fifth, R. at K. B. sq., and

P. at K. Kt third.

In this situation. Black has the move, and takes B. with Q. ;
White then takes P. chg. ; and his adversary being obliged to move
to R. sq.. White repeats the check at K. R. sixth sq., and draws the
game, by perpetually checking on these two squares.



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WALKER ON CHESS. 12Y

Sometimes it happens, that each player persists in making the
same move, which neither are willing to change ; in all such cases,
the game must be drawn.

The game is drawn, should you be left with just sufficient force to
give Checkmate, but not know how to do it, in the number of moves
required. For instance, supposing you remain with the Bishop and
Kt only, your adversary gives you warning that he intends counting
the moves; and unless you give Mate in fifty moves (on each side),
the game must be considered as drawn . Otherwise, in contending with
a very unskilful opponent, he might keep you moving your King
about for four-and-twenty hours.

Another way in which the game is drawn, is, when the parties re-
main with a small equality of force. Let us suppose you have each
a Rook and a Bishop ; in this case, it is better to give up the game
as drawn, than to play on for the chance of your antagonist putting
a piece en prise. Or, suppose you have a Queen against two Rooks,
it is obvious that unless the game be drawn, it may be played on
without end.

The last case in which the game is drawn, is, when neither party
has sufficient force left to give Checkmate ; as, for instance, when the
Kings are left alone, or when there is a King and a minor piece
against the King.

In concluding this part of my subject, I must remark, that it is
impossible to particularize every case or combination of the pieces
which constitute forced, drawn, or won games. As you improve in
play, you will soon find out how to conquer, should you be left in
positions that ought to be won, and will know whether yotl have
sufficient strength to justify you in holding out for a drawn game, if
placed in desperate circumstances. I would, again and again, en-
deavour to impress it upon you, that the spirit, as well as the letter,
of the rules and situations here laid down, must be applied by genius
and memory, at the critical point of time.

CHAPTER XXIV.

ENDS OF GAMES WITH PAWNS ONLY.

The art of playing Pawns well, at the end of the game, is one of
the most difficult branches of Chess ; and many otherwise skilful
players, know very little about the matter. It is most important for
the student to understand the principles on which the calculations
respecting Pawns at the close of the game are founded ; as, if tolerably
acquainted with this part of the science, he feels the less anxiety at
the diflferent pieces being changed oflf ; and rather courts their re-
moval, depending on his acquaintance with the science of playing the
Pawns, for gaining some latent advantage. Nearly every Chess-
player can understand, that, when the two Kings are opposite, with



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1^ WALKER ON CHESS.

but one square's distance between them» he is said to have the move,
who has just placed his K. in opposition to his adv(ersary ; but few
players know how to maintain this opposition, amidst the intricate
variety of moves consequent upon a ^fficult position. I shall now
proceed to explain, practically, the manner in which the Pawns ought
to be played ; and must request of the beginner, to attend particularly
to a part of the game, which has been styled by the justly celebrated
Philipor, as " the soul of Chess."

FIRST POSITION.

White. — K. at K. fifth, and P. at K. fourth sq.
Black* — K. at K. second sq.

White has here gained the opposition, and will Queen the P., if
Black have the move ; ex. gr. — Black moves.

1. K. to Q. second sq. 1. K. to K. B. sixth sq.

2. If he play K. to Q. third, you check with P., and if, instead, he

move to Q. sq., you advance K. to B. second.
K. to K. sq. 2. K. to K. sixth sq.— If you were

to move the Pawn, he would get the opposition, and draw the
game, by playing K. to K. B. sq.
a K. to Q. sq. 3. K. to K. B. second sq.

4. K. to Q. second sq. 4. P. advances, and wins.

Now, replace the pieces in the original position, and you will see,
that if you were to play first, Black could draw the game. You play

1. K. to Q. fifth sq. 1. K. to a second sq.

2. P. advances. 2. K. to K. second sq. — If he

had played to K. or Q. sq., you would win by opposing your
King to his ; but your own Pawn now prevents your guning
the important opposition.

3. P. advances. 3. K. to K. sq.

4. K. to Q. sixth sq. 4. K. opposes K.

5. If you retreat K. to K. fifth sq., he plays K. to K. second sq.
P. checks. 6. K. to K. sq.

You must either abandon P., or give Stalemate. Study this atten-
tively, before you examine the remainder of this chapter ; attempt to
win, by playing the White K. to every square he could go to, and
find out Black's counter-move in every case. You will observe,
that if your Pawn were on any square of the file, with the King op-
posed in a similar manner in the front of it, the result would be the
same ; and the same principle may be applied to every file but the
Rook's, of which I shall give an example presently.

From this example, we may deduce, that if the single K. can get
before the Pawn, either on the fronting square, or with only one
square between them, before the Pawn has reached the sixth sq., he
will draw the game, wheresoever the adverse K. may be placed ;
always supposing, that, in such cases, the single K. has not the move.



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WALKER ON CHESS. 129

SECOND POSITION.

White.— K. at K. R. fifth, and P. at K. R. fourth sq.
Black. — K. at K. R. second sq.

The K. can always draw against the R. P., if he can get on the
same file in front of it, at any distance, and wheresoever the adverse
K. may be. It is of no consequence which plays first, but we will
suppose Black to move, as by so doing he appears to give up the
opposition.

1. K. to Kt second sq. 1. K. to Kt. fifth sq.

2. K. to R. second sq. 2. P. advances.

3. K. to Kt second sq. 3. P. checks.

4. K. to R. second sq. 4. K. supports P.

5. K. to Kt sq. ; he might also play to R. sq.

5. K. to Kt sixth sq.

6. K. to R. sq. — If you now advance P., you give Stalemate. You

will observe, that on any of the other files, there would be
room for his K. to get away on the other side, which would
allow of your winning by advancing the K. ; but being on the
R.*s file, he cannot escape. Another peculiarity of the R.'s file
is, that the R. P. cannot win with a B. unless the B. run on a
color to command the eighth square. To exemplify this, re-
place the position, and let White have his K. B. at K. B.
third ; Black has the move as before, and plays

1. K. to Kt second sq. 1. K. B. to K. fourth sq.

2. K. to R. sq. 2. K. to R. sixth sq.

3. K. to Kt sq. 3. If you check with B., he re-

turns to R. sq.; and you are obliged to remove K. or B., to
avoid giving Stalemate. K. to Kt. sixth sq.

4. K. to R. sq. 4. P. advances.
6. K. moves. 5. P. advances.
6. K. to R. sq., and the game is evidently drawn.

For argument's sake, we might also suppose that you had several
Fawns behind each other on the R.'s file, with the K. and B., and still
the game would be drawn, unless your B. commanded the adverse
comer square, in which case you would win easily. I must add,
that if Black had his K. Kt P. unmoved, you would win with B. and
R. P. — examine wherefore.

THIRD POSITION.

White. — K. at K. sq., and P. at K. second sq.
Black. — K. at K. sq.

The winning or drawing of this position depends entirely on the
move ; suppose White to move :

1. K. to Q. second sq. 1. K. to K. second sq.

2. K. to K. third sq. — In similar positions you should not advance

the P. before the K. has secured the opposition.
2. K. to K. third sq.
K



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130 WALKER ON CHESS.

3. K. opposes K. 3. K. to Q. third sq.

4. If you move P., he draws the game, by playing K. to K. third.
K. to K. B. fifth sq. 4. If he play K. to Q. fourth, you

check with P., and on his retreating K. to Q. third, play K.
to K. B. sixth ; if K. to K. second sq.

5. If you move P. two sq., he draws the game : you may play
K. to K. fifth sq. 5. K. to B. second sq.

6. P. one sq. 6. K. to K. second sq.

7. P. one sq., and wins, as in the First Position.

If the P. left, be the Kt. P., there is a slight difference required to
be observed in the play, which you will readily discover.

FOURTH POSITION.

White.— K. at K. B, sixth, and P. at K. fifth sq.
Black. — K. at K. B. sq.

In this situation you win, whether you have the move or no. If
Black have the move, and go to K. sq., you play K. to K. sixth ; if
you have to move first, you play as follows :

1. P. advances. 1. K. to K. sq.

2. P. to K. seventh sq. 2. K. to Q. second sq.

3. K. to B. seventh sq , and wins. — I dwell the longer on the me-

thod of manoeuvring with a single Pawn, as you ought to be
thoroughly acquainted with the mode of gaining and keep-
ing the opposition with your King.

FIFTH POSITION.

White.— K. atK. R. seventh, P. P. at K. R. sixth, and K. B. sixth.
Black. — K. at K. B. second sq.

If White play first, Black draws by maintaining the opposition ;
but if Black have to move, he must play to K. B. sq., and White then
wins by going to K. Kt sixth sq.

SIXTH POSITION.

White. — K. at K. R. sq., Pawns at Q^ B. fourth, Q. Kt. fourth, and

Q. R. fourth sq.
Black. — K, at K. R. sq.. Pawns at Q. B. third, Q. Kt third, and

O. R. third.

Black has the move, and ought to draw the game, either by moving
K. to Kt second, or by advancing Gt, Kt P. one sq. — Not seeing this,
he plays
1. Q. R. P. one sq. 1. Q. B. P. one sq., and you win;

observing, that if he had originally played Q. B. P. one sq.,
you would now win by moving Q. R. P.
Having well examined this, replace the position, and you will see,
that if White had the first move, you would win, playing thus ;
1. a Kt P. advances. 1. Q. R. P. takes P.



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WALKER ON CHESS. 131

2. Q. B. P. one sq., and wins; observing, that if he take P. with
Q. B. P., you advance Q. R. P., winning in either ca8e.->-
Study the conclusion of this situation, with the attention it
so well deserves.

SEVENTH POSITION.

White.— K. at K. B. second, P. P. at K. B. third, and K. R. se-
cond squares.
Black.-— K. at K. B. fifth, and P. at a R. second sq.

The winning or drawing of this situation, depends on the first
move. If Black have to play, he may push on Q. R. P. ; you are
compelled to stop it with your K., and the game is drawn. If, on the
other hand, White have originally the move, you play —

1. K. R. P. two sq. 1. a R. P. two sq.

2. K. to K. second sq. 2. P. to R. fifth sq.

3. K. to Q. second sq., and wins easily, for your K. stops his P.,

while he can never take your B. P. with his K., as you would,
in that case. Queen the other P.

' eighth position.

The Rook's Pawn, or Knight's Pawn, unmoved, with its K. near
enough, draws invariably against the Rook's and Knight's P.P. opposed
to it, provided the two Pawns have reached their fifth squares.

White.— K. at K. B. fifth, Pawns at K. Kt fifth, and K. R. fifth

squares.
Black. — K. at K. Kt second, and P. at K. R. second sq.

Black never moves the P. until obliged, but continues moving his
K. on these three squares — R., Kt., and Kt. second. If the single P.
stood at K. Kt. second, the result would be the same, if Black perse-
vere in not pushing the P. till forced, and play K. to B. second, B.
sq., and Kt sq., alternately. Any other single P., cannot draw against
two supporting each other, except in a few peculiar cases.

ninth position.

White. — K. at K. B. second. Pawns at K. R. second, and K. Kt.
second squares.

Black. — K. at K. B. fourth sq., K. R. P. unmoved.

In the first edition of this work (p. 60), I have laid it down as a
general rule, that these two Pawns unmoved, invariably win against
a single Pawn opposed to them on either the Kt or R. file. In this
I followed the assertions of every previous writer without exception^
but it would appear that the King, with the single P., can frequently
draw against the two Pawns, in the very positions that have been
always given as won. Whether White can, or cannot, play better at
the first or second move, is a question for future discussion.

k2



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132 WALKER ON CHESS.



1. K. to Kt third sq. — The authorities say that the move here is of

no consequence, and give this and White's next move, as the
two best that you can play.

1. K. to Kt fourth sq.

2. K. R. P. checks. 2. The move hitherto given as

the best for Black, is K. to R. fourth, and in that case White
wins as follows :

3. K. to R. third sq. 3. K. to Kt. third sq.

4. K. to Kt. fourth sq. (best). 4. K. to R. third sq.

5. K. R. P. advances. 5. K. moves.

6. K. to Kt. fifth sq. 6. If he check with P., you play

K. to B. fifth sq.
K. to K. Kt. sq.

7. K. attacks P. 7. K. to corner.

8. K. Kt. P. two sq. — If his K. were at K. Kt. sq., you would move

this P. only one sq.

8. K. moves.

9. Kt P. on. 9. K. to comer.

10. Kt P. on, and wins ; for if he take P., you retake with P., which
you then advance another step, and if he play instead, K. to
Kt sq., you move K. Kt. P. to Kt seventh.
I now proceed to show that Black could draw the game after your

second move ; we will recapitulate the moves ;

1. K. to Kt third sq. 1. K. to Kt fourth sq.

2. P. checks. 2. K. to K. B. fourth sq. (best).

3. If you advance R. P., he attacks it with K. — If you move K. to

K. B. second, or K. R. second, Black attacks R. P. ; you
must defend it with Kt P., and the position will come to the
same result as that given below. — You have two other moves,
and

IN THE FIRST PLACE.

K. to K. B. third sq. 3. K. R. P. two sq.

4. K. Kt P. one sq. 4. K. to K. fourth sq.

5. K. to K. third sq. 5. K. to K. B. fourth sq.

The game is drawn, for you cannot abandon Kt P.

IN THE SECOND PLACE.

3. K. to R. third sq. 3. K. R. P. two sq.

4. If you now advance K. Kt P. one sq., he may play K. to K.

fourth, and will find no difficulty in drawing with careful
play. — If you move K. to R. second, he attacks K. R. P., and
lastly, if
K. to Kt third sq. 4. K. to K. fourth sq.

5. K. to K. R. second sq. 5. K. to K. B. fifth sq.

6. If you check with P., he may go on K. fourth.



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WALKER ON CHESS. 133

K. to K. R. third sq. 6. K. to B. fourth sq.

7. Whether you push up P., or play K. to Kt third, Black may
still go to K. fourth, and can always draw the game.

TENTH POSITION.

White. — K. at a fourth, and P. at K. Kt fifth sq.
Black.— K. at Q. B. third, Pawns at K. Kt third, and K. R. fourth
squares.

At first view, it appears as if gaining the opposition would, in this
case, very little avail White, but yet it is so material, that, with the
move, you may draw the game. If Black were to play first, he
would move K. to Q. third, and you would be obliged to abandon
your P., which he would take, and win easily.

White has the move, and plays

1. K. to K. fourth. — You cannot take the opposition by moving K.

to Q. B. fourth, as Black might, in that case, Queen the R. P. ;
you therefore oppose him diagonally, for with only one square
between you, the move is still as much your's, as in the more
simple method of taking up the opposition. Observe, that if
he ever advance R. P., you go after it, and having taken it
with K., draw the game against the other P., even though he
may win your P.

1. K. to a B. fourth sq.

2. K. to K. fifth sq. 2. If Black play to the a B.

squares on your half of the board, you must always confront
him on the K. file. K. to Q. Kt fourth sq.

3. K. to Q. fifth sq. 3. If he advance on your Kt file,

you must confront him on Q. file ; but, if

K. to Q. R. fourth sq.

4. K. to K. fifth sq. — Few players are aware, that the opposition is

as effectually maintained, by keeping three or five squares
between the Kings, as one ; it may assist the young player to
remark also, that in simple cases of opposition, the K. keeps
on squares of the same color as those on which the adverse K.
moves. If Black now advance on your R. file, you oppose
him on your K. file, observing to keep on the same line.


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