George Washington Tryon.

Manual of conchology; structural and systematic. With illustrations of the species. Second series: Pulmonata (Volume 5) online

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When in February, 1888, the task fell to me of continuing
the Monograph of the Helices left unfinished by the eminent Con-
chologist GEO. W. TRYON, it seemed to me desirable that the work
should be completed on essentially the same plan followed in
the two volumes of Helicoids already issued. A year's experience
has convinced me, however, that certain changes would increase the
utility of the work to the naturalist ; and in the present volume
these modifications have been carried out. Chief among them are
the introduction of complete synonymy into the body of the work
(instead of reserving it for the index), and the preparation of fuller
descriptions, noticing every character shown by the specimens before
me of each species, a step which the critical, analytical methods of
. modern Malacology has made necessary. In no group known to me
are species separated upon slighter differences than in the Helices.
In many subgenera not only are figures necessary for satisfactory
determination of the species, but descriptions extending to the most
minute and microscopic details of sculpture and form.

Without entering at length upon the much-debated and profitless
question of what constitutes a species, the author may state that in
the present work any race of similar forms is regarded as a species
if it exhibits characters tangible enough to admit of definition and
recognition, and has not been shown to be actually united by recent
intermediate forms with allied races. Of course when the Tertiary
fauna becomes known, many of our distinct species will prove to be
united with others ; but for present purposes, it is enough that there
is a hiatus or break in the chain of forms which enables us to define
and separate a group of individuals from all other recent groups.
A variety differs from a species only in this : coalescence of its char-
acters with other forms actually occurs in some individuals. It fol-
lows that forms not very different may often be regarded as separate

species, while organisms apparently quite diverse may be treated as
varieties, simply because they are united by a series of intermediate

In cases where I have no specimen of a species, I have given
a translation of the original diagnosis, followed by the name of the
author from whom it is taken, together with any additional inform-
ation I have been able to obtain concerning it.

Anatomical details have been omitted because the preceding vol-
umes of Helix lack them. Under these circumstances it is more
convenient to present all of this part of the subject in one place.
The final volume treating of Helices will therefore contain besides
other matter, a resume of the anatomy of each subgenus of the
Helices. Collectors having either fresh or alcoholic material for
sale or exchange are invited to correspond with the author.

In the preparation of the present volume the author has been
peculiarly fortunate in the opportunities for study afforded by a
collection of West Indian Land shells perhaps the largest in exist-
ence ; the extensive collections of ROBERT SWIFT and of A. D.
BROWN having in recent years been united to the already large suites
received by the Academy from POEY, ARANGO, BLAND, WRIGHT,
REDFIELD, and other workers in this fauna.

H. A. P.

PHILADELPHIA, March, 1889.



Genus HELIX, Linn.

Group XL HEMITROCHUS Swainson, 1840.

The subgenera or sections which I have assembled under the
above name, form a perfectly natural group, allied as well by the
characters of the soft parts (as far as these are known) as by the
shells. The group includes some of the most brilliantly painted of
all Helices. Unlike shells of the groups Pentatcenia and Arionta
the decoration of these forms follows no rule as to the number and
disposition of bands. The surface is smooth or simply obliquely
striate, never granulated ; the lip is simple, acute, or expanded
and thickened ; the aperture is not obstructed by teeth except in
some species of Plagioptycha. All of the species are confined to the
West Indian islands from Hayti and Jamaica northward, including
the Bahamas. H. varians Mke. is the only species found upon the
mainland of America ; and its range does not extend further north
than the southern extremity of Florida.

This Group is composed of part of the elements included by
Fischer in each of his subgenera Helicogena and Polymita. (Man-
uel de Conch., p. 471).

Synopsis of Sections.

Section I. CYSTICOPSIS Morch.

Shell imperforate or narrowly perforate, globose or globose-de
pressed, generally thin ; last whorl not descending at the aperture ;
peristome acute ; not expanded or thickened within ; columellar
margin arcuate, not flattened, somewhat expanded above. Type, H.
cubensis Pfr.

Cuba, Hayti. Jamaica,

Section II. PLAGIOPTYCIIA Pfeiffer.

Shell umbilicate or imperforate, depressed or subglobose, thin,
generally subtranslucent ; last whorl deflexed at the aperture;
peristome slightly expanded, the baso-columellar margin usually
reflexed, free or adnate. Type, H. indistincta Fer.

Hayti, Virgin Is. and Bahamas.

Section III. HEMITROCHUS Swainson.

Shells imperforate or narrowly umbilicate, globose-conic or de-
pressed, generally opaque, rather solid, variegated by numerous
color-bands ; last whorl rounded at the periphery, deflexed at the
aperture ; aperture oblique ; peristome generally somewhat ex-
panded ; columellar lip reflexed over or nearly over the perfora-
tion. Type, H. varians Mke.

Bahamas, Hayti, Cuba, Fla. Keys.

Section IV. DIALEUCA Albers.

Shell imperforate in the adult, narrowly perforate in the young,
conical, elevated or depressed, rather thin ; generally banded ; last
whorl not descending at the aperture, or only very slightly ; peri-
stome thin, expanded ; columella oblique, dilated, entering in the
center of the axis. Type, H. nemoraloides Ad.


Section V. CORYDA Albers.

Imperforate in the adult, the young narrowly perforated ; globose-
conoidal, strong, solid, conspicuously banded or streaked ; last whorl
abruptly deflexed at the aperture; peristome slightly expanded,
labiate within ; colunella oblique, dilated, flattened, entering in the
center of the axis. Type, H. alauda Fer.


Section VI. JEANNERETIA Pfeiffer, 1877.

Shell narrowly umbilicate, globose-conoidal, rather thin, corneous
or yellowish, banded with brown ; whorls closely spirally grooved,
the last deflexed at the aperture, constricted behind the peristome ;
aperture oblique, rounded-lunar ; peristome expanded, subreflexed,
white, columellar margin sometimes with a tubercular or square
tooth. Type, H. multistriata Desh.



Section I. CYSTICOPSIS Morch, 1852.
MORCH, Cat. Yoldi, p. 2. ALBERS-MARTENS, Die
ffeliceen, 1860, p 144.

Cysticopsis as here constituted consists of two groups of species,
viz. Jamaica shells of the type of H. tumida Pfr. and Cuban species
like H. cubensis Pfr., the only species mentioned by Morch, and
therefore, of course, the type of the Section. I do not know whether
these two elements of the .section will prove to have the same
organization when the animal of H. cubensis and its allies is ex-
amined, but do not anticipate any considerable difference. Cysti-
copsis may be distinguished from Plagioptycha by the sharp lip,
not expanded, and the last whorl not deflected at the aperture ; from
Hernitrochus by the lighter texture, plainer coloration, and thin,
acute peristome.

Jamaica Species.
H. MACMURRAYI C. B. Adams. PI. 12, fig. 32.

Imperforate, globose-depressed, solid but rather thin, covered
with a yellowish chestnut colored thin cuticle, usually rubbed off
the whorls except the last, regularly marked with wrinkles of in-
crement ; spire low-conical, very obtuse, apex flat ; sutures at first
linear, becoming impressed ; whorls about 5J, slightly convex, the
last large, rounded ; aperture wide-lunar, slightly oblique ; outer
and basal lips thin, acute, regularly arcuate, columellar lip slightly
oblique, a rounded pillar of shining callus, dilated in the region of
the umbilicus.

Alt. 35, diam. maj. 45, min. 38 mill. ; alt. 40, diam. 48 mill.


H. MACMURRAYI AD., Contr. to Conch., 1849, p. 32. KEEVE
Conch. Icon., f. 208. PFR. in Conchy 1. Cab., p. 302, t, 126, f, 7, 8.

The largest species of the section ; readily distinguished by the
rounded pillar-lip and the size.

II. BUDDIANA C. B. Adams. PL 20, figs. 82, 83.

Imperforate, globose, thin, covered with a thin golden-brown
cuticle, which under a lens seems to be minutely pitted on the upper
surface ; obliquely marked by wrinkles of increment ; spire de-
pressed, apex obtuse, sutures well-impresse4 from the apex down ;


whorls 4 to 4?, convex, the last wide, globose ; aperture slightly
oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome acute, outer lip regularly arcuate,
its junction with the pillar-lip marked by a blunt angle; pillar-lip
sigmoid, dilated and closely appressed over the umbilical tract, thin,
its face concave.

Alt. 23 diam. maj. 29, min. 27 mill. ; alt. 11, diam. 13 mill.

Westmoreland, Jamaica.

H. buddiana C. B. AD., Contrib. to Conch., No. 9, p. 171, (1851).
PFR., Monogr., iii, p. 28. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 296.

Allied to the preceding in the blunt apex ; separated from it by
the impressed suture of the spire, flat columella, etc. The measure-
ment first given above are for a large variety received from Bland
(fig. 83).

H. TUMIDA Pfeiffer. PL 12, fig. 40 ; pi. 31, fig. 4.

Imperforate, globose-conical, thin, light chestnut colored, tinged
with olivaceous ; lightly obliquely marked with growth lines, some-
times with traces of spiral lines ; spire small, conical, upper whorls
whitish, apex acute, not depressed, minute ; sutures well-impresssd
from the beginning; whorls 5, convex, the inner gradually, the
last rapidly widening, rounded ; aperture slightly oblique, rotund-
lunar ; peristome acute, outer lip regularly arcuate ; slightly angled
where it joins the columella; pillar lip thin, slightly concave or
sigmoid, dilated around the umbilical tract.

Alt. 23 diam. maj. 27 mill.


A. tumida PFR., P. Z. S. 1845, p. 130. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f.
237. If. tunicata C. B. AD., Contrib. to Conch., No. 3, p. 33.

This form has a more persistant cuticle than the two preceding.
It has a conical spire^with minute elevated apex. Large specimens
of H. buddiana are similar in the aperture to this species, but the
apical whorl is flattened. The following species is like tumida in
having an acute apex, but the general form of the shell is more

H. TENERRIMA C. B. Adams. PI. 12, figs. 36, 37.

Imperforate, depressed, fragile, corneous brown, obliquely marked
by growth- wrinkles ; spire low-conical, apex minute, acute ; suture
impressed from the beginning; whorls 5-5 , convex, the outer wide,
rounded ; aperture wide-lunate, oblique ; outer lip acute, thin,


regularly curved ; columellar lip slightly oblique, nearly straight,
white, dilated. Alt. 12, diam. 15 mill. ; alt. 12, diam. 18 mill.


H. tenerrima AD. Proc. Bo*t. Soc. N. H., 1845, p. 16. PFR. in
Conchy I Cab., t. 29, f. 5-8. REEVE, Condi. Icon., f. 269.

This species is allied to H. tumida, but is smaller, more fragile
and more depressed. The acute apex will separate it from H.

My description is drawn from specimens received from Prof.
VAR. MUNDA C. B. Adams. PI. 12, fig. 35.

Shell depressed-globular, with a rather thick epidermis which is
horn colored on the upper whorls, and greenish-brown on the rest ;
with excessively fine striae of growth ; spire convex, moderately ele-
vated ; apex very obtuse ; whorls 5, moderately convex, with a
well-impressed suture ; last whorl large, somewhat depressed ; aper-
ture suborbicular, angular at the end of the oblique white colnmella,
and modified considerably by the penultimate whorl ; lip excessive-
ly thin and sharp ; umbilicus wanting. Alt. 10, diam. 15 mill.



H. munda AD., Cont. to Conch, p. 32, (1849). PFR. in Conchyl.
Cab. t. 108, f. 21, 22, REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 297.

I have copied Adams' description of this form, because it may
prove to be distinct from the preceding. Numerous specimens be-
fore me, however, are scarcely more obtnse at the apex than H.
tenerrima and are better described by Pfeiffers words, " Spira
obtusiuscula " than by Adams' phrase, " Apex very obtuse."

H. COLUMELLATA C. B. Adams. PL 12, fig. 31 ; pi. 31, fig. 5.

Imperforate, globose-conical, very thin, showing under a lens
minute scars or punctations all over ; spire conoidal, apex acute
minute, sutures well-impressed from the beginning , whorls about
6, convex, slowly widening, the last more rapidly widening, gener-
ally somewhat compressed above the periphery, causing the whorl
to be sloping, and a little shouldered beneath the suture ; aper-
ture obliquely lunate, small ; outer lip very thin, acute ; columellar
lip oblique, thickened within by a very heavy white callus, which

is abruptly truncated below. Alt. 16. diam. 18 mill.



H. columellata AD., Contrib. to Conch., p. 80, (1850). PFR.,
Monographia, iii, p. 30. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 298.

Separated from the other forms by the strong white callus of the
columella, which in adults is truncated below.

** *

Cuban Species.

H. CUBENSIS Pfeiffer. PI. 19, figs. 26-29.

Imperforate, globose-depressed, fragile, white, roseate or yellowish,
unicolored, or encircled by one or two continuous brown bands, or
by numerous spiral bands broken into flecks or short longitudinal
streaks, usually with a continuous peripheral fascia ; surface slight-
ly shining, with light lines of growth ; spire low, apex a little ob-
tuse, often pink-tinged ; sutures slightly impressed ; whorls about 4,
the inner gradually, the last rapidly widening; body-whorl de-
pressed ; aperture rotund -lunar, slightly oblique ; peristome fragile,
acute, outer lip well-curved ; pillar-lip nearly vertical, nearly straight,
expanded at the umbilical region. Alt. 8-13, diam. 12-15 mill.

Matanzas and Havana to Cape S. Antonio, Cuba.

H. cubensis PFR., Wiegm. Archiv., 1840, p. 250; and in Conchyl.
Cab. t. 29, f. 9-13. REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 299. H. lanieriana
D'ORB. Moll. Cuba, i, p. 159, t. 7, f. 17-20. IT. gilvus d'Orb. (in
part) t. 8, f. 13-15. Microcystis trifasciella and M. pictella BECK,
teste PFR. ? If. penicillata GOULD, Bost. Journ. iv, No. 1, 1842

This form differs from all other species of Cysticopsis in being
variegated in color, but is allied to them in shape and in the fragile,
acute lip. The coloration is extremely variable, as the figures show.
Sometimes it is very similar to H. lucipeta Poey, a species of
Hemitrochus. The latter species is, however, perforate, and the lip
is expanded. I have before me a more obtuse form from Baracoa,
Cuba, which is probably the var. theta of Pfeiffer, "Spira paulo
elatiore " and which he says comes from Jamaica.

Figure 37, pi. 19, represents the common variation which
d'Orbigny named H. lanieriana ; and fig. 36 is one of the figures of
H. gilvus of the same author ; his figures 9-12 of " gilvus " repre-
sent a Hemitrochus,


H. COMES Poey.

Imperforate, depressed-globose, somewhat solid, striatulate, shin-
ing, corneous-white, with irregularly radiating close castaneous
streaks; spire convex, rather obtuse; whorls 4, slightly convex,
regularly increasing, the last rounded, periphery frequently marked
with a pale line, not descending anteriorly ; columella sloping, cal-
lous ; aperture oblique, rotund-lunar ; peristome simple, acute ; colu-
mellar margin subreflexed, adnate.

Alt. 9, diam. maj. 14, min. Hi mill. (Pfeijfer).

Isle of Pines.

H. eubensis var.f PFEIFFER, Mai. BL, 1854, p. 176. H. comes
POEY, Memorias ii, p. 29, (1857 ?).

I do not know this species. It has not been figured. Poey says :
" Differt ab H. cubense umbilico subaperto, colore constanter corneo
rufo transverse multilineato."

H. LETRANENSIS Pfeiffer. PL. 19, figs. 38, 39.

Imperforate; subturbinate-globose, very thin, scarcely striatulate,
pellucid, slightly shining, corneous or rufo-corneous; spire conoidal,
rather obtuse ; whorls 4, convex, rapidly increasing, the last round-
ed, encircled sometimes by a pale peripheral line, not descending
anteriorly ; aperture slightly oblique, rotund-lunate, peristome
simple, acute, margins converging, the columellar arcuate, sub-
callous above, reflexed, and adnate at the umbilicus.

Alt. 6, diam. maj. 10, min. 8i mill; alt. 6i, diam. 8 mill.

S. Juan de Letran, Jurisdiction of Trinidad, Cuba.

H. letranensis PFR., Malak. Bl., 1857, p. 105, and Monogr. iv, p.
12. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 63.

About the form of a depressed specimen of H. eubensis, but
smaller, and never whitish.

H. AUBERI d'Orbigny. PL 11, figs. 10-12 ; pi. 19, figs. 40-42.

Perforate, depressed, thin, lusterless, light corneous, obliquely
striatulate ; spire low-conical, apex obtuse ; sutures well impressed ;
whorls 4-1, moderately convex, the last wider, not deflected an-
teriorly, convex beneath, and indented around the umbilicus, in
front of the aperture indistinctly angulated ; aperture broad lunate,
oblique; peristome thin, acute, its terminations somewhat approach-
ing, the outer portion regularly arcuate in every part, the columella
short, dilated above in a triangular reflection, partly closing the
narrow umbilicus.


Alt. 8, diam. maj. 11, min. 10 mill ; alt. 7, diam. 9 mill.

H. auberii, d'OnB. Moll. Cuba, i, p. 157, t. 7, f, 13-15. PFR.,
Monographia, iii, p. 152 and Conchyl. Cab. p. 476, t. 158, f. 22-24.
- The figures of Orbigny are poor ; the species is never gibbous
beneath as shown in pi. 11, fig. 11. These figures (10-12) are en-
larged. The species may be known by its umbilicus and the de-
pressed, often subangulated body-whorl.

H. HJALMARSONI Pfeifler. PL 31, figs. 14-16.

Imperforate, globose-depressed, thin, fragile, light russet-brown,
with a scarcely visible supra-peripheral light fascia, all over elegant-
ly, very regularly and densely plicate-striate, lusterless or nearly
so; spire low-conoidal, apex a little obtuse, the first l-l whorls
smooth, submammillated ; suture moderately impressed ; whorls 4,
the last rapidly widening, rounded, a trifle descending anteriorly ;
aperture rotund-lunate, slightly oblique, ribbed inside the same as
outside ; peristome a trifle expanded, its terminations somewhat
approaching; right margin regularly arcuate, columellar margin re-
flexed, a small triangular callus adnate over the umbilicus.

Alt. 8 diam. maj. 11 min. 9J, mill. ; alt. 7f, diam. maj. 12, min.

10 mill.

Sierra Mte. Christi, and Porto Plata, Hayti.

H. hjalmarsoni PFR. MalaL Bl. 1858, p. 148, t. 3, f. 1-3, and
Monogr., v, p. 286.

Quite distinct in the globose-depressed form and strong, pliciform
H. PEMPHIGODES Pfeiffer. PI. 12, fig. 33.

Imperforate, depressed-conoidal, very fragile, sub-translucent
nearly lusterless, light russet or brownish corneous, wrinkles of in-
crement rather light, or surface strongly costate ; spire conical,
apex minute, rather acute; whorls 4, very rapidly windening,
scarcely convex, the last angular in front of the aperture, the angle
more or less evanescent toward its termination, slightly deflected
anteriorly ; aperture large, oblique, truncate-oval or rounded-lunar;
peristome simple, acute or a little expanded, margins somewhat
converging, the pillar-lip reflexed and adnate at the place of the
umbilicus. Alt. 14, diam. maj. 19, min. 15, mill.

Eastern Cuba.

H. pemphigodes PFR., P. Z. S. 1846, p. 110; Monographia, i, p. 35.
REEVE, Conch. Icon., f. 295. H. pelliculata GUNDL. POEY, Memo-
rias, ii, p. 7,


The shell is fragile and Vitrina-slmped, like the next species,
but pemphigodes is darker colored and more roughly sculptured.

I do not know whether the unfigured H. prominula of Pfeiffer,
(Monographia v, p. 264, and Malak. BL 1858, p. 181) from Cabo
Cruz, Cuba, is the same as this species or not. I am inclined to
believe it a synonym. Arango retains it separate, but apparently
derives his information wholly from Pfeiffer. (Vide Fauna Mai.
Cubana, p. 69.)

H. LESCAILLEI Gundlach. PL 31, fig. 8.

Imperforate, depressed-conoidal, very fragile, translucent, whitish,
covered with an extremely thin cuticle slightly tinged with green ;
very subtly obliquely striated; spire conoidal, apex minute, acute, red-
lipped ; whorls 4, slightly convex, rapidly widening, the last sub-
angulate at the periphery; aperture large, rotund-lunate, oblique;
peristome acute, margins somewhat converging, right margin cur-
ved in every part, columellar margin arcuate, nearly vertically in-
serted, thin, simple, not reflexed.

Alt. 11 diam. maj. 15, rain. 12 mill.

Guanlanamo, Eastern Cuba.

H. lescaillei GUNDL., in PFR., Malak. BL, 1859, p. 89 ; Mono-
graphia v, p. 56. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 64.

Similar in form to H. pemphigodes, but thinner, smoother, and
almost invariably with a minute tip of red on the apex.

H. LUZI Arango.

Perforate, sub-turbinate, thin, closely rugulose-striate, trans-
parent, shining, pale corneous, marked with a supra-peripheral
white fascia ; spire short-conoidal, apex rather obtuse ; whorls 4,
slightly convex, rapidly increasing, the last rotund, sensibly des-
cending anteriorly ; aperture sub-diagonal, lunate-subcircular,
slightly pearly inside; peristome simple, margins subconverging,
the right margin simple, acute, basal a little reflexed, at the inser-
tion dilated, reflexed, nearly covering the perforation.

Alt. 8i, diam. maj. 15 2, min. 13 mill. (Pfeiffer^).

Tanamo, Cuba.

H. luzi ARANGO mss. PFR. Malak. BL 1866, p. 58 and Monogr.
v, p. 232. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cub., p. 68.

Not figured nor seen by me. Apparently allied to H. hjalmar-
soni Pfr.



Imperforate, turbinate, very thin, striatulate, hyaline ; spire con-
vex-conoidal, apex somewhat obtuse, con colored ; whorls 4, slightly
convex, regularly increasing, the last not descending, acutely
carinated, moderately convex beneath ; aperture nearly diagonal,
rhomboid-luimr; peristome simple, acute ; columellar margin short,
subvertical, scarcely thickened, joining the basal in a curve.

Alt. 8, diam. maj. 1H, min. 10 mill. (Pfeifer).

Gran Piedra, Eastern Cuba.

H. lassevillei GUNDL. in PFR., Malak. Bl. 1861, p. 220; Monogr.
v, p. 57. ARANGO, Fauna Mai. Cubana, p. 64.

Known to me only by the description of Pfeiffer. Unfigured.

H. PELLICULA Ferussac. PI. 12, figs. 47-49.

Subumbilicate, conoid-globose, thin, smooth, yellowish, trifasciate
with brown ; whorls 4-5, a little flat ; aperture lunate-rotund ; peri-
stome simple, columellar margin dilated.

Alt. 12, diam. maj. 14, min. 11 mill. (Fer.)

Habitat unknown.

H. pellicula FEB., Hist., t. 105, f. 1. PFR. Monogr. i, p. 194;
Conchyl. Cab. t. 72, f. 24-26.

Known to authors only by the description and figures of Ferus-
sac. It may be a Hemitrochus, like H. gallopavonis Val.

** *

H.jaudonesi CISNEROS, mss. ARANGO, Annal de la Real Acad. de
C. Med.fis. y Nat. de la Habana, xii, p. 281.

Probably belongs to Cysticopsis. I do not have access to the
publication containing the description.

Section II. PLAGIOPTYCHA Pfeiffer, 1856.

Plagioptycha PFR. Malak. Bldt. 1856, p. 135. ALBERS-MARTENS
Die Helieeen 1860, p. 145.


Perforate or umbilicate ; columellar lip expanded, not adnate to the

H. INDISTINCT A Ferussac. PL 11, figs. 21-24.

Nearly covered perforate, depressed, thin, subtranslucent, brown-
ish horn-color, with usually a pale supra-peripheral fascia ; more or


UNJ; i; Y


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