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met Philip Augustus at Vezelai where, forty-four years
A. D. 1190. before, the pleadings of St. Bernard had
Meeting of seemed to stir the heart of Christendom to

Richard and

Philip at Veie- efforts which must be successful. The voice
which now had most power was not that of
fl^i^^^thl"' ^^ priest, the hermit, or the saint. It was
troubadours. that of the troubadour ; an d if for the present
his harp might be attuned to lofty measures, and his
words might convey lessons almost as austere as those
of pope Urban II., there was at least the danger that a
very moderate measure of success might lead the min-
strel to arouse emotions of a les^ devout sort and tempt
his hearers to less exalted delights than those of prayer
and meditation. The forces of the two kings amounted,
it is said, to 100,000 men. The discipline which kept them
together may be pictured from the rules which enacted
that murderers should be tied to the bodies of their victims
and hurled into the sea, that they who drew their swords
in anger should lose their hands, and that thieves should
be tarred and feathered and in that plight put on shore.
While Philip and Richard were on their way to Sicily,
Frederick I., emperor of the West, commonly known as
March of Fred- Barbarossa or Red Beard, was on his way
J^toCon^' to Constantinople. He had fought a long
vrantinopie. battle with the pope or the man who called


II99, The Third Crusade, 125

himself pope. He had himself set up an anti-pope, as
the imperialist popes were called ; and with the sanction
of this anti-pope, who styled himself Pascal III., he had
attacked Rome, beaten down the gates of St. Peter's
with hatchets and axes, and seen his troops advance
filling the church with blood as they fought their way to
the high altar. In the midst of this carnage The popes and
Pascal III. had placed the crown on the ^^ ««»?»'«•
head of the empress Beatrice, and had blessed again the
diadem of Frederick. He had had to contend with a
mightier enemy than the pope in the fearful pestilence
which broke out within his camp ; and his flight from
Rome had ensured the victory of pope Alexander III.,
the somewhat hesitating friend of Thomas of Canterbury.
But although the warfare of previous years was suc-
ceeded by an apparent peace, Frederick lost no oppor-
tunity of strengthening himself against the papacy ; and
in the days of Urban III. he had gained much by secur-
ing for his son Henry the hand of Constantia, heiress of
the kingdom of Sicily. The old strife might have been
renewed ; but the heart of Barbarossa was stirred by the
tidings from the Holy Land or the letters of Gregory
VIII., and his armies advanced under his standard
through Hungary towards the capital of the Eastern
empire. That capital Barbarossa, like his predecessor
Conrad (p. 93), refused to enter. The Byzantine Caesar
had with scant courtesy allowed him the privilege of
buying food for his men ; he had studiously withheld
from him the titles which implied a divided empire.

The steadier discipline, the more decent order which
marked the army of Barbarossa seemed to promise a
better result to his enterprise. They had ^ , ,

,- ,,_,. ^ ,, , , Death of

defeated the Turks m a general battle, and Frederick I.
had taken the Seljukian capital of Cogni


l?6 The Crusades. ch. vii.

(Iconium), (p. 82) ; but a great disaster, nothing less than

the loss of their leader himself, awaited them. Frederick

was drowned in a Pisidian river, as some said
A. D. 1190. , ., , • . 1 1 J .

while he was crossmg it ; as others had it,

from the effects of bathing. The misery and suffering
which had fallen to the lot of the earlier crusaders now
_ weighed heavily upon them : and the

tion of wretched story is sufficiently told, if it be

^^^ true that not a tenth of the number which

crossed the Bosporos lived to enter Antioch. The few
who made their way thus far found a city almost deserted
by the Turkish soldiers, and Antioch once more had a
Christian government.

But while the sovereigns of the West were thus pre-
paring for another great effort on their behalf, the Latins
of Palestine were struggling hard to win

A. D. 1189. , , , . , 00 o

Siege of back their lost supremacy, and were aided

^"* by crowds of armed pilgrims, whose im-

mense numbers have to be taken into account if we wish
to realize the extent of the drain to which the population
of Europe was thus subjected. Too impatient to wait,
these wanderers hurried, with whatever motives, to the
scenes where, as they supposed, honour could not fail to
be won, even if wealth and happiness should not be their
portion. The conflict now turned on the possession of
Acre, the key of the whole region lying to the west of
the Jordan. It had opened its gates to Saladin soon
after the battle of Tibdrias ; and before Richard of Eng-
land and Philip Augustus set foot on the Holy Land it
had been besieged for nearly two years by Guy of Lu-
sagnan, titular king of Jerusalem, with an army which
the influx of pilgrims from Europe had raised, it is said,
to 100,000 men. But the besiegers had little generalship,
and the mischief done to their effectiveness by vice and


1 190. The Third Crusade, 127

debauchery was completed by a fearful pestilence which
swept them away by thousands.

In the midst of this misery a few German merchants,
from the coast of the Baltic, sought to mitigate suffering
by running up the sails of their ships as Riseofthc
tents for the sick and dying. The happy Teutonic
results which followed their work led to an
organization similar to that of the orders of the Temple
and the Hospital. Like those orders, the Teutonic
knights rose to power and distinction, and in the history
of the crusade of Frederick XL, we shall find their
grand-master, Herman of Salza, in high favour both
with the emperor and with the pope, his implacable
antagonist. With the failure of the crusades in the
East the order was transferred to the more forbid-
ding regions which had sent forth its founders, and
their crusade was turned against the heathen of the
Lithuanian, Prussian, Esthonian, and other tribes. They
preached the gospel with the sword, and their efforts
were followed at least by military success. Their grasp
on the lands which they overran was never relaxed,
and the last grand-master became the sovereign of a
state which has grown into the modem kingdom of

The sickness and vice which wasted the forces of the
crusaders before Acre were powerfully aided by feuds
among the chiefs. Sibylla, the sister of Bald-
win IV., and wife of Guy of Lusignan, was Death of '
carried off by the plague. Her two children nI,<^n*of
died with her, and her husband found him- J«n»^«a.
self stripped of the privilege which had made him jit
least the shadow of a king. Isabel, the sister of his
wife, still lived, and having got rid of her first husband
Humphry, lord of Thoron, was now married to Conrad,


128 The Crusades, ch. vii.

Conrad, marquis of Tyre. As thus wedded to the

kin^^f heiress of Almeric, Conrad claimed the

Jerusalem. sovereignty of Jerusalem, and the decision
of the point was reserved for the kings of England and

These kings were now on their way to the East.
Richard had journeyed by land to Genoa, while his fleet,
Y^ ^^ having crossed the bay of Biscay, anchored
the Enriish at Lisbon, where his forces found a crusade
bon and ready to their hands. The town of Santarem,

Messina. f^j^y miles abovc Lisbon, was blockaded by

the Saracen emir. With the aid of the English the Por-
tuguese raised the siege and then found themselves com-
pelled to fight with their deliverers in the streets of Lisbon.
The crusaders thought that they carried with them a
license for universal plunder and insult ; and it was not
without difficulty and much bloodshed that they were
persuaded by their leaders to reserve the application of
their theory for more distant lands. The summer was
coming to an end when Richard, having
Sept. 23. joined his fleet on the Italian coast, entered

Messina almost in the guise of a conqueror, to the terror
of the Sicilians and the disgust of the French king

Then, as through almost the whole of its chequered

history, Sicily was a prize for which contending kings and

adventurers intrigued, or fought. It was now

Richard I. held by Tancred, an illegitimate son of the

»c» y- Apulian duke Roger. His,sister Con$tantia,

the legitimate daughter of Roger, was the wife of Henry,
son of Frederick Barbarossa, who wished to make the
island a portion of his own imperial realm (p. 125). He
was foiled by Tancred, who took the further precaution
of imprisoning Joanna, the widow of his predecessor


J 190. The Third Crusade, 129

William called the Good. Joanna was the sister of the
English Richard, who was not slow in demanding her
freedom, her dower, and the legacies which William the
Good had left to his father Henry II. His demands were
accompanied by robbery and violence, and his followers
hastened to imitate his example. They came to open
strife with the people in the streets of Messina ; and the
battle was followed by the plundering of the town. But
the raising of the English standard on the walls was in-
terpreted as an insult by Philip Augustus, and Richard
was constrained to appease his wrath by placing the city
in the charge of the Knights Templars and Hospitallers.

The dispute with Tancred was made up Quarrel be-
by the betrothal of his infant daughter to InrPMii^**^''*
Arthur, duke of Brittany, that luckless vie- Augustus,
tim of the cruelty of John whom Shakespeare has made
famous. But the quarrels of these champions of the
cross are tangled like links in a twisted chain. By way
of showing his friendly feeling, Tancred placed in Rich-
ard's hand a letter bearing the signature of the French
king and inviting Tancred to a private alliance against
Richard. The latter charged Philip Augustus with the
treachery, and was charged in turn with producing forged
letters by way of devising an escape from his engage-
ment with his sister Adelais. Richard had offered to
marry Berengaria, daughter of Sancho, king of Navarre,
and with studied coarseness he told Philip that he could
have nothing to do with the mother of his father's child.
So was changed into mortal hatred that alliance which
in its early days had led them to eat at the same table
and rest in the same bed.

Thus passed away the winter in disgraceful quarrels
and in lavish outlays of money scarcely less disgraceful.
In the spring the French king sailed for Acre.


130 The Crusades, CH. vii.

A. D. 1191. Richard went to Rhodes, and while he re-
War^bctwcen mained there sick, he heard that some of his
the Comne-** people had b'een wrecked on the coast of Cy-
nian emperor prus, robbed of their goods, and imprisoned
by Isaac the Comnenian prince who called
himself emperor of the island. His demand for compen-
sation was unheeded. The English fleet appeared before
Limasol, the southernmost town of the island : and the
English troops were soon masters of the city. Isaac
entered into a treaty which bound him to serve with 500
knights in the crusade, and in the event of good behaviour
Richard promised him the restoration of his kingdom.
But fear got the better of his prudence. He made his
escape, and again met the English king in battle. The
fight was followed by his surrender, and Richard ordered
him to be kept in a castle on the coast of Palestine.

Here, in the town which under the name of Paphos
had won for itself a pre-eminence in vice and folly,
Richard was married to Berengaria of Navarre. Here
also he received and promised to take up the cause of Guy
of Lusignan, the weightiest argument for so doing being
found in the fact that Philip Augustus had taken up that
of Conrad. Thus the two kings reached Acre only to
Arrival of Complicate old feuds with new strifes. The
PhHip at*° siege had lasted nearly two years. In the
^"^' plain was gathered the crusading host, still

magnificent in its appointments; on the heights were
assembled the Turkish armies under the black banner of
Saladin. Richard had loitered on the road as long as it
suited his fancy or his ambition to do so ; and he had
overwhelmed with a torrent of reproach and abuse the
envoys from the chiefs before Acre who dared to con-
front him at the Cyprian Famagosta with the reproof that
his business was not to dethrone Comnenian princes and


1 191. The Third Crusade, 131

take their kingdoms, but to do battle with the Turk for
the sacred heritage of Christendom. He reached Acre»
prostrated with intermittent fever ; but indifference to the "^
enterprise had given way to a fiery zeal. He had him-
self carried out on a mattress to point the balistae which
by discharging stones served in some measures the pur-
poses of modern artillery. But at first the two kings
would not act t(^ether, and this division of forces enabled
the besieged to stand out. Their reconciliation, whether
real or seeming, led to a combined action which was
soon rewarded by the offer of surrender. The terms now
proposed were rejected, and Saladin cheered the besieged
with the hope of succours to be received from Egypt. The
help came not, and Saladin was compelled to assent to a
harder compact. The piece of the true cross was to be
given up, the Christian prisoners set free, ^ ^ „^j
and some thousands of hostages were to be J"*y "•
detained for the payment, within forty days, of 200,000
pieces of gold. The surrender was made. Richard took
up his abode in the palace, Philip went to the house of
the Templars, and the flags of the two kings Surrender of
floated from the ramparts. Philip now re- ^^"^^
garded himself as absolved from his vow, and he an-
nounced his determination to return to
France. Richard parted from his ally with Philip to
undissembled anger and contempt, and '^"*^**
Philip, sailing to Tyre, gave to Conrad that half of the
city of Acre which had been reserved for himself.

The forty days wore on. Saladin would not or could
not restore the relics of the true cross or make up the
200,000 pieces. Richard warned him what
the consequences of neglect would be ; and 5,000 Tur;c-
he kept his word. On the fortieth day two ^^^<»*'^«-
thousand seven hundred hostages were led to the top of


132 The Crusades, CH. vii.

a hill from which all that passed might be seen in the
camp of Saladin ; and at a signal from the king these two
thousand seven hundred infidels were all cut down. The
soldiers hacked open their bodies to search for the jewels
and gold which they were supposed to have swallowed,
and to obtain the gall which they kept as medicine. In
such praiseworthy deeds as these the Christians could
act with admirable concert. At the same hour hostages
almost equalling in number the victims of Richard were
slaughtered on the walls of the city by the duke of Bur-
gundy, the representative of Philip Augustus.

The recovery of Acre was for these merciful and de-
vout champions of the cross a sufficient reason for plung-
ing into beastly debauchery and excess, from which it
was no easy task to tear them away. At length the
army of Richard moved southwards, marching in com-
pact array along the coast, while the fleet, generally in
sight, advanced along the shore. On their left hung the
hosts of Saladin, whose policy it was to wear out his
enemy, in a country the fortresses of which he had dis-
mantled, without fighting any pitched battles. In this
way the crusaders and their enemies had reached the
neighbourhood of Azotus (Ashdod), when Richard re-
solved to face his adversary. The right wing was under
Jacob of Avesnes ; the left was held by the Duke of
Burgundy ; the English king was in the
Richard at Centre. The disposition of the battle showed

^ "*' some approach to generalship on his part ;

and his coolness was seen in the steadiness with which
he reserved for the decisive moment the charge of his
horsemen. Their tremendous onset broke the Turkish
ranks. The victory was decisive : but it was purchased
with the death of Jacob of Avesnes, which Richard
mourned as a costly sacrifice.


1 191. The Third Crusade, 133

•His next move was to Jaffa, although he had wished
to go on to Ascalon. The French barons insisted on the
necessity of rebuilding the walls of Jaffa ; ^^^^^^^^ ^^
and in spite of the sluggishness which with gotiations
the crusaders almost always followed stren- ladin.
uous exertion, the task was at length com-
pleted. Richard resolved to renew the war with vigour,
and announced to Saladin that nothing less would con-
tent him than the surrender of all the territory which had
been included in the kingdom of Jerusalem under Bald-
win the leper, (p. 104). Saladin replied by an offer to
yield up all lands lying between the Jordan and the sea ;
but it soon became clear that the negotiations were a
mere pretext for gaining time, and Richard
determined to advance upon Jerusalem. The NovcmScr.
army reached Ramlah, encountering some
hardships from rain and tempests. Still it seemed
that they might soon win the prize to which they had
looked forward as the adequate recompense of all
human toil. It was not to be so, and the hindrance
came from the military orders and from the men of Pisa.
These asserted that the reconquest of Jerusalem would
be the dissolution of the enterprise. The army would
never be kept together, so soon as they had once paid
their vows before the tomb of the Redeemer. The
crusaders fell back to Ascalon, and there the winter was
spent partly in restoring the fortifications, but for the
more part in incessant feuds. The duke of Austria had
learnt during the siege of Acre to look on Richard as an
enemy. The cause, it was said, was an ^^
insult done to the Austrian banner, which the English
Richard, on seeing it raised upon the ram- dlSc^ of Aus*
parts, seized and flung into the ditch. The '"*•
hatred thus excited was embittered, we are told, by the


134 ^-^^ Crusades, CH. vii.

injunction or desire for the personal help of all in the
camp for the rebuilding of the walls of Ascalon. The
duke replied that he was neither a mason nor a carpen-
ter ; and the lion-hearted king retorted by a kick which
threw him down. This may be romance or fiction ; but
the disorganization of the force is sufficiently shown by
the facts that the claim of Conrad to the throne of Jeru-
salem was urged by the Genoese, that of Guy by the men
of Pisa ; that the French abandoned the camp because
Richard was no longer able to pay them ; and that the
jealousy of Conrad could be satisfied with nothing less
than an alliance with Saladin. The end had almost come.
Richard knew that his presence in England was a matter
of life and death, and he now in his offers to the Turkish
sultan abated his claim to the mere possession of the holy
city and the restoration of the true cross. To this last
surrender Saladin had in the previous negotiations made
no objection. He had now become more orthodox or
more scrupulous, and he could not give even indirect
encouragement to the idolatry which would worship a
piece of wood. Nor was a treaty set on foot for the mar-
riage of Richard's sister Joanna to Saphadin the sultan's
brother more successful. The English king even con-
sented to give up the cause of Guy and sanction the
choice of Conrad of Tyre for the Latin crown. The mur-
A. D. 1199. ^^^ o^ Conrad by two of the fraternity known
April 37. 35 ^ijg Assassins drew on Richard a storm of

indignation ; but evidence for the crime there was none.
A more popular claimant appeared in Henry, count of

Champagne, whose election to the throne of
Champagne Godfrey was followed by his marriage to the
of Jcii^^em. widow of Conrad. The grief of Guy was

consoled by the sovereignty of Cyprus which
was still in the hands of his descendants when the



1 192. The Third Crusade, 135

Crescent in 1453 displaced the Cross on Justinian's
church in Constantinople.

Disunion and bad generalship had practically sealed
the doom of the crusade ; but for Richard the capture
of Jerusalem still had greater charms than „ , ,„. ,

, ., /.,?,, », , MarchofRich-

the punishment of his brother John. In ard towards
June, accordingly, the army once more *"**

began its march to the Holy City. The tidings of his
approach caused almost panic terror among the Turks ;
but when they had reached Bethlehem the crusaders dis-
covered that their forces were insufficient for the invest-
ment of the city; that to a commissariat they could
scarcely make a pretence ; that they ran an imminent
risk of being cut off from their base of supplies ; and,
lastly, that the Turks had destroyed the wells and cis-
terns for miles round. It was impossible to resist the
logic of these facts ; and Richard made a last desperate
effort to divert their joint forces to an invasion of Egypt
and the attack of Cairo. He was led up a hill from
which he was told that he might see Jeru-
salem ; he held up his shield before his face army from
as being unworthy to behold the city which ^ ^°**

he had failed to wrest from the power of the infidel. The
army was broken up. Some went to Jaffa, more to Acre ;
and Saladin, advancing with rapid marches to the former
city, so pressed it that the besieged pledged themselves
to surrender if within twenty-four hours they should not
be effectually succoured. Within that time Richard ap-
peared upon the scene. His onset was more fierce, his
valour and exploits more astonishing than „ .. , ,, ^

TT. u • ^ . J • r • Relief of Jaffa.

ever. The besiegers retreated in confusion,
to learn presently with greater shame that they had been
scared by a mere handful of Christian horsemen. But
if the splendid bravery of the English king struck terror


136 The Crusades. ch. vu.

into the multitude, there were not lacking some, it is
said, in which it excited a chivalrous admiration. Rich-
ard was dismounted, we are told, in the thick of the
fight, and Saladin's brother Saphadin, whose son Rich-
ard had at his request knighted, sent him two horses to
enable him to renew the struggle. The crusaders were
victorious : but Richard had no wish to use the advan-
tage thus gained except for the purpose of gaining the
best terms from the enemy. The compact ultimately
made pledged them to a truce of three years
the crusaders and eight months. Ascalon was to be dis-
mantled : but the Christians were to remain
in possession of Jaffa and Tyre with the country between
them ; and all pilgrims w^re to have the right of enter-
ing Jerusalem untaxed.

Of this privilege the French at Acre desired to avail
themselves. Richard indignantly refused their request.
They had done nothing to secure the peace
Jerusjdem* ^ Or to deserve it ; and their allies only should
be suffered to enter the Sacred City. Among
these pilgrims was the bishop of Salisbury, who became
the guest of Saladin and heard from his lips praises of
the valour of Richard which were not extended to his
generalship. The thrust was rather evaded than parried
by the reply that the earth could not produce two war-
riors who could be put into comparison with the Syrian
sultan and the English king.

So ended the third crusade, with its work barely more
than begun, or rather marred by the infatuated waste of
splendid opportunities ; yet not with an ex-
Ai^d^'Jr^'! tremity of humiliation which would con-
vince even devotees of the absurdity of
further efforts. A large strip of coast bounded by two
important cities still remained as a base of operations in


1 192. The Third Crusade, 137

any renewed contest, and much had been done to neu-
tralize the effects which without doubt Saladin had an-
ticipated from his victory at Tiberias and his conquest
of Jerusalem.

On the morning after his embarkation at Acre, Rich-
ard turned to take a last look on the fading shores of
Palestine. * Most holy land,' he exclaimed ^ ^ ^^
with outstretched arms, ' I commend thee Richsu-d i. in
to the care of the Almighty! May He grant "^'^^
me life to return and deliver thee from the yoke of the
infidels !* His fleet, carrying his wife and sister, had pre-
ceded him and reached Sicily in safety. He himself fol-
lowed in a single ship, and at the end of a month of
baffling winds found himself at Corfu, where he hired
some trading vessels to take him to Ragusa and Zara.
Sailing on, he was thrown by a storm on the Istrian

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