Georgia. General Assembly. School Book Investigati.

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REPORT



OF THE



School Book
Investigating Committee



TO THE



General Assembly



OF



Georgia



1914






MAY 27 1914



1 \



RLPORT



OF THE



5CHOOL BOOK
INVL5TIGATING
COMMITTLL



M. L. BRITTAIN,

State Superintendent of Schools, Chairman

Hon. A. H. FOSTER.

Senator, 27th District, Vice-Chairman

Hon. JOHN T. PEYTON.

Senator, Slst District

Hon. C. R. McCRORY,

Representative, Schley County

Hon. H. C. SHUPTRINE,

Representative, Chatham County

Hon. W. J. NUNNALLY.

Representative, Floyd County

Dr. G. R. GLENN.

Member State Board of Education

Dr. T. J. WOOFTER.

Member State Boavd of Education



REPORT OF THE SCHOOL BOOK INVESTIGATING
COMMITTEE



To the Members of the General Assembly of Georgia:

Gentlemen: The following resolution, known as House
Resolution No. 17, was approved August 18, 1913 :

"Whereas, The contract for school books for the public
schools of Georgia expires this year, and,

"Whereas, It appears that the present prices paid for school
books are exorbitant when compared to the prices of other school
books,

"Be it resolved therefore by the House of Representatives,
the Senate concurring, That a joint committee of eight, composed
of the State Superintendent of Schools and two other members
of the State Board of Education, in addition to said Superin-
tendent, to be selected by said Board, who, together with two
members of the Senate, appointed by the President of the Sen-
ate, and three members of the House, appointed by the Speaker
of the House, shall be a committee to inquire into and report
as soon as practicable on the reasonableness of the present price
of school books, and inquire into the prices of books used else-
where, and also as to the practicability of the State furnishing
school books for use in the public schools at cost of publication,
and to make all investigation that may be necessary touching
upon the furnishing of all books used in the Common and High
Schools receiving State aid at cost of publication, and delivery
of the same.

"Be it further resolved, That said Committee is hereby
clothed with authority to subpoena witnesses, to take evidence,
to employ a stenographer, and compel the production of docu-
ments and do such other acts as are necessary for this inves-
tigation.

"Be it further resolved. That said Committee shall make a
report of its investigation, together with the testimony thereof,



to the present session of the General Assembly, provided the
investigation shall be concluded in time to render such report
at the present session of the General Assembly. If the report,
together with the testimony thereof, be not rendered to the
present session of the General Assembly, then such report, to-
gether with the testimony thereof, shall be made at the next
regular session of the General Assembly.

"Be it further resolved. That said Committee is authorized
to sit at such times and places as said Committee may direct,
and if said investigation is not concluded before the adjourn-
ment of the present session of the General Assembly, then the
members of said Committee, except the State Superintendent
and two other members of the Board of Education selected by
said Board, shall receive each a per diem of four dollars arid
actual necessary expenses incurred in this investigation, except
while the Legislature is in session, which shall be sworn to, and
when approved by the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the
Committee, said per diem and expenses shall be paid out of any
fund in the State Treasury not otherwise appropriated.

*'Be it further resolved, That the State Board of Education
or School Book Commission is hereby authorized to make new
contracts, or in its discretion renew the present contracts for
school books for five years at the regular time, as provided by
law this year, with the proviso that said contract can be abro-
gated as to any adoption after twelve months' notice to the
publishers of said book or books.

"Be it further resolved. That all laws and parts of laws in
conflict with this resolution be, and the same are, hereby re-
pealed."

ORGANIZATION

The two members selected by the State Board of Education
in accordance with the resolution were G. R. Glenn and
T. J, Woofter. The first meeting of the Committee appointed
was held at the office of the State Department of Education
on September 26, 1913. M. L. Brittain was elected Chairman
and A. H. Foster, Viee-Chairman. In accordance with the pro-
vision for an official stenographer, J. A. Northcutt was chosen



for this work. In addition to the one mentioned, meetings have
been held at the State Department of Education on the follow-
ing dates: January 21, 1914; April 3, 1914, and April 28,
1914. As set forth in the resolution, we have made diligent
effort to inquire into the present prices of school books used
elsewhere, the practicability of the State furnishing school books
used in the public schools at cost of publication, and have en-
deavored to secure all information possible concerning the fur-
nishing of books used in the Common and High Schools of the
State at cost of publication and delivery. The minutes of these
various meetings, together with all books, pamphlets and corre-
spondence are on file at the State Department of Education, and
this material is accessible at any and all times to any member of
•the General Assembly who may desire to inspect the original
documents.

COMPARATIVE PRICES

One of the first duties placed upon the Committee was to
report upon the prices of books used elsewhere in order to be
able to make comparison with the prices paid in Georgia.
With this end in view, letters were written to all of the States
of the Union, and countries abroad in addition. The statement
having been circulated that "most of the leading countries of
Europe publish their own books and deposit them where
the users can secure them at the least expense," the United
States Bureau of Education was consulted. In a letter dated
April 14, 1914, Professor Smith, the specialist in Foreign Ed-
ucational Systems, writes, "In European Countries, in general,
text books are prepared by professors, teachers, and others en-
gaged in the work of education and are placed on the market by
publishing houses practically in the same way as in this coun-
try." Comparison as to prices could not be made in some of
the States by reason of the fact that in them full liberty as to
adoption and purchase is given to local authorities and parents.
Conditions have, however, enough similarity to our own in 21
other States to enable us to tell as to whether or not we pay
extravagant prices for our school books. These use practically
our texts for the required basal books in the common schools and



where the number varies, this fact is indicated. The list below
is presented in alphabetical order :



Comparative Cost of the Required Basal School
Books Used in the Grades Below the High
School in 21 States Having Uniform
Text Book Adoption



ALABAMA.



Primer $ .22

First Header 20

Second Reader 25

Third Reader 30

Fourth Reader 35

Fifth Reader 40

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.24

Grammar, 3 books 1.09

Total, $9.85; note that this state has 4 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in
Grammar, 2 in Physiology, and 6 in "Writing.



Geography, 2 books $1.28

History, 3 books 1.80

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 86

Civics 55

Spelling, 2 books 41

Writing, 6 books 30



ARIZONA.



Primer $ .30

First Reader 25

Second Reader 35

Third Reader 40

Fourth Reader 40

Fifth Reader 40

Arithmetic, 2 books 1.10

Grammar, 3 books 1.45

Total, $9.95; note that this state has no text in Agriculture nor Civics
and only 2 in History, but there are 3 in Grammar and 2 in Physiology.



Geography, 2 books $1.75

History, 2 books 1.50

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 1.05

Civics, no text

Spelling, 2 books 55

Writing 45



FLORIDA.



Primer $ .25

First Reader 25

Second Reader .35

Third Reader 45

Fourth Reader 45

Fifth Reader 55

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.09

Grammar, 2 books 71

Total, $10.10; note that this State has 3 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in
Physiology, 9 in Writing, and 1 Speller.



Geography, 2 books $ 1.28

History, 3 books 1.64

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 3 books 1.35

Civics 50

Spelling 18

Writing, 9 books 45



6



GEOBGIA.

Primer $ .14

First Eeader 16

Second Eeader 18

Third Eeader 25

Fourth Eeader 40

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 2 books 55

Grammar, 2 books 76

Total, $7.90.

IDAHO.

Primer $ .30

First Eeader 35

Second Eeader 40

Third Eeader 45

Fourth Eeader 50

Fifth Eeader 60

Arithmetic, 2 books 95

Grammar, 3 books 1.55

Total, $10.09; note that this state has no text in Agriculture, only
1 in History, and 1 in Spelling, but there are 3 in Grammar and 2 in
Physiology.

INDIANA.



Geography, 2 books $ 1.28

History, 3 books 1.70

Agriculture 55

Physiology 50

Civics 44

Spelling, 2 books 24

Writing, 7 books 35



Geography, 2 books $1.75

History LOO

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 1.10

Civics 54

Spelling 20

Writing 40



Primer .' . $ .15

First Eeader 15

Second Eeader 20

Third Eeader 25

Fourth Eeader 30

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 2 books 95

Grammar, 2 books 65

Total, $5.85; this State has no text in Agriculture nor Civics, only
1 in Geography, 1 in History, 1 in Spelling, and 5 in Writing, but
these are 2 texts in Physiology. Books' are bought at wholesale by the
Boards of Education.

KANSAS.



Geography $ .90

History 75

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 80

Civics, no text

Spelling 10

Writing, 5 books 25



Primer $ .12

First Eeader 10

Second Reader 17

Third Eeader 23

Fourth Eeader 30

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 3 books 80

Grammar, 2 books 55

Total, $5.57; 10 per cent, is added to this price by the dealers. Note
that there is no text in Agriculture, only 1 in History, 1 in Spelling;
but there are 8 in writing and 3 in Arithmetic.



Geography, 2 books $1.05

History 50

Agriculture, no text

Civics 40

Spelling 10

Writing, 8 books 40

Physiology 45



KENTUCKY.



Primer $ .10

First Eeader 12

Second Eeader 20

Third Eeader 20

Fourth Eeader 35

Fifth Eeader 45

Arithmetic, 4 books 98

Grammar, 4 books 1.65

Total, $8.82; this State has no text in Agriculture and only 1 in
Spelling, but there are 4 in Arithmetic and 4 in Grammar.

LOUISIANA.



Geography, 2 books $1.20

History, 3 books 1.75

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 90

Civics 45

Spelling 12

Writing, 7 books 35



Primer $ .25

First Eeader 25

Second Eeader 35

Third Eeader 35

Fourth Eeader 35

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.01

Grammar, 2 books 62

Total, $9.94; this State has 4 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in Grammar, 2 in
Physiology, and 8 in Writing but only 1 in Spelling.

MISSISSIPPI.



Geography, 2 books $1.28

History, 4 books 2.50

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 80

Civics 60

Spelling 18

Writing, 8 books 40



Primer $ .20

First Eeader 23

Second Eeader 32

Third Eeader 36

Fourth Eeader 30

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.26

Grammar, 3 books 87

Total, $9.54; this State has 4 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in Grammar, 2
in Physiology, and 8 in Writing.



Geography, 2 books ...$1.28

History, 3 books 1.70

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 82

Civics 54

Spelling, 2 books 26

Writing, 8 books 40



MONTANA.



Primer $ .30

First Eeader 30

Second Eeader 30

Third Eeader 40

Fourth Eeader 50-

Fifth Eeader 50

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.15

Grammar, 2 books 90

Total, $10.65; this State has no text in Agriculture, only 2 in History,
and 1 in Spelling, but it has 3 in Arithmetic and 2 in Physiology.



Geography, 2 books $1.80

History, 2 books 1.55

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 1.10

Civics 65

Spelling 25

Writing, 8 books 95



8



NEVADA.

Primer $ .30

First Eeader 30

Second Eeader 35

Third Reader 50

Fourth Eeader 50

Fifth Reader 50

Arithmetic, 2 books 1.00

Grammar, 2 books 1.15

Total, $10.65; this State has no text in Agriculture nor Civics, only 2
in History, and 1 in Spelling.



Geography, 2 books $ 2.00

History, 2 books 1.80

Agriculture, no text

Physiology 75

Civics, no text

Spelling .30

Writing 1 20



NEW MEXICO.

Primer $ .20

First Eeader .25

Second Eeader 35

Third Eeader 40

Fourth Eeader 40

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 2 books 92

Grammar, 4 books 1.75

Total, $10.42; this State has no text in Agriculture, but has 4 in
Grammar, 2 in Physiology, and 8 in Writing.



Geography, 2 books $ .95

History, 3 books 2.35

Agriculture, no text

Physiology, 2 books 85

Civics 75

Spelling, 2 books 45

Writing, 8 books 40



NORTH CAROLINA,



Primer $ .25

First Eeader 25

Second Eeader 27

Third Eeader 32

Fourth Eeader 32

Fifth Eeader 36

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.09

Grammar, 2 books 70

Total, $8.97; this State has only 2 texts in History but there are 3 in
Arithmetic.



Geography, 2 books $1.35

History, E books 1.55

Agriculture 60

Physiology 55

Civics 60

Spelling, 2 books 41

Writing, 7 books 35



OKLAHOMA.



Primer .' $ .25

First Eeader 25

Second Eeader 35

Third Eeader .45

Fourth Eeader 45

Fifth Eeader 55

Arithmetic, 2 books 70

Grammar, 2 books 89

Total, $8.20; this State has no text in Civics, only 1 in History, and 1
in Spelling; but there are 2 in Physiology and 8 in Writing.



Geography, 2 books $1.31

History 90

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 90

Civics, no text

Spelling 20

Writing, 8 books 40



OREGON.



Primer $ .25

First Reader 25

Second Eeader 35

Third Eeader 45

Fourth Eeader 45

Fifth Eeader bo

Arithmetic, 2 books 93

Grammar, 2 books 81

Total, $9.52; this State has only



Geography $1.00

History, 2 books 1.50

Agriculture 70

Physiology, 2 books 95

Civics 65

Spelling 23

Writing 45

1 text in Geography, 1 in Spelling,



and 2 in History, but has 2 in Physiology.



SOUTH CAROLINA.



Primer $ .25

First Eeader 25

Second Eeader 25

Third Reader 30

Fourth Eeader 35

Fifth Reader 35

Arithmetic, 2 books 76

Arithmetic, 2 books 68

Total, $8.68; this State has 2 texts in Physiology but only 1 in
Spelling.

TENNESSEE.



Geography, 2 books $ 1.33

History, 3 books 1.60

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 75

Civics 60

Spelling 26

Writing, 7 books 35



Primer $ .25

First Eeader 18

Second Reader 25

Third Eeader 30

Fourth Eeader 35

Fifth Eeader 40

Arithmetic, 3 books 84

Grammar, 3 books 1.08

. Total, $9.09; this State has 3

In Physiology, and only 1 in Spelling.



Geography, 2 books $1.28

History, 3 books 1.85

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 63

Civics o5

Spelling 18

Writing, 7 books 35

texts in Arithmetic, 3 in Grammar, 2



TEXAS.



Primer $ .18

First Reader 18

Second Reader 25

Third Reader 30

Fourth Reader 35

Fifth Reader 40

Arithmetic, 4 books 1.16

Grammar, 3 books 1.02

Total, $11.83; this State has 4 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in Grammar, 3 in
AgTiculture, 3 in Physiology, 8 in Writing, but only 1 in Spelling.



Geography, 2 books $1.36

History, 3 books 1.60

Agriculture, 3 books 2.10

Physiology, 3 books 1.60

Civics 75

Spelling 18

Writing, 8 books 40



10



Geography, 7 books $3.55

History, 5 books 3.55

Agriculture 75

Physiology, 5 books 2.35

Spelling 20

Civics, 2 books 1.50

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.20



UTAH.

:?rimer $ .25

First Eeader 2o

Second Eeader 35

Third Eeader io

Fourth Eeader 48

Fifth Eeader 48

Writing, 8 books 40

Grammar, 3 books 1.65

Total, $17.41; this State has 3 texts in Arithmetic, 3 in Grammar, 7-
in Geography, 5 in History, 5 in Physiology, 2 in Civics, and only 1 in
Spelling.

VIRGINIA.

Primer .$ .18

First Eeader 15

Second Eeader 22

Third Eeader '. . .28

Fourth Eeader 30

Fifth Eeader 30

Arithmetic, 2 books 66

Grammar, 2 books 52

Total, 9.79; this State has 5 texts in History, 3 in Physiology, and
8 in Writing but has only 1 in Spelling,



Geography, 2 books $1.28

History, 5 books 2.75

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 3 books 1.40

Civics 55

Spelling 20

Writing, 8 books 40



WEST VIRGINIA.



Geography, 2 books $1.28

History, 4 books 3.81

Agriculture 60

Physiology, 2 books 1.15

Civics 53

Spelling 22

Writing, 9 books 45



Primer 25

First Eeader 25

Second Eeader 31

Third Eeader 41

Fourth Eeader 41

Fifth Eeader 41

Arithmetic, 3 books 1.05

Grammar, 2 books 84

Total, $11.97; this State has 3 texts in Arithmetic, 4 in History, 2
in Physiology, 9 in Writing, and only 1 in Spelling.

The foregoing evidence clearly proves that, in comparison
with the other States like situated, our people do not pay ex-
travagant prices for these books. It appears, for instance, that
every neighboring southern State pays more than Georgia for
these texts; so far then as concerns the prices recently secured
by the Georgia State Textbook Commission it is evident that they
not only are not extravagant but are more economical than those
secured by other Boards using the plan of uniform State adop-
tion.

11



ANNUAL EXPENSE OF BOOKS

Perhaps, also, it is due the General Assembly to give the
results of our effort to find, approximately at least, about the
amount of money expended for school books in this State, es-
pecially since many widely divergent estimates and statements
on this subject have been given to the public. So far as the ele-
mentary schools are concerned the sworn figures of the dealers
are to the effect that the total sales for the regular adopted texts
during the past ten years are a little less than $150,000 annu-
ally. Some effort has been made to check these figures and there
were selected for this purpose the counties of Habersham, Schley,
and Early and the figures given appear to corroborate the pre-
vious conclusion. Not only so, but testimony has been secured
from the country as a whole, other states, and cities at this
point. The report of the United States Commissioner of Edu-
cation shows twenty millions of pupils in the schools of this
<30untry and the total expenditure of not quite seven mil-
lion dollars for school books (Volume II, 1912, page
17), thus confirming the Georgia figures. In Pennsylva-
nia, for instance, the books are bought by Boards of Edu-
cation and furnished free to the children; the law there
requires under such circumstances, a complete report of the
cost of the books thus furnished. Since the books are free any
variation would naturally be that more of books would be used
and the expenditure would be correspondingly greater in Penn-
sylvania than in Georgia, to say nothing of the fact that the
former state is larger and has more per capita wealth. State
Superintendent, N. C. Schaeffer, gives the enrollment of pupils
in Pennsylvania, for the year ending June 30, 1913, as 1,343,055
and the cost of text books for these pupils as $1,157,930.27. The
average cost per pupil in that State is, therefore, 86.2 cents;
note also that the Pennsylvania law requires free books furnish-
ed for high schools and normal schools. High school books are
always more expensive. It is plainly true, therefore, that the
cost of books for the elementary grades in Pennsylvania as well
as Georgia would be much less than 86 cents per capita each
year. Furthermore, another proof as to the cost comes from
our own State. The City of Fitzgerald has for some years been
furnishing the text books free to the pupils. Superintendent

12



Ritchie writes that the cost for that city for 1913 was less than
74 cents per capita and regretfully we know that it is much
less than this on the average for the country child, just as in-
dicated by the figures noted above by the dealers. The City
Boards of Education are always more insistent upon a liberal
supply of books and other educational material for their pupils
— some, perhaps, with not enough attention to economy. It is
true, however, that there is much loss to the child from error in
the opposite direction and that the argument is decidedly in
favor of taking into consideration the value of his time and the
necessity for furnishing him with proper tools with which to
work. It is poor reasoning to prefer a saving of 5 cents on an
inferior text book on which a child must spend 6 months of time
to a better one even at a greater cost.

STATE PUBLICATION BY THE CALIFORNIA PLAN

Of the 48 States in this country, 46 use either the Georgia
plan, authorize the purchase by Boards of Education, or else do
not interfere at all in the purchase and supply of text books.
Two, however, Kansas recently, and California for 30 years
past, have undertaken to establish plants and to print books
used by the State. In the message of Governor "W. Y. Atkinson,
of Georgia, to the General Assembly in 1897, giving the report
of the School book Commission at that time, the following oc-
curs:

"California is the only State that has undertaken to pub-
lish its own books. The experiment has cost the State, accord-
ing to the late report of the Secretary of State, something like
$1,700,000. Deducting the estimated value of the manufacturing
plant, material on hand, plates or books which have been con-
demned as educationally worthless, and the stock on hand of
the same books, finished and unfinished, all being valued in the
report at $348,701, we find the net cost to the State of the school
book enterprise has been $1,351,299 ; so that the interest on the
$1,351,299 invested at six per cent, would furnish books prac-
tically free to all the children of California."

Since this date, after much trouble, conditions have been
pronounced more favorable and the expense of publishing and
distributing these State made books has been lessened. It seems

13



beyond doubt, however, that during the years during which Cal-
ifornia has been manufacturing her own school books that the
following may be fairly stated as the result: 1. The cost to
the parent of the books made by California, all things consid-
ered, has not been upon an average, cheaper than the Georgia
texts; 2. It is only just to state that there has always been
considerable question, expressed sometimes even by the Califor-
nia people themselves, as to the quality of their books ; 3. It is
beyond doubt true that these California texts are inferior from
the standpoint of paper, print, and binding — this fact is appar-
ent even to the careless observer. That we might have the bene-
fit of professional skill at this point, however, at some consider-
able difficulty, there has been secured a number of these books.
They were submitted to the State Printer, Mr. Chas. P. Byrd,
and he was asked to give his opinion of these texts from the
mechanical side. His letter speaks for itself :

Atlanta, Ga,, April 2, 1914.

Complying with your request, I have examined the books printed by
the State of California and those furnished under your adoption. I find
the California books are decidedly inferior as to the material and con-
struction, and the matter is one of contrast rather than of comparison.

My information is that the State of California has appropriated over
a million dollars on a plant to do this work, which in my opinion is more
than is necessary for such an equipment. The only solution to the problem
is the fact that it takes more than a printing office to produce satis-
factory school books. Experience in handling this particular class of
work is an essential element which appears to have been lacking in the
California books.

This answers your inquiry in a general way; if you wish me to be
specific in the matter, covering in detail the difference between the
books submitted, I will do so.

Trusting this will meet your requirements, I am,

Very truly,

(Signed) CHAS. P. BYRD.

It may be added that these books are in the State Depart-
ment of Education, where members of the General Assembly
may see them at any time.

Even now, with all the experience of that State and with the
best efforts of the most successful State Printer they have ever
before secured, F. W. Richardson, the basal books for the public
schools do not seem to be able to be placed in the hands of the

14



children of California much cheaper than with us, to say noth-
ing whatever of the salaries of the officials, the enormous sum
invested in the printing plant, and the waste of unsatisfactory
books which have been made and thrown away. From the office
of the State Superintendent of Schools of California, Edward
Hyatt, the expense of manufacturing, plus distribution of these
basal books is given as follows :


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