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crowded upon him than he wants, or than anybody wants him
to have. One might put it down as a motto for heroes, **Keep
your halo busy and it won't hurt you." Modern democracy
will never have a chance of being what it wants to be as long as
it keeps on throwing away great natural forces like halos and
pedestals. There is no reason why we should not believe in
halos and pedestals, not to wear or stand on, but when used
strictly for butting and seeing purposes.

We may know a real hero by the fact that we always have to
keep rediscovering him. One knows the real hero by the fact
that in his relation to people who put him on a pedestal he is
always kicking his pedestal away and substituting his vision.

There is something about any real heroism that we see to-day
which makes heroes out of the people who see it. A real hero



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CROWD-MEN 557

has his back to the people and the crowd looks over his shoulders
with him at his work and he feels behind him daily, with joy and
strength, thousands of heroes pressing up to take his place.
And he is daily happy with a strange, mighty, impersonal joy
in all these other people who could do it, too. He lives with a
great hurrah for the world in his heart. The hero he worships
is the hero he sees in others. A man like this would feel cramped
if he were merely being himself , or if he were being imprisoned by
the people in his own glory, or were being cooped up into a hero.

It is in this sense that I have finally come again to believe
that hero worship is safe, that in some form as one of the great
elemental energies in human nature it must be saved, that it
must be regulated and used, that it has an incalculable power
which was meant to be turned on to run a nation with.

And I believe that Thomas JeflFerson, confronted in this
desperate, sublime 1913, with the new socialized spirit of our
time, placed face to face at last with a Christian aristocrat or
Crowd-Man, would want him saved and emphasized too.

It is because in democracies saviours are being kept by
crowds and by miUionaires and by machines very largely in
the position of hired men, or of ordered about men, that ninety-
nine one-hundredths of the saving or of the man-inventing
and man-freeing in crowds, is not being attended to.

I have wanted to suggest in this book that the moment the
Saviours in any nation will organize quietly and save them-
selves first, the less difficult thing (with men to attend to it)
like saving the rest of us, will be a mere matter of detail.

The only thing that stands in the way is the Thomas Jefferson
bug-a-boo. People seem to have a kind of left-over fear that the
moment these saviours or experts or inventors or heroes, call
them what you will, get the chance that they have been working
to get to save us, they will not want to use it.

It does not seem to me that anything will be allowed to inter-
fere with it — with their saving us, or making detailed arrange-
ments for our saving ourselves.



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558 CROWDS

Being a great man (if as democracies seem to think being
a great man is a disease ) is at least a self-limiting disease.
Inventors when they get their first chance are going to save us,
because they could not endure living with us unless we were
saved.

Inventors could not enjoy inventing — inventing their
greater, more noble inventions, until they had attended to a
little rudimentary thing in the world like having people half
alive on it to live with and to invent for.

It does not interest a really inspired man — inventing flying
machines for people who have not time to notice the sky,
wireless telegraph for people who have nothing to say, symph-
onies for tone-deaf crowds, or ambrosia for people who prefer
potatoes.

This is the whole issue in a nutshell. When people say that
our inventors, or Crowd-Men or saviours, when they have ful-
filled or saved themselves, cannot be trusted to save us, the
reply that will have to be made is that only people who do not
know how inventors feel or how they are made or what it is in
them that drives them to do things, or how they do them, will
be afraid to let men who give us worlds and who express worlds
for us and who make us express ourselves in worlds the freedom
to help shape them and nm them.

Men who have the automatic courage, the helpless bigness
and disinterestedness that always goes with invention, with
creative power, can be trusted by crowds.

The prejudice against the hero is due to the fact that heroes
in days gone by have been by a very large majority fighters,
expressing themselves against the world, or expressing one
part of the world against another.

The moment the hero becomes the artist and begins expres-
sing himself and expressing the crowd together, the crowd will
no longer be touched with fear and driven back upon itself by
the Thomas Jefferson bug-a-boo.



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EPILOGUE

FRANCE is threatened by her childless women, Germany by
her machines, Russia is beginning the Nineteenth Century.

It is to England and America, struggling still sublimely with
their sins, the nations look^ — for the time being — for the next
big free lift upon the world.

Looked at in the large, in their historic import and theJr
effect on the time, the English temperament and the American
temperament are essentially the same. As between ourselves,
England and America are apt to seem different, but as between
us and the world, we blend together. One could go through in
what I have been saying about Oxford Street and the House
of Commons in this book, strike out all after Oxford Street and
read Broadway, and all after the House of Commons and read
Congress, and it would be essentially true with the necessary
English or American modulation. In the same way it would be
possible to go through and strike out all after the President and
read Prime Minister or the Government.

England and America have the individualistic temperament,
and if we cannot make a self -expressive individualism noble,
and if we are not men enough to sing up our individualism into
the social and the universal, we perish.

It is our native way. We are to be crowdmen or nobodies.

The English temperament or the American temperament,
whichever we may call it, is the same tune, but played with a
different and almost contrasting expression.

England is being played gravely and massively like a
violoncello, and America — played more lightly, is full of
the sweeps and the lulls, the ecstasy, the overriding glory of
the violins.



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560 CROWDS

But it is the same tune, and God helping us, we will not and
we shall not be overwhelmed under the great dome of the
world, by Germany with all her faithful pianolas, or by France
with her cold sweet flutes, or by Russia with her shrieks and her
pauses, pounding her splendid kettledrums in that awful
silence!

Our song is ours — England and America, the 'cello, and the
bright violins!

And no one shall sing it for us.

And no one shall keep us from singing it.

The skyscrapers are singing, "I will, I will!" to God, and
Manchester and London and Port Sunlight are singing, "I will,
I will!" to God. I have heard even Westminister Abbey and
York — those beautiful old fellows — faltering, "I will, I will!
to God!

And I have seen, as I was going by. Trinity Church at the
head of Wall Street repenting her sins and holding noonday
prayer meetings for millionaires.

Our genius is a moral genius, the genius of each man for ful-
filling himself. Our religion is the finding of a way to do it
beautifully.

Let Russian men be an army if they like — death and
obedience. Let German men keep on with their faithful,
plodding, moral machines if they want to, and let all French
men be artists, go tra-la-laing up and down the Time to the
beautiful — furnishing nudes, clothes, and academies to a
world.

But we — England and America — will stand up on this
planet in the way we like to stand on a planet and sing, "I wiD,
I will!" to God.

If we cannot do better, we will sing, "I won't, I won't!"
to God. Our wills and our won'ts are our genius among
the sons of men. They are what we are for. With
England and America I will and I won't are an art form,
our means of expressing ourselves, our way of invention



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EPILOGUE 561

and creation, of begetting an age, of begetting a nation upon
a world.

We do not know (like great men and children) who we are at
first. We begin saying vaguely — will — will !

Then i will!

Then I will!

Then WE WILL!

THE BEGINNING.



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PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT



I. Index and Finder for "Crowds"

II. Experience Meeting of Readers of
"Crowds"

III. Books by the Same Author



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DfDEX AND FINDER



ACHESON, Edward A., his being
got to be good, 498; his oiling
the wheels of a world, 499.

Addams, Jane, and technique in good-
ness, 199.

Advertising and lying, 109; and
newspaper control, 112, and labour-
problems, 330-322; and the Presi-
dent of the United States, 460-468;
as a way of finding what people
want, 506-510; as a way of carrying
through ideas, 517-522; as a way
of governing, 524-526.

Aeroplanes and people who make ob-
jections, 85.

Altruism, trying to keep from being
suspected of it, 528; a feeble thing
as compared with mutualism, 52,
529.

America, the future of, the solidity
of, 69; the religion of, the happiness
of, 139-141; its typical attitude
toward success, 164; its attitude
toward science and facts, 178;
toward moral machinery, 201; to-
ward speed, 203a; toward news-
papers, 467; toward labour, 493;
toward' trusts, 495; Presidents,
497-504; Literature, 508; toward
Specialization, 508-509; toward
goodness, 533; toward price of oil,
536; toward Business scares, 537;
toward other nations, 559.

Arbitration-boards, change symptoms
instead of curing disease, 53.

Aristocracy and ideals, 303; and in-
vention, 383-403; and business,
404-409; and service, 323; and
saviours, 400.

Art-forms, and machinery, 236-255;
262-265; and democracy, 269-279.



Artists, organizers and hewers, S96-

401.
Average Man, world belongs to him,

291; wants people he is not yet

equal to, 293.
Audiences, and Democracy, 21; being

in a small one, 26; and artists, 288.



B



BALLINGER, and Taft, 473.
Banker, as a statesman, 320, 321;

as a hired man, 404-409.
Biology, and economic machine, 373;

and faith, 275; and being bom

again with ninety million people to

help, 377.
Bennett, Arnold, and his world, 8.
Bessemer, if St. Francis were like,

188.
Betting, column in George Cadbury's

paper, 545.
Bibby, Joseph, making oil cakes and

loyal workmen togeUier, 518.
Bible, the sublimest attempt to an-
swer the question "Where are we

going?" 10-16; 507-515.
Bicycle that flies, 380.
Booth-Tucker, and rats, 387.
Boston Gas Company*s Soul, with

Mr. Brandeis*s Compliments, 483,

484.
Boys, three boys and a fish, 31 ; boys

and girls know about worlds, 32;

their openness, 532, and pennies in

the Strand, 384; very good little

boys, 389.
Brandeis, Louis, 433, 434.
Brangwyn, Frank, and labour, 551.
Brooklyn Bridge, and democratic

art, 277.
Bryan, William J., and Roosevelt,

501.



565



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566



INDEX AND FINDER



Burbank, Luther, his method applied
to people instead of to chestnuts,
63, 64.

Business is not business, 418.

Butternut Tree, 894.



CABINET A, is a collection of
news departments, 524-526.

Cadbury, George, 543-547.

Capitalists, Rockefeller, 77-79; Car-
negie, 205-210; as artists, 227-
235; Morgan, 807-312; as labour-
ers, 422-430; touching imagination
of capitalists, 442-447, 454, 458-
462, 476-477, 483-490; capitalists
touching the imagination of the
government, 495-499.

Carborundum, 499.

Carlyle's Heroes, 554-^558.

Carnegie, Andrew, his attitude to-
ward people, 206-210; if he would
invest in brains, not in books, 221-
226.

Cassatt, 502.

Cathedrals, an offering to God, 3;
will they bring Man to me? 17;
what they lack, 186-188; in an
age with the cathedral mood, 276-
277.

Chesterton, G. K., 8, 10.

Christ and crowds, 29; as aii inventor
of people, 61; as a judge of human
nature, 76; as a champion of this
world, 155, his supposed meekness,
162; his idea of martyrdom, 165;
his use of success and failure, 167-
169; his use of men who do things,
170 - 172; his right to a cross not
necessarily ours, 177; as a saviour
for New York, 190-197; as a ser-
vant, 323-324; as an individualist
or socialist, 336; as an enemy, 343-
845; his stand for being like people,
400; his stand for their being like
him, 554.

Christmas in New York, 190-197.

Churches, and vagueness, 186-189;
and News, 200-201.

Churchyard, 34-35.

Class-consciousness, and the labour-



ing man, 147-153; and the average
man, 304; and the evolution of
hunger, 354-360.

Columbus, To Christopher Columbus*
1; understood Wilbur Wright, 61;
led by the invisible, 66.

Commission Government, 202,

Committees, 283.

Conservative, his mereness, 871.

Consistency Bugaboo, 543-547.

Constitution, American, stands for
the tableland, 279; its interpreta-
tion by the President, 465.

Conventions, 24, 25.

Copartnership, 148-158.

Cooperation, and facts, 339-345; and
desire, 536-538, and candor, 539,
543; and heroes, 555-557.

Copernicus, 66.

Courage, its relation to incompetence,
329; three stages of, 332; its atti-
tude toward revolution, 337-338;
its sense of identity with enemies,
339-342; its latest way of fighting,
848-345; what it is made of ; 346-
347; courage and hunger, 349-363;
courage for others, 364-370; cour-
age and brains, 404-405.

Coward, never known one, 346.

Crowbars, 416.

Crowds and the Arts, 280-294.

Crowd-Man, identified, 14; an in-
vention for making crowds see,
58-64; his possibilities, 86-90; his
beginnings, 332-345; his wealth,
422-430; his point of view, 553-
558.



D



DANTE, looks at Beatrice, 379.
David, his patriotism, 157, 158,
159; poet, king, and soldier, 396;
keeping the seventh command-
ment, 455; singing the news, 515.
Democracy, and tra la la, 18; the
moral theory of, 76; and Art, 269-
279; and Personality, 280-294;
and Business, 390-409; and Jeffer-
son, 552; and Great Men, 553-558;
and Bugaboos, 534; and News, 536-
543; and Service, 323.



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INDEX AND FINDER



5G7



Department Stores, and advertise-
ments, 109, 112; touching the
imagination of crowds, 129-141;
politeness in, 181-182; goodness
in, 184; Oxford Street hums. The
House hems, 440-448. Filene's,
199, 502.

Derricks, and poets, 511.

Direct Action, Business controlling
business, 431-439; Employees con-
trolling business, 442; Consumers
controlling business, 445.

Dockers, their being hungry, 349-
355 ; their not being hungry enough,
356-363.

Durbar, 236-237.

Durer, Albert, 169.



E



ECONOMIC Machine, 372, 373.
Edison, Thomas A., a man who

says how, 192; toeing a line, 498.
Education, 26.
Elephants, 236-239.
Efficiency, See "Go," "Success."
Elisha, 313.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 552, 553.
Employer, stupendous, monotonous,

successful, 142-145; to stop getting

in the way, 281.
England and America, expressing

their characters, 491; singing "I

will!" to God, 559-561.



FACTORIES, the machine scare,
34-48; the man says how and
the machine starts, 186-203{f ; iron
machines, 236-279.

Fear, and cliques, 325; and strikes,
326; and weariness, 332; and la-
bour, 329, 330; and class, 334;
and revolution, 337; and the
scientific spirit, 339; and war, 343-
347.

Ferguson, Charles, 510.

Filene, says how, 199; makes a city
into a Store, 502; and the right to
be "inconsistent," 547.

Fleet Street, 3-5.



Flyi.ng Machines, and new worlds,
383; and American character, 60;
and cities, 62; and Thought, 88.

Franklin, 66.



GALSWORTHY, J., and photo-
graphing things, 8; and not
wanting things, 12.

Galveston, 202,

Genius for Being Believed in, 53-
54.

"Go," what it believes, 62; what it
is made of, 106; how it works, 108,
110; how crowds encourage it, 114;
and getting one's own attention,
117; and news about people, 320-
322; and news about one's self,
413-421.

Goethals, Col., 499.

Golden Rule, 101.

Goodness, and hurrying, 76; defined,
79; the trouble with it, 103; the
people mixed up with it, 104; the
people who have a right to it, 105;
how one knows it, 106; how one
learns it, 107-109; a by-product,
114; other people's, 116-124; and
my plumber, 125; and imagination
of crowds, 128-141; and labour,
142-153; and profits, 154-162; and
Crosses, 163-178; and facts, 178-
183; and crowds, 184; and science,
.186-189; and machinery, 196-203.

Goody-good Bugaboo, 536-547.

Glass-house, 532.

Great Western Railway, 241.

Grey, Lord, addresses a meeting, 577;
what he knows about copartner-
ship, 520; what he knows about
employers, 521; what he and
Frederick Taylor's workmen know,
522.

Gore, Bishop, 334, 336.

H

HAMILTON, Alexander, 552-554.
Hand-labour and Machine-
labour, 262-265.
Hand-made Worid, 36-37.



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5C8



INDEX AND FINDER



Hartshorn, Vernon, his speech, 349;
people educated by, 545.

Hat, gray, 133-135.

Haywood, Bill, America's Tom Mann,
813, 317.

Hem and Haw, 438.

Hendon, 383.

Heroes, 297-342; as spy-glasses, 305;
and self-will, 331-336; and Vision,
337-342; and Revolution, 237;
and Saviours, 400-401, 554; defini-
tion of, 342; rules for telling one,
343-348; and Christ, 554; and
Carlyle, 555.

Hewers, Organizers and artists, 396-
401.

High Prices and Half Work, 492-494.

HUl, James J., 70.

History, losing its monopoly, 72; as
a habit of mind, 203; as a point
of departure, 380-382.

Homer, 198.

Homer, Winslow, 551.

Honesty, the best policy, its failure
as a motive, 154; its success as a
belief, 155-159.

Hotels, 275-276.

House of Commons and Oxford Street,
431.

Hurry, and character, 76; and busi-
ness, 459.

Hush ! one set of people always saying,
467; the ragtmie tune of business,
530; the President saying, 552.



I from page 1 to 561.
i, pages 534-535.

Ideals, realizable ideals, 11-16; news
and labour, 413-430; news-books,
510-516.

Imagination of crowds, 65; of unseen,
66-68; of future, 69-73; about
people, 74, 87.

Improving People, democratic theory
of, 76-81; in crowds, 114-201;
thj'ough news, work, money, and
government, 413-448; through
news-men, Presidents, books, ma-
chines, and crowds, 476-561 ; not im-
prv)ving anybody in this book, 534.



Incompetence, 53.

Individualism, and socialism, 335;
and Christ's dying for it, 336.

Industrial Workers of the World (or
Syndicalism), Pounding or seeing,
50-57; new kinds and new sizes
of employers, 63-64; touching the
imagination of labour, 142-153;
seeing through millionaires, 228-
230; keeping millionaires humble,
282-235; short-hours and skilled
labour, 262-265; Tom Mann and
Haywood, 305-330; lazy revo-
lutions, 338; courage, 339-341;
slovenly fighting, 343-348; want-
ing things, 349-355; getting things,
356-363; using people who disagree,
364-370; explosives, 371; possibili-
ties, 380; selecting leaders, 394—
896; standing by, 400-401; keep-
ing owners, under, 403-409; getting
a chance, 413-421; high cost of
living, 492-494.

Invention, the machine scare, 36-48;
the man says how and the ma-
chine starts, lS6-i03d,

Inventors, 380-409.



JEFFERSON, Thomas, as a buga-
boo, 534; as an imitation of him-
self, 552-554.
Johnson, Tom, as news to a President,
477; helping a- nation to express
itself, 547.



KIPLING, Rudyard, what he
thinks beasts and soldiers are
for, 208-209; and Allen Upward,
213-216; representative of a
crowded age, 270-271.



LABOUR Unions, 47; touching
imagination of, 147-153; 253-
255; right to news about how
cooperation works, 321-322; and
class consciousness, 317; and



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INDEX AND FINDER



569



courage, 346-348; see also In-
dustrial Workers of World.

Leonardo, 9.

Lever, Sir William, 422.

Liar, The, 107-113.

Libraries, Carnegie and his libraries,
205-210; paper books and wooden
boys, 221-226.

"Life," 505.

Lim, making over the earth, 93-94;
as a business angel, 104-106.

Lincoln, Emancipating the people,
91; Emancipated by the people,
377; the people say " Who are we? "
475.

Literature, National. Wanted a great
living American author, 221 ; news-
books, 505-516.

Listening, and reform, 369.

Livesey, Sir George, his courage for
his workmen, 340.

London, Bishop of, 188.

Look! 462-468.

Louvre, 146.

M

MC ADOO, 498.
Mac Ewen, Davy, A Traitor?
331; A me-man? 334.
Machinery, and fear of civilization,
34-48; and conscience, 23; and
imagination, 58-62; and new ideas,
201-203; and moior power in men,
203a; for rewarding literature,
211-220; for creating great men
out of books, 221-226; and
theatres, 233; and elephants, 236;
and Oxford gentlemen, 240; and
brain cells, 243; and self-expression,
245-247; and machine trainers,
249; and mechanical people, 250;
and employers and workmen, 252;
the subconscious mind of the world,
256-261; and short hours, 262; and
self-assertion, 266-268; democracy
and art, 269-279; and beauty, 280;
and individualism, 283-287; and
hysterics, 288; and the average
man, 290-294; the Whirling Un-
belief, 371-374; and counting,
380-382; and religion. 387: and



ideals, 419; and over specialization,
508; and organizing attention of a
world, 518-526; and the Crowd-
Man, 553.

Mac Rae, Hugh, 547.

Mann, Tom, as a spy-glass, 305;
makes a speech, 313; and the Lady-
Like Person, 316; and knocking
people down, 317; his class-
syndicalism vs. crowd syndicalism,
318-319; and the three gears of
courage, 334; backs down and
fights, 327-330.

Marconi, 204.

Marx, Karl, 453, 553.

McAdoo, William G., 498-504.

Mechanical Arts, 275.

Me-man, and other Me-Men, 304;
his evolution into the Classman and
Crowd-man, 147-153; his hunger-
ing for things, 349-355; his getting
things, 356-361.

Metropolitan Tower, 139-141.

Middleman, 537, 538.

Millet, 551.

Millionaires, the factory and the
theatre, 227-235; men who are
not afraid, 404-409; news and
money, 422-430; newspapers, 517-
523.

Mince Pie, 453.

Modesty Bugaboo, 527-543.

Morgan, Piemont, as a crowd spy-
glass, 305; his vision for the world,
306-309; his blow on the world,
310; and the next Morgan, 312, 317,
320, 321.

Moses, 449-460.

Motives, Sliding Scale of, seeing
farther than other people do, 82;
the successful, 146-153.

Motor Car, and morals, 198-199.



N



NAZARETH, spending some of
one's time there, 381-382.
News, power based on, 70-73;
churches are for news, 194; and
the President and the people, 466-
482; I am the news! 538-543.
Newspapers, the crowdscare, 27-28;



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570



INDEX AND FINDER



bullying the newspapers, 112;
newspapers that say '*Hush! " 466;
the President says "Look!'* 466-
468; and news machines, 517-
526; George Cadbury*s newspaper,
545.

New York, America's religion, 139-
141; Christmas in New York, 190-
197; the inconvenience of being
human, 286-289.

New York Central Railway, 553.

Noah, 383.

Nobel Prize, 221-226.

Non-Gregarious, goodness and effi-
ciency, 96-102; hb goodness, 164-
165; too good to be true, 527-628.



OBJECTIONS, 85.
Optimism, 86, 87.
Organizers, 396-401.
Oxford, 240-242.



PADEREWSKI, 288.
Parallel columns, 547.

Parthenon, 275.

Pennies, and good little boys, 384-
387, 398.

Pessimism, 86, 87, 178, 186.

Pethick-Lawrence, Mrs., and her
nice little jail, 313.

Pinchot, 477.

Plumber, a genius, 95; making good-
ness hurry, 125-127.

Portland Cement, and conservatism,
371.

Preachers, and crowds, 21; three
kinds, 118; being improved by,
119-124; their news, 200-201-,
their vagueness, 200-203.

President, The, his getting people
to be good, 449-454; his tone, 455-
456; his power of being specific,
457-462; his advertising the people,
463; his power of selecting news,
465-468; his power of being news
himself, 469-471; his power of
making other men news, 472; his
ways of getting the news, 474-482;



his being a shrewd poet about the

people, 383-504; his needing a

book to express him, 513-516;

Fourth of March, 550-554.
Printing press, art and democracy,

271; and city government, 201-

20«.
Privilege, basis of a true government,

486-488; for machines of men, 494-

495.
Prophets, 70-73.
Psychology, and reform, 368.
Public, The, a dear Old Lady-Like



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