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possibly, the dramas of the Spaniard, Bermudez — is the Portuguese tradegy
'Castro' by Dr. Antonio Ferreira, which is also the first Portuguese version.
In it is a Hymn to Love that is most lyrically beautiful and that, perhaps,
belongs here as illustrative of the subject that was its inspiration, although
Ferreira belongs to a later period and to a distinct school. It closes the
First Act of the drama, and Bouterwek gives the following two stanzas:
'Quando Amor naceo,
Claros rayos ao Sol, luz as estrellas.
O Ceo resplandecco,


EJde sua luz vencida

A escuridao mostrow ascousas bellas.

Aquella, que subida

Esta na terceira esphera,

Do bravo nar nascida

Amor ao Mundo da, doce amor gera.

For Amor s'orna a terra

D'agoas e de verdura,

As arvores da folhas, cor as flores.

Em doce paz a guerra,

A dureza em brandura.

E mil odios converte em mil amores

Quanta vidas a dura:

Morte desfaz, renova:

A fermosa pintura

Do mundo, Amor a tem inteira, e nova.'
Dom Fedro himself wTote verse in both the Castilian and the Fortu-
guese. He used, almost entirely, the measure of the Italian canzone, indi-
cating that the Italian influence w^as felt at an early period in Portugal;
although, as a matter of fact, it was at that time but very slight. With
Dom Pedro passed the period of the royal poets. Royalty continued to
encourage literature with varying degrees of enthusiasm, but the rulers who
loved best the enterprises of discovery seem to have had little time for song or
inclination for song.

M. E. M. has made the following translations of three Cantigas by
Dom Pedro I:


'When shall my love be blest?

When shall my grief be o'er ^
When shall my fears find rest,
Ne'er to awaken more ?

Doubt lets not grief depart;

Fear is still abiding;
Changeful Fate checks my heart

From its warm confiding.

Vainly doth Hope bestow
A sunny smile on me:


Ne'er doth my deep love know
Blessed Certainty.'

* Long-sighed for Peace! that all my pain

Cans't soothly end,
Hope would not smile on me in vain
Wert thou my friend.

Be but my friend! So wilt thou turn

My pain to pleasure;
And for the trials I have borne

Due guerdon measure.

Firm Faith can conquer Grief — e'en now

My griefs shall end;
And grim Despair will die, // thou
Wilt be mv friend.'


'First of Earth's Fair! how duly thine

Is the best homage of the heart;
I speak thy name as word divine.
To me the joy of life thou art.

Now by thy worth, thy charms, I give

Thee all my love; so full, so free,
That, self-unloving, now I live

Forgetting self, to think of thee.

Faith, in thine eyes, doth far outshine
All that Earth's brightest joys impart;

So, my life's wealth! like one divine
I'll shrine thee in my faithful heart.'

How accurate in feeling these translations are, the present writer does
not know, nor who M. E. M. was. The originals are very difficult of access
and there has been no opportunity to compare them with the translations.
There are certain indications that the spontaneity of feeling has been sacri-


ficed to the necessities of English verse, but this may not be so. Only, all
translations should be approached with a chastened and careful spirit, to
invalidate, so far as possible, the Italian saving that 'A translation is a
betra\al!' 'Of all species of poetry,' savs Sismondi, 'perhaps the lyric and
bucolic are least susceptible of being rendered into another tongue. They
lose the very essence oi their beauty.'

There is a poetical lament in Spanish of Dom Pedro's that comes to
us out of the Past in a great cry of anguish, an almost literal translation
of which is:

* Blood of my heart, heart that belonged to me, heart that hath thus
been stricken, who could dare strike thee ? His heart I will tear out!'

There is a certain direct and personal wail of love and rage and revenge
in this — barbaric and passionate — that brings Dom Pedro the man, and
even Dom Pedro the poet, possibly Dom Pedro the King, — into a more
intimate sympathy with the universality of human suffering. The form
seems to have not been considered: there is none of the objectivity to which
verse, even direct and emotional verse, is usually bound: and, consequently,
on Carlvle's principle 'see deeply enough and you see musically' — the
spontaneous form is essentially and inevitably poetic.


'Sail toward the setting sun until you come to an island' was the
instruction given by Prince Henry of Portugal to one of the early explorers:
and that is what the Portuguese proceeded to do, only they went in the
direction of the rising sun also, and came to continents as well as islands.
Portugal's 'Idade d'Ouro' was her period of maritime greatness and coin-
cided, in essential points, with the similar period in Spain. Both nations
became too intent on affairs of action to be immediately creative in literature.
With the exception of the old ballads that continued to be sung in the hearts
of the common people, there was no verse to speak of written; and that of
the earlier times did not receive the attention that it merited. Both the
Castilian Court under Ferdinand and Isabella, and the Portuguese Court
under John the Great were filled with the noteworthy men of the day:
warriors, statesmen, discoverers, inventors; and, so far as it existed, the
literary movement was also patronized by these sovereigns; but, in Portugal
certainlv, it was not until the succeeding reign of Dom Emmanuel that it
consisted of anything except such fugitive ballad literature as already existed
and historical chronicles. But, as Prince Henry the Navigator had prepared
the way for the illustrious discoveries of the reign of Dom John II, so, in


turn, did Dom John II prepare the way for the Hterary glories of the reign
of Emmanuel. The ston/' of nations shows that a Golden Age of literature
is apt to follow ver\' closely a Golden Age of national glory and accomplish-
ment; and the growth ot Portuguese greatness as a whole was an unbroken
crescendo of achievement. Emmanuel himself (1495-1521) did little to
encourage the literar)' activity of his country; but the inevitable outburst
came to its fulfillment during his time. Rather curiously, perhaps, its two
forerunners were also echoes of the age just passed.

Christoval Falcao is the earlier, and most of his poems belong to the
class of the Castilian viUancicos and consist chiefly of Cantigas or glossed
mottoes called Esparcas. Like most poets — and, indeed, some ordinary
mortals — he had his vital love affair; becoming enamored of the young
and beautiful Maria Brandam, daughter of Diogo Brandam, the Royal
Treasurer, and likewise a graceful and pathetic poet. The lovers were
separated by her family, and the lady placed in a Convent from which she
eloped with Falcao and reached in safety the town of Elvas, not far from
Falcao's native Pontalegre, where they were privately married. He thus
incurred not only the enmity of her faimly, but of the Church, for eloping
with the inmate of a Convent; and for five years was imprisoned upon false
charges. During this imprisonment, he wrote various Cantigas and also,
to his Maria, a poetic epistle superscribed: *A Letter of Chrisfal, which,
while a prisoner, he addressed to a Lady whom he had privately married,
contrary to the will of her relatives.' His longest, principal, and probably
first, composition was, however, an eclogue of ninety stanzas interspersed
with cantigas. It is entitled 'Los Amores de Chrisfal' and is a history of
the love passages between himself and his beloved, whom he celebrated by
her own name. A pretty touch is at the end, when a nymph, who has heard
the complaints of Chrisfal, inscribes them on a poplar tree, in order that
they may grow with the tree to a height beyond the reach of vulgar ideas.
M. E. M. gives this translation:

'The Shepherd sang his sad farewell.

A wood-nymph, listening to his vow.
Caught up the fond words as ihey fell

And carved them on a poplar bough.
It was a }oung and growing tree;

And there she wrote the words of love
That rising with it, they might be
Placed high this sordid earth above: —
Where no low thought could e'er attain
To desecrate the poet's strain!'


Notices of Falcao are few and his works rare. His simplicity has been
likened to that of a Grecian statue, 'equally unclad, but equally chaste and
pure.' One of his little versifications is an odd specimen of antithesis and

'Then let the end begin its ending;

Since end, beginning works within: —
I know not how my fate is tending,
Whether to end or to begin!'

A greater than Falcao was Bernardim Ribeyro. Indeed, he is the most
celebrated of the Portuguese poets of the fifteenth century; and his Eclogues,
preceding those of Juan del Enzina of Castile, who lived about the same
time — have the original touch of representing pastoral life as the poetic
model of human life, and as the ideal point from which every passion and
sentiment ought to be viewed. He is said to have been in love with the
Infanta Dona Beatrice; and, under cover of little pastoral pictures, reveals
certain events and romantic situations of the Lisbon Court. Not only was
Ribeyro a married man at the time, but the King's daughter could never
become anything to him except his ideal, the inspiration of his verse; she
seems, however, to have served this purpose satisfactorily to one of the
most temperamental of poets. Several of Ribeyro's poems were the direct
result of his hopeless passion; the most beautiful being that beginning:

* My sorrows led me forth one day,'
and, possibly this was the day when he witnessed the departure of the Infanta
to be married to the Duke of Savoy; an occasion that the historian Resende
calls 'a very lustrous affair.'

But, aside from the merit of Ribeyro's Eclogues, and the interest
attached to them as being the oldest examples of the eclogue in either
Spanish or Portuguese verse, the graceful little prose fragment left by him
unfinished and published about 1500, is even more worthy of preservation
and recognition. It is entitled ' Menina e Mouca,' "small and young,"
or — not quite so literally in form but more literally in meaning — 'A Young
and Innocent Maid.' It is a specimen of romantic prose that is both
pastoral and chivalric, and that can be most favorably compared with the
'Rosylinde' of Thomas Lodge, which served Shakespeare in his creation
of 'As You Like It.' There is what is called the new edition of 'Meninae
Mouca,' published by a descendant of the poet, in Lisbon, 1785. But the
old edition of 1559 is by far the more interesting and valuable because the
Appendix includes the Eclogue and Falcao's ' Chrisfal,' as well as a collection
of poems by other early Portuguese authors. For both Falcao and Ribeyro
had their followers and imitators. And this early group devoted itself to


the lyric expression of its nativiry, only very slightly touched by the passion
for Latin versification that prevailed in the Spanish Peninsular as well as
in Italy toward the close of the fifteenth century. They were free from
any desire to model their verse after antique classic forms; and, though
they occasionally wrote Latin verse, the vernacular tongue and forms not
only were not despised nor neglected, but were actually all-sufficient.

Portugal is without doubt the native home of romantic pastoral poetry.
In Portugal it became truly national. The Portuguese are given to the
utterance of their emotions. 'They are a gesticulating people, and have
a heart: — and wear it on their sleeve,' has been justly said of them. The
step that leads directly on from national characteristics to national literature,
has been aptlv noted by Bouterwek, who says: 'They pastoralize their
emotions, whether of joy or sorrow.'


The introduction of the Italian influence upon Portuguese literature
was unaccompanied by any remarkable struggle or sensation: but it is of
vast importance because of its influence on those poets who formed what
is called the Classic School of Portuguese literature, two of whom, and the
principal two, gave certain personal touches of style to Castilian literature
in return for the Italian influence which doubtless reached Portugal through
Castilian sources. Indeed, to George Montemayor (1520-1561) is attributed
the introduction into Spain of the prose pastoral: and both Montemayor
and Sa de Miranda belong to Castilian literature almost as much as they
do to Portuguese. At this time the Castihan was held in such Hterary
esteem in Portugal that many Portuguese poets, without undervaluing their
mother-tongue, frequently wrote in the Castilian, so as to be regarded as
masters of the poetic art. One sonnet of Montemayor's can be read as
either Spanish or Portuguese, so versatile did he become in writing the two
languages at once. Yet, though six out of his eight Eclogues are in the
Castilian, his pastorals are not all in the manner of Boscan and Garcilasse,
but sometimes favor the ancient short meter and have great simplicity of


George Montemayor was born near Coimbra and became a common
soldier with a gift of music and having a fine voice as well as being a poet.
Marfida, a Castilian lady fi)r whom he seems really to have cared, was also
the divinity of his verse: but, after the manner of such divinities, she
married somebody else, and thus — as in the case of Ribcyro — his theme
came readilv to hand. 'Dis "Diana" (" Diana Enamorada"),' says Bonter-


wek, 'is the soul of himself. He succeeds in conveying the joys and sorrows
of his own heart in forms of general interest.' In this unfinished pastoral
there is a series of Uric poems, parti}' in the Italian and partly in the Castilian
stvle, of one of which Sismondi gives the following translation:
* Never beloved, but still to love a slave,

Still shall I love, though hopeless is my suit;

I suffer torments, which I never gave,

And my unheeded sighs no ear salute:

Complaint is sweet though we no favor know,

I reaped but shame in shimmering love's pursuit:

Forsetfulness alone I suffer not —

Alas! unthought of, can we be forgot?'
His Diana really lived: a rich and beautiful woman of Valencia, and
is spoken of by Lope de Vega in his 'Dorotea.'

Sa de Miranda (1494-1558) wrote so much in the Castilian and had
so marked an influence on the Castilian School that he is often considered
as a Castilian poet: but, in reality, with the exception of the pastoral poems,
the greater part of his verse is in the Portuguese language. He wrote eight
Eclogues in Castilian and only two in Portuguese: of the first of which he
tells us that it is 'A Pastoral Dialogue in tercets concerning love and in-
difference, happiness and unhappiness.' He wrote sonnets in both Castilian
and Portuguese; the best of which in the latter language are considered
to be those to Diogo Bernades and to Dom Manuel of Portugal. He wrote
a beautiful Elegy on the death of his son. Under the general heading of
'Poesias Varias' he produced innumerable sonnets, elegies, redondiihas,
cantigas, sextinas, esparsas, that are all exceedingly simple and graceful;
and two comedies, 'Os Estrangeiros' and 'Os Vilhalpandos first printed,
in Lisbon (1595) by Manoel de Lyra. His popular songs are in the more
ancient forms of Portuguese versification. They repeat the idea of the
motto, differently turned and applied, but with its text not literally inter-
woven with the variations: and this is precisely the difference that dis-
tinguishes the older Portuguese cantigas from the Spanish villancicos.
Sa de Miranda spent most of his life on his estate of Tapada near Ponte de
Lima. He was particularly fond of country life and, best of all, country
life in his own country. Its romantic pastoral world was the native one for
his muse, and, whether he used the Castilian language of the Portuguese,
the scenes of his pastorals were always laid in Portugal. He wrote with
so little regard for the accepted rules of versification and with so individual
a style as to be the despair of critics. He tried all forms as well as dis-
regarded all forms. Sometimes his pastorals are like the Italian canzoni,


and sometimes like the Latin ode. His style has been ridiculed as 'the
Luso-Hispano-Italiano blending.' Aside from the eminence attained by
this Classic School in itself, however, the influence of the Italian upon Portu-
guese versification can never be deplored even by the most patriotic, for
w^hat the Italian enabled Montemayor and Miranda and the others of the
group to do, was to perfect and refine the possibilities of the old Portuguese
style into more beautiful and completed forms.

It is sometimes said that with Sa de Miranda the literary history of
the Portuguese drama commenced. Certainly, in spite of the emotional
tendencies of the Portuguese, no special effort at dramatic writing is to be
found in Portugal, as there is not in Spain, until the latter half of the fifteenth
century: and Juan de la Enzina must be regarded as the founder of the
Portuguese as well as of the Castilian drama. But Gil Vicente is really the
Portuguese author most closely concerned with the establishment of the
national theater. He was born, probably, twenty years before the close of
the fifteenth century, during the reign of Emmanuel; but Emmanuel's son
and successor, Dom John III, was the acknowledged patron of Gil Vicente
and he was a contemporary of Torres Naharro in Spain, who did practically
the same for the Spanish drama as Vicente did for the Portuguese. Like
Montemayor and Miranda, he is to be numbered among the Spanish writers
as well as among those of his native land for, of all his plays, ten are in the
Castilian language and fifteen partly so, while seventeen are entirely Portu-
guese. In the judgment of Bouterwek, the farces of Gil Vicente are the
best of his productions; and he certainly is the representative of the Portu-
guese classic humor.

The reign of John HI saw the full flower of the Classic School. Dr.
Antonio Ferreira (1528-1564), another of the group, began his literary
eff'orts by avowing a great loyalty to his mother-tongue. He even once
declared that he would write in no other language. But he was hardly as
national as he intended to be. The influence of the Italian was irradicable;
and, although he did much to maintain the independent spirit of his coun-
try's literature, his predilection for classic forms was too strong for him to
withstand. His genius had dignity, but neither sublimity nor great origi-
nality. His taste was sound, but his fancv circumscribed. There was
*a tinge of pedantry, a sort of Latinized air, in his writings, which prevented
his being a popular poet or, indeed, what is much more vital, a great poet !'
Of his 113 sonnets, the best are those addressed to 'The Lady of His
Thoughts'; particularly the one beginning:

'Who hath seen burning snow, or fire, like mine.''

Cold while it flames! what living man e'er stood
Within Death's gate, singing in joyous mood ?'


His odes, not being lyric or truly dramatic, are not so fine as his sonnets;
yet he set an example to writers of odes in his own language in much the
same way as did his Spanish contemporary, Luis de Leon, to his country-
men. Ihe elegies of Ferreira are considered to be very beautiful; and,
up to the time of their appearance, were a new form in Portuguese com-
position, with the exception of one by Sa de Miranda. That on May is
as toUows:

\'em Mayo de mil hervas, de mil flores
As frontes coroado, e riso, e canto,
Com Venus, com Cupido, cos Amores.
Venca o prazer a dor, o riso ao pranto
Vase longe daqui cuidado duro,
Em quanto o ledo mez de Venus canto.
Eis mais alva a menham, mais claro, e puro
Do Sol o rayo: eis correm mais fermosas
Nuvens afugentando o ar grosso e escuro.
Sae a branda Diana entre as lumiosas
Estrellas tal, qual ja ao pastor fermoso
Veo pagar mil horas saudosas,
Mar brando, sereno ar, campo cheiroso,
Foge a Tristeza, o Prazer folto voa,
O dia mais dourado, e vagaroso.
Tecendo as Gracas vao nova coroa

De Mythro a May, ao filho mil Spiritos.
O fogo resplandece, a al jaba soa.
Mil versos, e mil vozes, e mil gritos
Todas de doo amor, e de brandura
Huns s'ouvem, huns nos troucos ficam escritos.
Ali soberba vem a Fermosura,

Apos ella a AfFeicao cega, e cativa,
Quanto huma mais chorosa, outra mais dura.
Ah manda Amor assi; assi quer ue viva
Contente a triste, do que sen Deos manda,
De seja inda mais dor, pena mais viva.
Mas quanto o mo^o encruece, a may abranda,
Ella a peconha, e o fogo Ihe tempera:
Assi senhora de mil almas anda.
Ali o Engano em seu mal cego espera
Hum' hora doce; ali o Encolhimento
Sem causa de si mesmo desespera.
Aos olhos vem atado a Pensamento.


Nao voa a mail quali tem presente,
E em tanto mal, tudo he contentamento.
E riso, em festa corre a leda gente,

Tras o fermoso fogo em que sem pr'arde,
Cada hum, quanto mais arde, mais contente.
Manda Venus ao Sol menham e tarde.

Que sens crespos cabellos loure, e estenda,
Qu'em vir s' apresse, qu' em se tornar tarde.
Ao brando Norte, que assopre, e defenda
Do ardor da sesta a branda companhia,
Em quanto alcam de myrtho fresca tenda,
Corre por toda parte clara, e fria

Agoa; cae doce sombra do alto Louro,
Canta toda ave canto d'alegria;
Ella a neve descobre, e solta o ouro;

Banham-na as Gracas na mais clara fonte;
Aparece d' Amor rico thesouro,
Caem mil flores da dourada fronte,

Arde d'Amor o bosque, arda a altra serra,
Aos olhos reverdence o campo, e o monte.
Despende Amor sens tiros, nenhum erra,
Mil de baixo metal, algum do fino.
Fica de saus despojos chea a terra.
Vencida d'huma molher, e d'hum minino.
But the real fame of Dr. Antonio Ferreira rests on his tragedy of
'Castro,' for which he had no other model than the ancients and, possibly
Trissino's 'Sophonisba,' the first tragedy of modern times. It is difficult in
plot, but written in very beautiful language, with what may be called a
Greek Chorus of Coimbrian women: and, to fully appreciate the importance
of the epoch marked by its appearance, we must remember that at this
time neither France nor England knew anything of the drama beyond the
mysteries and moralities.

Yet others of the Classic School of Miranda were Diogo Bernardes,
the * Poet of Lima' and his brother Agostinho Bernardes who finally became
a hermit of the Arrabida. Southey considered Diogo Bernardes one of
the best of the Portuguese Poets. His life was a romance. He was a native
of Ponte de Lima and particularly loved the scenery of the river Lima,
his most characteristic work being, perhaps, the poem *0 Lyma, first
published in 1596.

'Lone by soft murmuring Lyma oft I stray,'

he sings.


He went to Lisbon, and there,

'Where the Tatius loses tide and name
And freshness, Love robbed me of my Hfe's best days';
he says in an epistle to his intimate, Ferreira. From his captivity to the
Moors in Africa, he writes:

Still lovely to my troubled thoughts shall seem

My own regretted Lyma, dear for ever;
E'en if Oblivion's spell be in its stream,

It hath no power on me, forgetting never,
Its soft low murmur could not lull to rest,
Remembrance, ever wakeful, in my breast!'
The river Lima is the Lethe of the ancient world, and there is an interest-
intr legend of it about Decimus Brutas and his superstitious soldiery.

In later years Bernardes wrote a good deal of devotional verse. That
addressed to the Virgin partakes curiously of the love song element. He
becomes for the time most romantically spiritual; and the Virgin is his
'Lady' in all human attributes as well as being his divinity. One of his
songs not addressed to the Virgin, but to his Soul, is written in the old
national Portuguese Endechas, a kind of plaintive verse:

'Soul, why self-deceiving.

Self-forgetting be ?
To mortal life thus giving
Triumphs over thee.

Life maltreats, betrays thee,

Yet thou lov'st it — why
E'en for that which slays thee

Dost thou gladly die ^.

All that Life, requiring.

Seeks, or can obtain.
Given to its desiring

Were but brief and vain.

Whence proceeds the erring

And perverted will;
To certain good preferring

But too certain ill ?

Joys, like flowers late blooming
(Born of quick decay)


Pinions like assuming,
Pass like winds away.'
For a long time Diogo Bernardes was under a cloud among literary

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