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Gideon Algernon Mantell.

Geological excursions round the Isle of Wight, and along the adjacent coast of Dorsetshire; illustrative of the most interesting geological phenomena, and organic remains online

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A PICTORIAL ATLAS OF FOSSIL
REMAINS, CONSISTING OF COLOURED ILLUSTRATIONS SELECTED FROM PARKINSON'S
"ORGANIC REMAINS OF A FORMER WORLD," AND ARTIS'S "ANTEDILUVIAN
PHYTOLOGY." ***




Transcriber's Note

Text emphasis denoted by _Italics_ and =Bold=. Whole and fractional
parts as 123-4/5.




[Illustration]

JOSEPH DINKEL. DEL. ET LITH.

PRINTED BY M. & N. HANHAR

THE PERFECT SERIES OF THE BONES OF THE RIGHT FOOT OF THE =MOA=, OR
EXTINCT COLOSSAL OSTRICH-LIKE BIRD OF =NEW ZEALAND= FOUND IMBEDDED IN
AN ERECT POSITION, WITH THE CORRESPONDING FOOT A YARD IN ADVANCE, IN
A TURRARY DEPOSIT, AT =WAIKOUAITI= IN THE MIDDLE ISLAND, BY =WALTER
MANTELL ESQ^{RE}= OF =WELLINGTON=.

FIGURES 1^a 2^a 3^a THE PLANTAR OR UNDER SURFACE OF THE FIRST, SECOND
& THIRD TOES. THE FIGURES ARE 1/3 NATURAL SIZE LINEAR. THE ORIGINAL
BIRD WAS ABOUT 10 FEET HIGH.




A

PICTORIAL ATLAS

OF

FOSSIL REMAINS,

CONSISTING OF COLOURED

ILLUSTRATIONS

SELECTED FROM

PARKINSON'S "ORGANIC REMAINS OF A FORMER WORLD;"

AND

ARTIS'S "ANTEDILUVIAN PHYTOLOGY."

WITH DESCRIPTIONS

BY GIDEON ALGERNON MANTELL, ESQ. LL.D. F.K.S.

VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY,
FELLOW OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, ETC.
AUTHOR OF "THE WONDERS OF GEOLOGY," ETC. ETC.

[Illustration]

"All things in nature are engaged in writing their own history. The
planet and the pebble are attended by their shadows - the rolling
rock leaves its farrows on the mountain side - the river its channel
in the soil - the animal its bones in the stratum - the fern and the
leaf inscribe their modest epitaphs on the coal - the falling drop
sculptures its story on the sand, or on the stone - not a footstep
on the snow or on the ground but traces in characters more or less
enduring the record of its progress." - _Emerson._


With Seventy-four plates,

CONTAINING NEARLY NINE HUNDRED FIGURES.


LONDON:
H. G. BOHN, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
1850.


LONDON:

R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.


TO

THE VERY REVEREND

WILLIAM BUCKLAND, D.D. F.R.S.

Dean of Westminster,

&c. &c. &c.

THIS WORK IS INSCRIBED

AS AN EXPRESSION OF THE HIGH RESPECT AND AFFECTIONATE REGARD

OF ONE WHO HAS FOR MORE THAN THIRTY YEARS

ENJOYED THE HONOUR AND PRIVILEGE OF HIS CORRESPONDENCE

AND FRIENDSHIP.


Chester Square, Pimlico,
_January 1850._




PREFACE.


In the hope of promoting the diffusion of a taste for the cultivation
of a peculiarly interesting and attractive branch of Natural History,
I have been induced, in compliance with the suggestion of the eminent
publisher of this volume, to arrange in a connected series the Plates
of the late Mr. Parkinson's "Organic Remains of a Former World," and
of Mr. Artis's "Antediluvian Phytology," with descriptions of the
specimens represented.

As I have been enabled, with the valuable assistance of my friend,
John Morris, Esq. F.G.S., the author of "A Catalogue of British
Fossils," to append, in almost every instance, the generic and
specific names adopted by the most recent authorities, the volume
will, I trust, not only prove interesting to the general reader, as
a beautiful _Pictorial Atlas_ of some of the most remarkable relics
of the animals and plants of a "Former World," but also constitute
a valuable book of reference in the library of the Geologist and
Palæontologist, since it contains the names and localities of no
inconsiderable number of species and genera.

For the guidance of the unscientific reader who may desire further
information on any of the subjects treated of in the following pages,
references are given to a few general works on Geology and Fossil
Remains.


Chester Square, Pimlico,
_August 1850._




TABLE OF CONTENTS.


PAGE
Preface v

Description of the Frontispiece x

Introduction 13


Descriptions of the Plates.



FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.

(_Plates I. to XXXIII. inclusive._)

Plate

I. - Various specimens of Fossil Wood, and fragments of Plants 19

II. - Chiefly examples of silicified Wood 21

III. - Stigmaria, Calamites, and Wood 23

IV. - Fronds of various Fossil Ferns 25

V. - Different species of Ferns and other Plants 27

VI. - Principally Fossil Fruits from the London clay of the
Isle of Sheppey 29

VII. - Specimens of the Fruit of a species of _Nipas_, or
Molucca Palm; from the Isle of Sheppey 31

VIII. - Figures of different portions of beautiful silicified
Stems of Plants allied to the Arborescent Ferns;
from Chemnitz 33

IX. - Fossil Seed-vessels or Cones (_Lepidostrobus_) of
the Lepidodendron 35

X. - An aquatic Plant (_Hydatica_) in Coal shale 37

XI. - A fine specimen of another species of Hydatica 39

XII. - A delicate aquatic Plant (_Myriophyllites_) in Coal
shale 41

XIII. - Portion of the Stem of the _Calamites ramosus_ 43

XIV. - Fragment of Stems of another species of Calamite
(_Calamites dubius_) 45

XV. - Stem of a Calamite very much resembling the Bamboo
(_Calamites pseudo-bambusia_) 47

XVI. - Another species of Calamite (_Calamites approximatus_) 49

XVII. - Stem of another kind of Calamite (_Calamites decoratus_) 51

XVIII. - Fossil Stems allied to the Pandanus or Yucca
(_Sternbergia transversa_) 53

XIX. - Stem of a species of Sigillaria (_Sigillaria fibrosa_) 55

XX. - Stem of another kind of Sigillaria 57

XXI. - Fossil Roots of Sigillaria (_Stigmaria ficoides_) 59

XXII. - Another species of Stigmaria (_Stigmaria verrucosa_) 61

XXIII. - Fragment of a Stigmaria with large tubercles 63

XXIV. - Part of a Stem of a tree allied to Sigillaria
(_Aspidiaria cristata_) 65

XXV. - Stem of a Plant allied to the Arborescent Ferns
(_Megaphyton_) 67

XXVI. - Stem of a species of Lepidodendron 69

XXVII. - Fossil Plant allied to the Lepidodendron 71

XXVIII. - A beautiful fossil Fern resembling Osmunda regalis
(_Neuropteris auriculata_) 73

XXIX. - An elegant trifoliate Fern in Coal shale
(_Neuropteris trifoliata_) 75

XXX. - An exquisite specimen of fossil Fern (_Pecopteris Miltoni_) 77

XXXI. - Another elegant Fern in Coal shale (_Pecopteris plumosa_) 79

XXXII. - A very beautiful plumose Fern in Coal shale
(_Alethopteris decurrens_) 81

XXXIII. - A fossil Fruit or Seed-vessel in Coal shale
(_Carpolithes marginatus_) 83


FOSSIL REMAINS OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.

(_Plates XXXIV. to LXXIV: inclusive._)

XXXIV. - A beautiful mass of Coral (_Syringopora geniculata_) on
Carboniferous limestone 87

XXXV. - Several kinds of fossil Corals (_Syringopora ramulosa_,
_Catenipora escharoides_, &c.) 89

XXXVI. - Corals from different formations (_Fungia_,
_Cyathophyllum_) 91

XXXVII. - Various fossil Corals (_Astrea_, _Lithostrotion_,
_Caryophyllia annularis_) 93

XXXVIII. - Corals and Coral marbles (_Cyathophyllum_, _Astrea_,
_Lithodendron_) 95

XXXIX. - Fossil Corals, and Sponges or Amorphozoa (_Siphonia_,
_Favosites_, _Explanaria_) 97

XL. - Various fossil Zoophytes (_Clionites_, _Millepora_) 99

XLI. - A beautiful specimen of a cyathiform fossil Zoophyte
(_Chenendopora Parkinsoni_) 101

XLII. - Several kinds of Zoophytes in Flint (_Choanites_,
_Siphonia_, _Jerea_) 103

XLIII. - Various Corals and other Zoophytes (_Fungia polymorpha_,
_Jerea pyriformis_, _Ventriculite_) 105

XLIV. - Silicified Sponges and other Zoophytes (_Scyphia_,
_Cnemidium_, _Chenendopora_) 107

XLV. - Several kinds of calcareous and silicified Corals and
other Zoophytes 109

XLVI. - A recent Pentacrinus (_P. caput medusæ_), and a
beautiful Fossil species 111

XLVII. - Numerous specimens of portions of Stems, separate
Ossicles, and Receptacles, of various kinds of
Encrinites and Pentacrinites 113

XLVIII. - The Lily Encrinite (_Encrinites monileformis_) 115

XLIX. - Remains of several kinds of Encrinites and Encrinital
marbles 117

L. - Chiefly specimens of the Pear Encrinite of Bradford, in
Wiltshire (_Apiocrinus Parkinsoni_) 119

LI. - Several kinds of Crinoidea (_Actinocrinites_,
_Pentacrinites_) 121

LII. - Specimens of Pentacrinites from Lyme Regis 123

LIII. - Fossil Star-fishes (_Goniaster_, _Ophiura_, _Cidaris_) 125

LIV. - Various kinds of Echinites or fossil Sea-urchins
(_Clypeaster_, _Ananchytes_, _Discoidea_, _Conulus_) 127

LV. - Several varieties of fossil Echini (_Cidaris_,
_Nucleolites_, _Micraster_, _Spatangus_) 129

LVI. - Echinites and echinital Spines 131

LVII. - Fossil univalve Shells (_Euomphalus_, &c.) and
_Cololites_ 133

LVIII. - Fossil Shells of various kinds of Cephalopoda
(_Nautilus_, _Orthoceras_, _Lituties_, &c.) 135

LIX. - Belemnites, Orthoceratites, and Hippurites, &c. 137

LX. - Belemnites and Ammonites 139

LXI. - Hamites of several species; Scaphites, Nummulites, &c. 141

LXII. - Fossil Foraminifera of several genera 143

LXIII. - Several species of Trigonia 145

LXIV. - Fossil bivalve Shells (_Cucullæa_, _Crassatella_,
_Lima_, _Cardium_, &c.), and the anomalous bodies
termed _Trigonellites_ 147

LXV. - Fossil Shells of the genera _Panopæa_, _Teredina_, &c. 149

LXVI. - Fossil Shells of the genera _Ostrea_, _Perna_,
_Gryphea_, &c. 151

LXVII. - Chiefly Shells of brachiopodous Mollusca,
(_Terebratula_, _Spirifer_, _Productus_, &c.) 153

LXVIII. - Fossil Crabs from Sheppey; Trilobites, Insects, &c. 155

LXIX. - Remains of Turtles from Sheppey, and Vertebræ of
Crocodilian Reptiles from Havre, and of the _Mosasaurus_ 157

LXX. - The Jaws of the fossil Reptile of Maestricht
(_Mosasaurus_); and Teeth of various kinds of
Sharks and Rays (_Carcharias_, _Miliobatis_,
_Pthychodus_, &c.) 159

LXXI. - Skull and Antlers of the fossil Elk of Ireland, and Teeth
of the Mammoth 161

LXXII. - Fossil teeth of _Hippopotamus_, _Rhinoceros_,
_Dinotherium_, _Palæotherium_, and _Anoplotherium_;
and ungueal bone of Megalonyx 163

LXXIII. - Skeleton of the _Megatherium_, and Teeth of the fossil
_Bears_ of the Caverns 165

LXXIV. - Molar Teeth of _Mastodon giganteus_, from Big-bone Lick,
Kentucky 167

Frontispiece. - Foot of the Moa of New Zealand.


SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.

1. Fossil Bears of the Caverns 166

2. The Belemnite _ib._

3. Fossil Remains of Birds - Moa of New Zealand 172

4. Botanical Arrangement of Fossil Vegetables 175

5. Cephalopoda - Nautilus, Ammonite, &c. 180

6. Carboniferous Formations 181

7. Coal 182

8. Corals _ib._

9. Cuvier's Principles of Palæontology 183

10. Fossil Edentata, Megatherium, &c. 184

11. Flint: Animal Remains in Siliceous Nodules 185

12. Foraminifera 186

13. The Gigantic extinct Irish Elk: Cervus megaloceros 189

14. Fossil Infusoria _ib._

15. The Mosasaurus, or Fossil Animal of Maestricht 191

16. Fossil Reptiles 192

17. - - - - - - - - of the Wealden: the Iguanodon 193, 202

18. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - the Pelorosaurus 197

19. Silicification and Siliceous Petrifactions _ib._

20. Stigmariæ and Sigillariæ 198


WORKS REFERRED TO IN THE DESCRIPTIONS.

Michelin, Iconographie Zoophytologie, Paris, 4to.

Göppert, H. R. Die Fossilen, Farrnkrauter, - forming vol. xvii. of
the Nova Acta Academiæ C. L. C. Naturæ Curiosorum. 1836, 4to.

Presl, C. B., Sternberg, Dr. G. Flora der Vorwelt, Part VII. and
VIII. edited by Presl.

Goldfuss, Dr. A., Petrefacta Germaniæ, folio, Dusseldorf, 1841-44.

Fossil Flora of Great Britain, by Dr. Lindley and Mr. Button.

Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Essay on Geology and Mineralogy, 2 vols,
with numerous Plates.

The Wonders of Geology, 3 vols, sixth edition, 1849.

The Medals of Creation, 2 vols. 1844.

Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight and along the
adjacent Coast of Dorsetshire, 1 vol. numerous Plates.

Thoughts on Animalcules, 1 vol. numerous coloured Plates, second
edition, 1850.

Thoughts on a Pebble, with 30 Illustrations, eighth edition, 1850.

Lyell, Sir Charles, Travels in. America, 1845, and 1849.




DESCRIPTION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.


THE MOA OF NEW ZEALAND.

The Frontispiece represents the entire series of bones composing the
right foot of the Moa (_Dinornis robustus_), found imbedded in an
erect position, with the corresponding foot a yard in advance, in a
turbary deposit, at Waikouaiti, in the Middle Island of New Zealand,
in 1849. The figures are one-third less in linear dimensions than the
originals.

Figures 1^_a_, 2^_a_, 3^_a_, show the palmar, or under surface of
the respective toes, and exhibit the trochlear or articulating
extremities of the phalangeal bones.

* * * * *

The ancient swamp or morass in which these matchless specimens were
imbedded, is situated on the shore, in a little creek or bay near
Island Point, at the mouth of the river Waikouaiti, and is covered
by the sea except at the lowest tides. Many remains of the largest
species of Moa have from time to time been obtained from this
deposit; the bones sent to England by Dr. Mackellar, Mr. Percy Earle,
and others, figured and described in the Zoological Transactions by
Professor Owen, were from this locality.

The specimens figured were obtained by Mr. Walter Mantell, in
1849, when visiting Waikouaiti, as Government Commissioner for the
settlement of Native claims. On the recession of the tide, the
upper (or proximal) ends of the metatarsals were just visible above
the surface: these were carefully dug up, and all the bones of the
respective toes numbered, one by one, as they were extracted from
the soil. In this state they were sent to me, and have subsequently
been articulated under my direction, in their natural order of
arrangement.[1]

[Footnote 1: By the well-known eminent anatomical artist, Mr. Flower,
of 22, Lambeth Terrace, Lambeth Road.]

The condition and position of the bones, and the nature of the
deposit, - evidently an ancient morass, in which the New Zealand flax
(_phormium tenax_) once grew luxuriantly, - remind us of the very
similar circumstances in which the extinct gigantic Elks in Ireland,
and the Mastodons in America, have occasionally been found engulfed
in peat bogs and morasses; and, as my son emphatically observes, it
is impossible to arrive at any other conclusion than that the Moa to
which these feet belonged, had sunk down in the swamp, and perished
on the spot. Vertebræ and other parts of a skeleton of a bird of the
same proportions, were dug up near the feet.

As the specimens under examination are the first examples in
which the entire series of the phalangeal and ungueal bones have
been found in natural connexion with the metatarsals, I subjoin
the admeasurements of the several parts, to render the peculiar
construction of the feet in one species of the lost race of the
colossal birds of New Zealand, more obvious to those who may feel
interested in the subject.

TARSO-METATARSAL BONES.

Inches. Lines.

Length of the shaft from the distal end of the middle
trochlea to the proximal extremity 17 0

Circumference of the proximal end 11 9

Transverse diameter, or width, of ditto 4 6

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto 3 6

Circumference of the middle of the shaft 6 3

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto 1 8

Transverse diameter of ditto 3 6

Width of the distal, or trochlear, end 6 3

Circumference of the trochlear end 15 6

Antero-posterior diameter of the middle trochlea 3 9

PHALANGEAL BONES.

Inner Toe. Middle Toe. Outer Toe.
(Fig. 1.) (Fig. 2.) (Fig. 3.)
Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines. Inches. Lines.

First, or proximal phalanx
{ Length 4 9 - 4 3 - 3 2
{ Circumference of proximal end 6 6 - 6 9 - 5 9

Second phalangeal bone.
{ Length 1 9 - 2 6 - 1 9
{ Circumference of proximal end 3 0 - 5 3 - 4 9

Third phalangeal bone Ungueal.
{ Length {3 0} - 1 9 - 1 0
{ Circumference of proximal end {4 0} - 4 6 - 4 6

Third phalangeal bone Ungueal.
{ Length {3 0} - 0 11
{ Circumference of proximal end {4 2} - 4 0

Fifth ungueal bone
{ Length 2 6
{ Circumference of proximal end 3 9

The total length of the toes is as follows: - inner digit, 9½ inch.;
middle, 11½ inch.; outer, 9-1/3 inch. The transverse diameter of the
expanse of the foot, from the distal extremity of the inner toe (fig.
1^a), to that of the outer one (fig. 3^a), is 15½ inches. The length
from the posterior part of the trochlear extremity of the metatarsal
to the distal end of the ungueal of the middle toe (fig. 2^a), is
13 inches. If to the actual dimensions of the bones be added the
proportional thickness of the cartilaginous integuments, nails, &c.,
the length of the foot of the living bird may be estimated at about
16 inches, and the breadth at 17 or 18 inches.

From the great width and solidity of the metatarsals, and the form
and corresponding size and strength of the phalangeals and ungueals,
the ornithologist will perceive that the feet of the Moa must have
constituted powerful instruments for scratching, digging, and
uprooting the sub-terrestrial vegetable substances, which Professor
Owen, with great probability, infers, formed the chief sustenance of
the extinct colossal birds of New Zealand.

According to the relative proportions of the bones composing the
hinder extremities of the gigantic species of Moa, the corresponding
_tibia_, or leg-bone, of the feet above described, would be two feet
nine inches in length, and the _femur_, or thigh bone, nine and a
half inches; the total height of the bird was probably about ten feet.

Tibiæ, femora, and other bones of much larger proportions,
(apparently of _Dinornis giganteus_ and _D. ingens_,) were obtained
from the same locality; some of these indicate birds of eleven or
twelve feet in height; dimensions exceeding by one-third those of the
largest known existing species of Struthionidæ - the Ostrich.[2]

[Footnote 2: Even from this imperfect description (and further
anatomical details would be irrelevant in the present work), the
ornithologist cannot fail to observe the peculiar characters
exhibited by these extremities of the remarkable family of birds,
of which the diminutive Apteryx appears to be the only living
representative. But the Apteryx differs most essentially in the
structure of the cranium and mandibles, from the extinct types to
which Professor Owen has given the names of Dinornis, Palapteryx,
Aptornis, &c.

With regard to the construction of the feet it may be further
remarked, that the length of the inner and outer toes is nearly
equal, as in the Cassowary; but the middle toe, which in the
Cassowary is one-third longer than the other digits, in the Moa
scarcely exceeds in length by one-fifth, the inner and outer toes.
The ungueal segments are very large, being equal to one-third the
length of the toes. The phalangeals are relatively much shorter than
in the Cassowary and Ostrich, and wider than in the former, and more
arched than in either of these living struthious birds.

In the metatarsal the presence of the three elements whose fusion
constitutes the bone, is strongly marked; there does not appear
to be any certain indications of a posterior or hind toe, though
Professor Owen imagines he has detected feeble traces of a fourth
digit: in that case the bird to which my specimens belonged, would
be termed _Palapteryx_. The crania found by Mr. Walter Mantell at
Waingongoro, and figured and described by Professor Owen in the
Zoological Transactions (Vol. III., Plates 52, 53, 54, 55), as
Dinornis and Palapteryx, must have belonged to birds of comparatively
small stature. The skull with the adze-like upper mandible, and
the enormously-developed _basi-occipitals_ and _basi-sphenoids_


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Online LibraryGideon Algernon MantellGeological excursions round the Isle of Wight, and along the adjacent coast of Dorsetshire; illustrative of the most interesting geological phenomena, and organic remains → online text (page 1 of 15)