Gilbert Burnet.

The history of the reformation of the Church of England (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 58)
Online LibraryGilbert BurnetThe history of the reformation of the Church of England (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 58)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


2,.2-0 . /5^

'^^ PRINCETON, N. J. ^fU


Purchased by the
Mrs. Robert Lenox Kennedy Church History Fund.

BR 375 .B9 1865 v. 3
Burnet, Gilbert, 1643-1715.
The history of the
reformation of the Church



AMaHV,Tx. '

■■> ^' '-^A>-.;'Vi;Vj.:






r\ ■.:;>'■' rVv./'?


I ., ,*■ . '., ...VtV-.v-.

'-'';-' -

' -J!

' 1 '■'■■''

.'" ^" >^ -^ <':;<■ A.' -'"w^v.




p;v>^^:v - ^5?»^^Srf



^;.;v;- .^• - -^^v^JH



t' ■v"^ ''->''^?^H



t.: - :■ w/.- ;^,:ai- 4^;aMHi




..%^ -

'"i - j^,'



[■;■/- ,■

FEB 20 1915














AT THE iCL4J|^^p, TfRIfS^ Q VV D E.

j gp^Rcg^PiEiON PRES-: WA'rlLHO'JSE.






1 HIS work, which is designed to finish the History of our
Reformation, seems reserved to bo laid at your Majesty's
feet; who, we trust, is designed by God to complete the
reformation itself.

To rectify what may be yet amiss, and to supply what is
defective among us ; to oblige us to live and to labour more
suitably to our profession ; to unite us more firmly among
ourselves ; to bury, and for ever to extinguish, the fears of
our relapsing again into popery ; and to establish a confidence
and correspondence with the protestant and reformed churches

The eminent moderation of the most serene house from
which your Majesty is descended, gives us auspicious hopes,
that as God has now raised your Majesty, with signal cha-
racters of an amazing providence, to be the head and the
chief strength of the reformation ; so your Majesty will, by
a wise and noble conduct, form all these churches into one
body ; so that though they cannot agree to the same opinions
and rituals with us in all points, yet they may join in one
happy confederacy, for the support of the whole, and of every
particular branch of that sacred union.

[George I.]



May this be the pecuHar glory of your Majesty''s reign ;
and may all the blessings of heaven and earth rest upon your
most august person, and upon all your royal posterity.

This is the daily prayer of him, who is with the profoundest

Your Majesty's

most loyal, most obedient, and most
devoted subject and servant,



1 HAD in my Introduction to this volume, which I puhhshed
a year- ago, said all that then occurred to mc in the way of
preface : but some particulars coming to my knowledge since
that time, give me an occasion to add a little to what was then
copiously deduced.

I begin with M. Le Grand, who I understand is now in a
considerable post in the court of France. He, being lately at

■-' [The author had published in
the previous j'ear a small volume
entitled, ' An Introduction to the
Third Volume of the History of the
Reformation of the Church of Eng-
land, by the Right Reverend Father
in God, Gilbert Lord Bishop of Sa-
rum.' It contained the following
preface addressed to his publisher :

' Mr. Churchill,

' Your care in putting so many
advertisements in the Gazettes has
been of very great use to me ; but
because I would gladly have the
History of our Reformation to be
as full and perfect as may be, I do
now send you the Introduction to
the Third Volume, that is almost
ready to be put in the press ; which
I desire you to print in a smaller
form ; hoping it will give such pub-
lic notice of my design, that it may
come into the hands of those who
perhaps look not into the advertise-
ments in Gazettes, and so may
move them that can furnish me
with other materials to help me to
finish this work with great advan-
tage ; for which I am ready to make

them all the returns that are in my
power. I desire you will prefix to this
a passage out of Livy which does
so perfectly agree with my present
thoughts, that I cannot express
them better nor more truly than
those words do.

' I am. Sir,
' Your most humble servant,
' G. Sarum.
' Salisbury, Sept. 26, 1713.'

The pamphlet passed into a se-
cond edition in the same year. The
passage of Livy was inserted on the
title page, and was as follows, Hoc
laboris pretium petam uti me a con-
spectu malorum, quce nostra tot per
annos vidit cetas, tantisper certe
dum prisca ilia totd mente repeto,
avertam : omnis expers curce quce
scribentis animum, etsi non Jlectere
a vera, solicitum tamen efficere pos-
sit. — Livii Hist. lib. i. The book
itself is reprinted in the Third
Volume as Introduction, varying
only in the spelling of a few words
and in one or two passages where
the variation is noticed at the foot
of the page.]
B 2


Geneva, explained himself to ray friends in these terms ; " that
" he was young when he wrote against me, and that the heat
'' of youth had carried him to some expressions, from which
" he would abstain, if he were to write now : he was glad to
" hear that I was upon the reviewing the History of the Re-
" formation ;" and named to them a Life that he had seen in
Spain of Bartholomew Carranza, archbishop of Toledo, who
was king Philip's confessor, and went with him to England ;
and was particularly employed in reforming (as they called it)
the universities : and, as he said, he died when he was to be
delivered out of the prison of the inquisition. He added, that
he had also seen a collection of cardinal Pole^s letters, with an
account of what passed in England after the death of king-
Edward, which he believed I had not seen, and that could
inform me of many particulars ; but that he himself had other
employments than to think of the affairs of England. If I
had received this civil message from M. Le Grand before I
had pubhshed my Introduction, I would have said nothing at
all with relation to him ; but what is past cannot be recalled ;
so I hope he will accept of this for all the reparation I can
now make him.

As for Anthony Harmer, some have doubted if he could be
capable of making three capital errors-^ in one line : and since ii
Mr. Strype has suggested to me that, in which I was under
some reserve before, as having it from another hand, I am
now free to set it down. For capitulum ecclesice catlmdralis,
he has printed, epistolam conventus ecclesice catholicce^. If
the abbreviations may seem to excuse the reading epistolam
for capitulum, and catholicm for cathedralis, nothing can
excuse the adding the word conventus, which he thought
wanting to make a complete title, having read the others as
he did : so I hope I have reason to have no regard to any
thing that comes from him upon his bare authority. The
weak and ill-natured attempts that some among ourselves have
of late made upon me, give me no sort of concern, unless it is
to pray for those who have despitefully used me.

There was also a great poem^ lately prepared, and, I sup-

3 [See Introduction, p. xxvi.] ^ [Ward (Thomas). England's

^ [See Anglia Sacra, vol. i. p. Reformation, from the time of king

772. 1. 20.] Henry YIII. to the end of Oates's


pose, designed to be published, when that which our enemies
hoped was near acconiphshed should liave been effected. It
was written in imitation of Hudibras, and so was a mock poem
on the reformation, composed by one Thomas Ward, of whom I
can give no other account, but that it is said he is a priest. In
it, Sanders' work was made the plot of the fable : it was full
of impious abuse, put in a strain apt enough to take with those
who were disposed to divert themselves with a show of wit
and humour, dressed up to make the reformation appear both
odious and ridiculous ; not doubting of equal success with
Butler's admired performance. It was no wonder, if, upon
such a design, my History was treated with all the characters
of scorn and contempt. This was what I might justly expect
from those of that side : but I was sorry to find so much cen-
sure from those from whom I had no reason to expect it, and
which seemed to be the effect only of envy and ill-nature :
God forgive them for it.

I must say a little more, with relation to a learned and
copious writer of our ecclesiastical history s, who finds my His-
tory often in his way : he treats me decently as to his expres-
sions, but designs all through to set such remarks on my work,
as, if they were well grounded, must destroy the credit that
iii it has hitherto obtained. I will first give some instances to
shew what the spirit, the principles, and the design of that
writer must be : I will name but four out of a great many.

When he sets forth king Henry the Eighth's proceedings p. 150.
against the memory of Thomas Becket, he has these words ; "^°|- "•
" And though his conduct in this dispute was not altogether
" defensible, he was far, however, from being guilty of that
" gross mismanagement with which he is charged." I will
leave the judgment that must be passed upon this period to all
who are in any sort acquainted with the history of that time.

When he gives the character of king Edward the Sixth, p. 332.
immediately before he tells of his death, it is in these words :^° ■'^■
" His conscience was not always under a serviceable direction ;"
(the meaning of this dark expression I do not reach ;) he was
" tinctured with Erastian principles, and under wrong pre-

plot, a poem in four cantos, Lon- siastical History was published in
don, 1716, 8vo.] two volumes folio, Lond. 1708-14.]

•^ [Jeremy Collier, whose Eccle-


" possessions as to church government ; he seems to have had

" no notion of sacrilege ; and, which is somewhat remark-

" ahle, most of the hardships were put upon ecclesiastics in
" the latter end of his reign, when his judgment was in the
" best condition :" and without adding one word of his good
qualities, or to correct those severe reflections, he concludes
with the account of his death,
p. 6oi. He gives a very different account of the death of Mary

queen of Scots, in these words ; " Her fortitude and devotion
" were very remarkable : she supported her character with
" all imaginable decency : she died like a Christian, and like
" a queen."

And, to mention no more, when he comes to queen Eliza-
beth's death and character, he runs a parallel between the two
p. 671. sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, in these words ; " The one made
(c martyrs, the other made beggars : the one executed the
" men, and the other the estates : and therefore, reserving the
" honour of the reformation to queen Elizabeth, the question
" will be, Whether the resuming the first-fruits and tenths,
'* putting many vicarages in a deplorable condition, and settling
" a perpetuity of poverty on the church, was not much more
" prejudicial than fire and fagot? Whether destroying bishop-
" rics was not a much greater hardship than the destroying
" bishops? because this severity aflfects succession, and reaches iv
" down to future ages. And lastly, Whether, as the world
" goes, it is not more easy to recruit bishops, than the revenues
" to support them?" These words give such an indication of
the notion that the author has of the happiness or misery of a
church, that they want no commentary.
Hist, of the I will add this one remark of a fact upon a passage that I
PartT ^^^ ""^^^^ concerning the book of Ordination, published in the
Booki. third year of king Edward, which was in these words : " An-
" other difference between the ordination-book set out at that
" time, and that we now use, was, that the bishop was to lay
" his one hand on the priest's head, and with his other to give
" him a Bible, with a chalice and bread in it, saying the words
" that are 7 now said at the delivery of the Bible. In the con-
" secration of a bishop, there is« nothing more than what is
" yet in use, save that a staff was put into his hand with this
7 [that are, om. Edd.] 8 \jj^as, Edd.]


" blessing, Be to the flock of Christ a shepherd." Upon this
his remark is in these words: " But here, as it happens, this P- -9°-
" learned person has been led into a mistake ; for the two first
" editions of the Ordinal made in king Edward's reign have
" none of the different rites mentioned by this gentleman/' I
was indeed surprised when I read this, and went to look into
the first edition of that Ordinal which I knew was in the Lam-
beth library 9: for, by archbishop Sancroffs order, I had the
free use o£ every thing that lay there. There I went to ex-
amine it, and I found indeed a small variation from my History.
The whole is in these words : In the ordination of a priest,
after the imposition of hands, with the words still used, follows
this rubric ; " Then the bishop shall deliver to every one of
" them the Bible in the one hand, and the chalice, or cup, with
" the bread, in the other hand, and say, Take thou authority,
" &c." In the consecration of a bishop, this rubric is ; " Tlie
" elected bishop, having upon him a surplice and a cope, shall
" be presented by two bishops, being also in surplices and
" copes, having their pastoral staves in their hands." And
after the form of the consecration this rubric follows ; " Then
" shall the archbishop lay the Bible upon his neck, saying,
" Give heed to reading." The next rubric is, " Then shall
" the archbishop put into his hand the pastoral stafl^, saying,
"V "Be to thefloch of Christ a shej^herd ;"" on to the end of the
" charge, now given all together, but then divided in two.
This book was printed by Richard Grafton, the king's printer,
in March 1549; or by the Roman account, 1550 lo, I have

9 [The form and manner of mak- Bishoppes

ing and consecrating of Archbi- Priestes

shops. Bishops, Priests and Dea- and

cons, anno Domini mdxlix, has Deacons

been printed from Lambeth MS. m.d.xlix.

N°. 885, by the Parker Society. At the end is the name of the printer

The author has been guilty of some thus :

verbal inaccuracies. There is no RICHARDVS GRAFTON

then before the first rubric quoted, typographus Regius

and in the last the words are ' give excudebat

heed unto reading,' &c.]

'0 [The title is as follows : Martii

THE FORME a. m.d.xlix.

and maner of makyng Cum i)riuilegio ad imprimonduui

and consecrating of solum.]


given this full account of that matter in my own justification :
I am sorry that I cannot return this learned person his com-
pliment to myself, that he ivas led into a mistake.

The next, and indeed the last particular, that out of many
more I will mention, is, the setting down the explanation, that
was made upon the order for kneeling at the sacrament in
king Edward's time, wrong in a very material word : for in
that the words were, " That there was not in the sacrament
• " any real or essential presence of Christ's natural flesh and
" blood;" but he instead of that puts, " corporal presence '^"
It seems in this he only looked at the rubric, as it is now at
the end of the communion service, upon a conceit that it stands
now as it was in king Edward's book, though it was at that
time changed : and we know who was the author of that
change, and who pretended that a corporal presence signified
such a presence as a body naturally has, which the assertors
of transubstantiation itself do not, and cannot pretend is in
this case ; where they say the body is not present corporally,
but spiritually, or as a spirit is present. And he who had the
chief hand in procuring this alteration had a very extraordi-
nary subtilty, by which he reconciled the opinion of a real
presence in the sacrament with the last words of the rubric,
" That the natural body and blood of Christ were in heaven,
" and not here ; it being against the truth of Christ's natural
" body to be at one time in more places than one." It was
thus : a body is in a place, if there is no intermediate body
but a vacuum between it and the place ; and he thought, that,
by the virtue of the words of consecration, there was a cylin-
der of a vacuum made between the elements and Christ's body
in heaven : so that, no body being between, it was both in
heaven and in the elements. Such a solemn piece of folly as
this can hardly be read without indignation. But if our author
favours this conceit, yet, when he sets down that which was vi
done in king Edward's reign, he ought not to have changed

" [This is part of a rubric of either unto the sacramental bread

king Edward's second prayer book : or wine there bodily received, or to

the words are, ' lest yet the same any real and essential presence there

kneeling might be thought or taken being of Christ's natural flesh and

otherwise, we do declare that it is blood.']

not meant thereby that any adora- >- [The initials here mean Dr.

tion is done or ought to be done Peter Gvmning, bishop of Ely.]


the word, especially such an important one. I shall say no
more of that work, but that there appeared to me, quite
through the second volume, such a constant inclination to
favour the popish doctrine, and to censure the reformers, that
I should have had a better opinion of the author's integrity,
if he had professed himself not to be of our communion, nor of
the communion of any other protestant church.

But as I thought myself bound to give this warning to such
as may haye hoard of that work, or that have seen it ; so
there is another History lately written in French, and which,
I hope, is soon to appear in our own language, which I cannot
recommend more than it deserves. It is M. E'Enfant's His-
tory of the Council of Constance'"^ ; in which that excellent
person has with great care, and a sincerity liable to no excep-
tion, given the world, in the history of that council, so true
a view of the state of the church, and of religion, in the age
before the reformation, that I know no book so proper to pre-
pare a man for reading the History of the Reformation, as the
attentive reading of that noble work. He was indeed well
furnished with a collection of excellent materials, gathered
with great fidelity and industry by the learned doctor Vander
Hordt, professor of divinity in the university of Helmstadt ;
and procured for him by the noble zeal and princely bounty
of that most serene and pious prince Rodolph August, the late
duke of Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, who set himself with great
care, and at a vast charge, to procure from all places the copies
of all papers and manuscripts that could be found, to give
light to the proceedings of that great assembly : that collection
amounted to six volumes in foUo. From these authentic
vouchers the history of that council is now happily compiled.
And if that learned author can find materials to give us as full
and as clear a history of the council of Basle, as he has given
of that of Constance, 1 know no greater service can be done
vii the world : for by it, popery will appear in its true and native
colours, free from those palliating disguises which the progress
of the reformation, and the light which by that has been given
the world, has forced upon those of that communion. We

'3 [Histoire du Concile de Con- Whatley came out in two vols. 4to.
stance, 2 vols. 4to. Amst. 1727. An London, 1730.]
English translation made by Stephen


liave the celebrated History of the Council of Trent, first pub-
lished here at London, written with a true subhraity of judg-
ment, and an unbiassed sincerity ; which has received a great
confirmation, even from cardinal Pallavicini's attempt '^ to
destroy its credit, and a much greater of late from that curi-
ous discovery of Vargas' Letters ^^ But how well and how
justly soever the history that P. Paolo gave the world of that
council is esteemed, I am not afraid to compare the late His-
tory of the Council of Constance even to that admired work ;
so far at least, as that if it will not be allowed to be quite
equal to it, yet it may be well reckoned among the best of all
that have written after that noble pattern, which the famous
Venetian friar has given to all the writers of ecclesiastical

Since I published my Introduction, I fell on many papers
concerning the reformation in Scotland, which had escaped the
diligence of that grave and judicious writer archbishop Spots-
v/ood ; of which I have given a full account, and have used the
best endeavours I could to be furnished with all the other
materials that I could hear of. It is true, I never searched
into a lately gathered famous library in this place ; but yet I
had from some, on whose good judgment and great care I
might well depend^ who had carefully looked through it, every
thing that they found material to my purpose.

No curiosity pleased me more than that noble record of the
legate's proceedings in the matter of king Henry's divorce ; of
which I had the free use, as of every thing else that was in
the library of my learned and dear brother, the late bishop of
Ely 16. in whose death the church and all his friends, and
none more than myself, have had an invaluable loss. I read
that record very carefully twice or thrice over, and gave a full
abstract of it, but did not then reflect on what has occurred to
me since ; for though, upon the credit of so noble a record-, I viii
have said that the king and queen were never together in

'4 [Pallavicino (Card. Sforza). Traduits de I'Espagnol, avec des

Istoria del Concilio diTrento, Roma, Remarques, par M. Michel Le Vas-

2 vols. fol. 1656-62.] sor, Amst. 1700, 8vo.]

'■■"'[LettresetMemuiresde Francois 16 [John Moore, who was trans-

de Vargas, de Pierre de Malvenda lated from Norwich to Ely in 1707,

et de quelques Eveques d'Espagne, and died July 31, 1714.]
Touchant le Concile de Trente.


court, yet I find the contrary is affirmed by that king himself,
in a letter bearing date the 23rd of June, to his ambassadors
at Rome, in tliese words ; " Both we and the queen appeared
" in person :" and he sets forth the assurances the cardinals
gave of their pi-ocecding without favour or partiality ; " yet
" she departed out of court, though thrice called to appear,
" and was denounced contumacious." The only reconciling of
this apparent contradiction seems to be this ; that they were
indeed together in the hall where the court sat, but that it
was before the cardinals sat down, and had formed the court :
for as it is not to be imagined that in the record so material a
step could have been omitted, so highly to the honour of the
court ; so it is not likely that the queen, after her appeal,
would have owned the court, or have appeared before those
judges: therefore the most probable account of that particular
is this, that the king intending to appear in the court, the
queen went thither after him, and made that speech to him in
the open hall, that I mentioned in my former work : but all
this was over, and they were both gone, before the court was
opened, or that the cardinals had taken their places ; so that
their appearance could be no part of the record of the court.

I am now to give an account of some papers that I add as
an Appendix, for they relate to the former volumes. The first
of tliese was sent me by one Mr. Thomas Granger'7, of whom
I can give no other account, but that I understood he was a
clergyman. He dated his letter from Lamerton, near Tavi-
stock in Devon, the seventh of Februaiy 168|. I wrote him
such a civil answer, as so kind a censure deserved : and I pro-
mised that 1 would make my acknowledgments more pubhcly
to him whensoever I reviewed that work. Upon my settling
at Salisbury, I inquired after him, but I was told he was dead :
so I lost the occasion of returning my thanks to him in a more
particular manner, which I now express thus publicly.
: I had another letter, writ in another strain, full of expostu-
lation, from Anthony (who affected to Avrite himself) a Wood.
He thought it incumbent on him to justify himself, since I had

Online LibraryGilbert BurnetThe history of the reformation of the Church of England (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 58)