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NEUMAN AND BARETTPS f'A

DICTIONARY

or THK

SPANISH AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES;



THB WORDS ARE CORRECTLY EXPLAINED, AGREEABLY
TO THEIR DIFFERENT MEANINGS,



A WUUkT V ABIHTT OF



BKLATIVO TO TRS



ARTS, SCIENCES, MANUFACTURES, MERCHANDISE,
NAVIGATION, AND TRADE, ELUCIDATED.



SBCONV AMERICAN, FROM THE FOURTH LONDON EDITION,

CimsrVLLT BETISED, MK9 EITLAROXD BT TtIS ADOITIOIT OF WANT THOUSAlTD WORDS SXTRACTID

FROM THK WBtTl5«» OF THE MOST CLASSICAL SPANISH A5D ENGLISH AUTHORS, HAVT

OF WHICH ARE NOT TO BE FOUND tN ANY OTHKR DICTIONARY OF THOSE LANGUAGES }

ASO ALSO OBCAT ADDITIONS FROM THE DICTIONARIES OP CONNELLY

AMD BI««1III, THB SPANISH ACADEWT, dcc. ftc



IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. I.
SPAHISB AMD aXGftIS:



•TKKKOTTFXB AT THK BOSTON TTPE AND STXRBOTrPC POUKOBT.

^^a=^^ i< ■ . n I



BOSTON:
mUJART), OBAY, LITTLE, AND WHJONa






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' 283486 '



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PREFACE.



DicnorvARiES hare certainly not received those iniproyements. either in
pUn or execution, which their increased utility has rendered essentially neces-
sary. The difficulty of their execution sufficiently accounts for this tardiness
ID their advancement; and the most ignorant reader may often discover an
error hi what relates to his own particular branch of knowledge, although he
may be very unequal to appn;ciate the merits of any other subject But the
study, or rather the mode of acquirinjr a knowledge of languages, has made as
litde progress as the compilation of dictionaries. Grammarians have multiplied
diruions, and involved themselves in the subordinate details of grammar,
without considering the general and necessary principles of speech, the depend-
CQce of oral language on the organs of the voice, or the analogies between the
nodes of thinking, ihe sentiment, and the language of a particular people.
Hence it is, that persons often labour for years to become familiar with the sub-
diyisions and classifications of words, when a knowledge of what may be truly
called the spirit of a language, might be acquired in a few hours, and all other
knowledge respecting it would follow as a consequence of imbibing its spirit
Whoever considers words as the effi>rtB of the mind to communicate its ideas
and feelings, will soon discover the universal principles of language, and the
great similarity of all tongues. With a knowledge of these general elements,
it is easy to recognise, and even to feel, the spirit of any particular language or
dialect ; and hence, the study of different languages becomes not only simple
and easy, but really instructive, as it presents incomparably the most faithful
pictures of all mental operations, of ideas and passions, as influenced by reli-
gion, laws, and civil polity, or climate. Some linguists, indeed, are contented
widi knowing the grammatical distinctions and the names of a coat or a book
in several languages, vrithout any regard to the extension of useful knowledge,
and forgetting that a mere vocabulary may be acquired by a mechanical effort
of the memory, independent of judgment Such vocabularists make no dis-
eoveries in the arts or sciences ; they never extend the actual boundaries of
our knowledge, stiU less do they meliorate their own minds, give to tlieir rea^
aon an absolute Ascendency over their passions, or expand their benevolent, at
the expense of their selfish feelings. To obviate such pedantry and lettered
uselessness, has been one of the chief objects of the present edition of this Spa-
lush and English Dictionary, which, it is hoped, contains not only many thou-
nnd more words than are to be found in the most copious vocabularies, but

tiso much practical and useful information, correct data from inibich the nature



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it FBEFACB.

and operatioiiB <rf^the human mind in Spain and in England mitf be dedueed ;
mote fiftcts, principles and terms, now used in the sciences, arts, manufacturea,
and commerce, than in any similar dictionary hitherto published, and likewise
more of the modem words in the polite or familiar conyersation of both coiux- 1
tries.

When it is remembered that words are the representatives of ideas, and {
that the language of any people is nearly a perfect picture of what passes or j
exists in their minds, it will be evident that a complete dictionary must be &
faithful epitome of their intellectual labours ; their idiomatic phrases being but i
abridged metaphors, orNmodes of saying one thing and meaning another, the
polite metaphors of the first age become the vulgarisms of the second, the ob- i
solete language of the third, and the nervous expression of the fourth. In this
manner, taste, fashion, or the progress of civilization, and the effect of external |
circumstances, modulate all living languages; and every generation has ita
circle of what is esteemed polite phraseology, in defiance of all critical dogmas,
or the more serious denunciations of censors and moralists. This continued
succession of popular plirases (for the words of conversation in one age gene* '
rally form but a very small part of any cultivated language)', contributes to aug^-
ment the interest of well-digested dictionaries, which thereby enable the. writer
of taste and reflection to select the best, the most harmonious, the purest, and
most moral phraseology that the language of successive ages affords. To the
divine, the moralist, and the metaphysician, it is no less important; as, words
being the offspring of ideas and things, the existence of the former is the most
unequivocal demonstration of that of the latter. For instance, the French have
very justly and naturally a term signifying a man or a. woman with a bad
breath, (PunoM and Ptifutke ;) the Spanish and English, being generally devoid
of this quality, have no corresponding term, and are without any such word.
This, however, is not the only difference between the languages and people of
those countries. With every French thought and word something of colour
and stage effect is associated ; it is the spirit . of the people and of their lan«
guage, while that of Spain and England is metaphysical, or mere abstract truth
and reason. On the other hand, it must be admitted, that the philanthropic
observer of men and manners will view, with profound regret, the super-
abundance of Spanish epithets injurious to women, and feel perhaps disposed
to consider the virtue of fem|Jes as the fairest criterion of national morality.
However this may be, there is evidently more wisdom jn raising than depre-
ciating the moral qualities of those who necessarily teach the first rudiments
of knowledge, and certainly modulate the character of all mankind. Contrary
also to the vulgar and even traditional opinion in Britain, there is, in fiict, no
radical and appropriate Spanish term, which exclusively and forcibly conveys
the same idea as the English word jealousy. Nevertheless the Spaniards have
ei'inced great wisdom in carefully guarding their language and sentiments from
the deteriorating influence of French corruption. In 3iis respect, their con-
duct presents a noble example to the modem English, who really seem to be
almost ashamed of their mother tongue, and to have nearly forgotten that their
radical language is as old, and incomparably better than that of France^ The
fa,shioriable and vulgar foplings of the day have expelled the s and / final
almost Entirely from their jargon, and given an Anglo-Gallic pronunciation to
plain English words, that is more analogous to the hideous accents of unfortu-
nate maniacs than the tones of rational beings. Happily this practice is still
confined to the ignorant and comparatively illiterate ; but, however pity may
be extended to the prude and the coquette, whose imbecile affectation may
abandon the definite and modest term shifij for the silly, vague, and not very
delicate one i^^erme {eands from xofjbiV^cv would be genuine English) ; it i*



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) to hs^e aay other feoling diin that o€ inefftble contempt for the
bvecbcd mimal, who in the British metropolis has lost his hat to find a cfta-
?e«. Sueli things require the admirable pen of Cadalso, in bis ErudUoB a la
nojafs. This absurdity is, indeed, become so enormous and offensive, as to
•.•toaisli and perplex strangers, while it excites the liveliest regret in the minds
't' rcfleetmg natives. It has been attempted to palliate this disgrace, by alleg-
^ dat the English language is chiefly derived from the French. Some ety-
^ciogists, it is tme, have read English through French spectacles, and indulg-
•d thek indolence, or masked their Ignorance, by producing parallel words
^^ the French. As to Home Tooke, the most visionary and illogical of all
rrmdopgtSj ivbatever is correct or good in his work, all his pretended disco-
^^rie^ of ^e Borsa it^sgosrfroj may be traced to what Spanish writers (Aldrete,
>kvufcs, &c.} have related of the manner in which the Goths corrupted the
Litia in Spain ; his ribaldry and blasphemy are his own ; but his errors have
tr«s expc«ed with equal truth and eloquence by Professor Dugald Stewart
Taere is, hovrever, no notion more erroneous or unfounded, than that of the
Ii^ish tongne heing derived from the French, to which it, correctly speaking,
:^t:a, nothing whatever. The most cursory investigation must satisfy everv
^^niier, that the grand basis of the English is the Anglo-Saxon, mixed with
Litia and Greek, which were popular languages in England at two different
periods of the dark ages. Some barbarous law terms, and a few, but very few,
/^r wocds, have been borrowed from the French, while the genius and spirit
■< the language still bear the noble features of their Saxon and classic origin.
This was universally admitted, till Bolingbroke, and his follower Pope, in-
T'>duced the French style into prose and rhyme ; the former moralized to ob-
utefate the remembrance of his treason, and the latter rhymed solely in imita^
ioQ of Boile&u. Their example has been adopted by Gibbon, who aped Vol-
taire ; but it is the elephant imitating the monkey ; his infidelity and occa-
sional obscenity betray his extreme want of morality and judgment, and suit
tbe Gallic tinsel of his monotonous jargon. In the voluminous writings of
Gibbon, it is perhaps impossible to find one sentence of pure English ; and the
r^reiirneF, who wishes to have a correct knowledge of the language, will, it is
b</ped, never read a page either of Bolingbroke or Gibbon in their English
form. Between the Spanish and English there is much more similaritv than
^tween the French and English ; and this Dictionary will furnish satisfactory
mdenee, that both nations adopted the same Latin words, with the same sig-
^uficatioas, into their vernacular dialects. Several of those words are marked
^imsed in both countries, some others are printed in capitals, while whole
^aniiUes of words are still used, as indagoTy from indagarey to indagate. The
jcdidons traveller, who has studied anatomy and physiognomy, and visited the
iirubitants in the valleys of Aragon and other northern provinces of Spain, and
vbo has also observed the natives of the Isle of Wight, and the inhabitants in
the valleys of the South Downs, will be at no loss to discover tlie most unequi-
vocal evidence of indentitr of origin, and instantly conclude, that a branch of
tiie same race of Saxons (the Get«), who invaded the south-west of England,
must also have extended themselves to Spain. The physical traits of similarity
^e as striking as those of the ancient Greeks, whose descendants still appear
Ifi the valleys of Granada. The inquisitive reader may perhaps feel disposed
to pursue this subieet much farther than it is here expedient. A writer in the
Archeologia, published, by the Society of Antiquaries of London, has traced
the first inhabitants of Britain to the Iberians ; but it is easier to firame in-
ireoioss theories than to collect facts and make correct observations. The
S^on race is much less equivocal.
In order to 6cilit^e the acquisition of English, it may here be proper to



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▼i , fREFACfe.

notice its significant terminations^ which somewhat exceed a. hiindred. He
terminations or affixes an^ ttt, tncj and anOj have a possessive import, and signify
belonging to, as partizan is belonging to a party ; ee annexea to a verb mark
its personal object, patient, or residt ; er to uijectives signifies before or supe-
rior ; but when er, or, and ouTj are added to words signifying action, they
denote the person who acts ; as from love, lover : they also become abstract
nouns or general names of things, as from the Saxon ino]i9, death, we have
murther or murder, and we was formerly written owr^ as plesouTy now pleasure,
from the Latin placeoy and not the French plaUir. E$a and ix are the only
feminine terminations, as iter is used to both sexes ; the Saxon ric or rick
marks possession or dominion ; en was the Saxon plural, still used in children,
&c. ; it also signifies made or consisting of, as golden ; and finished, as proven,
proved; to shorten, t. e. to make shorter : the £fference between ed of tiie past
tense, and en of the participle, is, that in the former the action is considered, in
the latter its effects on the object ; ght is the same as edy finished, and the
latter in adjectives often beccmies id ; the adjective affixes anf, en/, and sub-
stantive ones ancej ence^ and end, denote being or state, as abundant is the
quality of being or existing in abundance ; and frienil from pjieonbe, loving ;
hence the cause of its being still pronounced frend ; ing and ion simply indicate
the existence of quality or action, and merU or mony is of the like import ; Ue^
aij and ar^ are adjective terminations expressing quality or disposition ; when
al is added to a verb, it is the same as in^ or ion ; able and ibU signify having
or possessing any quality or power ; te, iekj t^ue, es^e, imply kind, division, or
similarity ; teal is al and ic ; ch and ish have the same meaning, but the latter
is generally a diminutive ; ii/e, utoua^ incky and ef, are also diminutives ; oan is
an augmentative ; y is derived from the Saxon 5, and corresponds to the Latin
ta; fy, /iite, and ably^ indicate similarity; ary^ ery^ and wy^ express sort or
kind ; Asn, ktnd^ Img^ and (ef, denote family or relation, but the two latter are
also diminutives ; otis, eou«, loue, and uh^, express kind or manner of the
word to which they are affixed ; on makes a personal substantive of similarity,
as patron from po/er, father ; fM or fid are self-evident ; Un means want or
dismissal ; age and ish imply act, effect, or result, but age also signifies space
of time and price ; we or ize are verbal terminations ; ism denotes collection of
effects or classes of action ; ist and tfe, personal agent ; toe, 1/, mean causing or
producing ; ofe, ated^ atingy ofton, atoTj atory^ and are, all imply action or agent ;
el or (e, annexed to verbs, make them frequentatives, as to prate, to prattle, &c.
ad or ode means mass or heap ; dde and cidal are to kill ; ard denotes nature,
species, kind, or manner; ipard means looking to, or in the direction of;
hearted is applied to the feelings or passions, headed to the mind and judg-
ment; stead snd step indicate place; dom^ condition of existence; headj hoody
and chiefs mean principal and state ; shtp^ sMpy or 5c«ipe, also denote head or
chief; ce, ey, tfy, tude, and th, are affixes to nouns of generality ; ^ is to make,
factiat^ the act of making, and sometimes the thing made, as petrifaction ; t ^
expresses quality ; oto is of the kind ; some and sum mean quantity ; and the 9,
so much abused by Gallic affectation, is properly an adverbial affix, as back-
ward is the quality of an action, backwards tne manner of it ; stall and still are
to place ; tide and time are synonymous ; w is interchangeable with g^ as ^ile
and wile. As to the prefixes, they are chiefly Latin or Greek prepositions,
and have nothing peculiar. Un is of Saxon origin, * and is not merely a nega-
tive, but means to reverse the action of the verb to which it is prefixed. En
in composition becomes em, tti, t^r, i/, tm, or tr, according to the letter which
immediately follows it. Many writers confound the prefixes en and tn, although
the latter properly signifies situation or place, and is also a negative ; thus, to
inquire, means to seek in or search the place, and to enquire only signifies to



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FREFACE.



vu



dke Mii^. Ftrdiei' ezpl«iiatioii8 on tbk heftd may be found in the mm*
itff id Lcnrdif GnMtf tad AUen, ind the Analytical Introductioii of BooUi.

Ike Hptwiah tenmnationa are easily acMfuired. It waa obsenred by Mayansy
^ BMBj Spiffiiah Mibatantiyea and adjectives are Latin ablatiye cases singular^
•: Kceasathres plural, as art) arte, artes; prudeil$j pnidente, prudentes. The
. ; a, f, a, 2:, and s;, are the only consonants, which can terminate a word,
•"m^ ^ €y dy g^ i^ tHy Uy p^ Tj Sy ty Xy vo^ Zy m%j cttd a syllable; CylynyTy in

't*wmaidB admit of being doubled, and dso the vowels a, €, t, and 0, but
~ v.'e larelj. The organs of speech render 6, py r, and /, and, c, 17, j and q in*
:rdaB^eable ki bo^ languages ; in English s and z are Commutable in verbal
^^saatiflKs. The Latin t is almost always chaneed in Spanish for c or ir, as
r^pmam^rmimy raaon; the Latin mutes are likewise omitted, as sdetuioy
•Adi; in odier cases an e is prefixed for the sake of euphony, as «p«aef
z^b fyecie. The Latin adjectives in inlii obey the same law in Spanish
cd Eagiirfi, smd make Ue ; ou is changed to o, as cmnon, oro ; t to e, as infirm
m, ofeisio; v to 0, as sMisca, mosca; omsii, huevo; / is converted into A, as
^^lM£er; » iato n, as fyii^iAo, linfa; Latin infinitives become Spanish by
sT^ppiiig the final c, as ponercy poner, danmrty dormir, storey estar ; some words
L-^ lisa aagmented, by that spirit of magnanimity which animates every Spa-
:^inl,aiid which was ^judiciously observed by Smith in his Theory of Moral
vstimeats ; as from npes comes esperanza, cor, corazon ; and, as a proof of
>ir delicacy and temperance, camedere is reduced to comer. These literal
Eitatians wfll be evident to the classical reader, and to others any further
latice of &em ^vould be useless.

It leaudna to say something of the great and numerous additions to the
r^lomes now submitted to the public. Above ten whole sheets have been added
' J the recent editions of this Dictionary, which, with the additional matter
3&ed by compressing the definitions so as to have few short lines, and a
?cater length of page, as well as other alterations in the mode of printing, aug-
aeot the contents to nearly twenty sheets more than the preceding editions.
In die Spanish-English, there are above 3000 entirely new articles introduced ;
a the English-Spanish above 12,000. Besides these additions, in both parts,
^ ^1 be found mat very few of die old definitions have been allowed to pass,
vitknit either correction or the addition of many new and appropriate
^yiioayras, several thousand of which are not to be found in any Spanish or
Eagli^ dictionary yet publiribed, or indeed in any dictionary of two languages,
«bieh has Ulen under the observation of the writer. The corrections have
jeen made after carefully consulting the writings of father Isla, Capmany,
ioTeUaaoa, ft,c. and some Spanish living authors of established reputation. In
some words the reader will observe definitions in both parts diametrically
^^poeite to what are given in almost sU other dictionaries ; he is not therefore
lo coadude diat they are wrong, but to examine facts, when he may perh^M
<iiscover their general accuracy, and that they are derived from diligent
^earch. It rarely happens, as in the present case, that compilers of dictions-
ne^ are equally well acquainted with words and wiUi things : it is the want of
^t iatter, and more arduous kind of knowledge, which occasions the defective^
Bea of all dictionaries. In this edition, it is believed, more terms of science,
vu, manufactures, and commerce, have been introduced than were ever before
t£tefflpted in a dictionary of two languages, and even more than exist in any
Eaglish dictionary extant

laqwrtant political circumstances have recently happily combined to promote
tt extended intercourse between England and Spain — ^both European and
imerican. The prejudices of religion, which had hitherto interdicted the dis-
teauaatioii of our literature, are rapidly vanishing before the edicts of a more



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iriii PIQBFACE.

liberal goremment in the old country, whilst the geparation of Spanish Axnerii
from its parent state cannot batinfiise new life into our commercial enterpris
and bring us more immediately in contact with a country, the natural resource
of which are boundless ; and with a people, who have manifested the stronge
desire to cultivate the friendship, and to repose the fullest confidence in tl
known integrity and honour, of the British nation. That this copious Dictioi
ary of the languages of these countries may be the medium of facilitating It
communication, and of promoting the best interests of each, is not only th
earnest desire, but is also the certain antiapation, of the Editors.

Lastly, the Editors regret, from particulu* circumstances, they are not pei
mitted to return publicly their thanks to many Spanish and other gentlemei



Online LibraryGiuseppe Marco Antonio Baretti Henry NeumanNeuman and Baretti's Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages ... → online text (page 1 of 160)