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QUEEN ELIZABETH

VARIOUS SCENES AND EVENTS
IN THE LIFE OF HER MAJESTY



BY



GLADYS E. LOCKE, M.A.




BOSTON

SHERMAN, FRENCH % COMPANY
1913






COPYRIGHT, 1913

SHERMAN, FRENCH & COMPANY



"COMMENDACION" TO QUEEN ELIZABETH

Syns theise and many histories

Ar written of by men
Of dyverse kyndes of properties

By dyverse women then,
I praye what end such happ shoulde fall,
I knowe oone such doth pass them all
That ever was, or ever shall,
And they were all alyve agayne,
I praye what prayse deserveyth she
If in our Courte her highness be?
Well, you shall know no more of me:
God save her life! Amen.

By a contemporary.
(In Arber's "An English Garner.")



293123



* II
N. ''III

I IV



V
VI

VII
VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

XIII

XIV



XV

XVI

' XVII

XVIII

XIX



CONTENTS

PAGE

PERSONAL DESCRIPTIONS .... 1
BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS .... 8
THE IMPRISONMENT OF THE PRINCESS

ELIZABETH ........ 23

THE FURTHER IMPRISONMENT OF THE

PRINCESS ...... . . 36

THE ACCESSION OF QUEEN ELIZABETH 55
THE ROYAL PROGRESS ON THE DAY BE-

FORE THE CORONATION .... 63

THE CORONATION ...... 71

THE RECEPTION TO QUEEN ELIZABETH

AT CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY ... 76
ANECDOTES OF THE QUEEN AND HER

COURTIERS ........ 84

QUEEN ELIZABETH AT OXFORD . . .116
QUEEN ELIZABETH AND MARY STUART 123
HER MAJESTY'S SUITORS .... 142

MARRIAGE NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE

DUKE OF ALENCON ...... 166

THE CONDEMNATION OF THE QUEEN OF

SCOTS ......... 194

" THE INVINCIBLE ARMADA "... 215
QUEEN ELIZABETH REVISITS OXFORD . 233
THE PRIVATE LIFE OF THE QUEEN . . 241
THE FALL OF ESSEX ...... 250

" THE SETTING OF THE WESTERN LU-

MINARY " . . 270



I

PERSONAL DESCRIPTIONS

INTRODUCTORY

Queen Elizabeth was of majestic and graceful
form, a little above the medium height, " neither
too high nor too low," as she herself naively re-
marked. She had hair of a colour between pale
auburn and yellow, black eyes, which were " beau-
tiful and lively," a fair, clear complexion, a Roman
nose, a small mouth with thin, firmly set lips, and
a forehead broad and high. Her face was striking
and commanding rather than delicately beautiful,
the countenance of one born to rule. She pos-
sessed many personal attractions and no one could
be more charming and gracious upon occasion than
this mighty Princess of the Royal House of Tudor,
with that slow, sweet smile of hers and her quick,
ever-ready wit.

Sir Francis Bacon says, " She was tall of
stature, of comely limbs, and excellent feature in
her countenance; majesty sat under veil of sweet-
ness, and her health was sound and prosperous."

There were a great many portraits painted of
her both as Princess and as Queen. In her pic-
tures, Elizabeth was fond of displaying her slen-

1



QUEEN ELIZABETH

der, delicate hands, of which she was very proud.
One of the best known portraits is the so-called
" Rainbow Picture " by Zucchero. In this her
slim, tapering fingers are free from rings, but her
costume and her coiffure are most elaborate. Her
tightly-curled hair is bedecked with jewels and
surmounted by a crown, and the stiffly starched
ruff is conspicuous. Indeed, the Queen's one ex-
travagance consisted in a lavish manner of dress-
ing. At the time of her death there were said to
be three thousand gowns in her wardrobe, for she
disliked to part with any of them, although she
had worn some only once or twice.

Before her accession to the throne, however, as
her position was uncertain and her life often in
danger, she assumed a manner of dressing, plain
and simple in the extreme, as seemed fitting to
her condition. And, in early life, her manner
was marked by a demureness that gained for her
the title of " my sweetest sister Temperance "
from her little brother, King Edward VI, to whom
she was tenderly attached. Upon becoming
Queen, she allowed her taste for elaborate costumes
and rich jewels full play, for she was always fond
of arousing admiration in her subjects, and of
outshining the ladies of. her Court in splendour
of apparel. No one before or since has excelled
" Good Queen Bess," as she was affectionately
called, in magnificence of attire and almost fan-
tastic display of jewels.

But, in contrast to this feminine love of show,



QUEEN ELIZABETH 3

Elizabeth possessed remarkable mental endow-
ments. Devoted from her earliest years to study,
and particularly to history, she became the ablest
and greatest woman England has ever had. Her
understanding of the problems of European poli-
tics was noteworthy. In the Council Chamber she
was distinguished for sound common sense, great
shrewdness, and clear insight. Her proficiency
in languages was extraordinary. She was an ex-
cellent Latin scholar and could converse in that
language with rare facility, and was able to de-
liver speeches in it ex tempore, fluently, and at
great length. She spoke and wrote French,
Italian, Spanish and Flemish with the same ease
as her native English. She also studied Greek
extensively, and could converse in it. She learned
very readily, and, when only twelve years old,
had made considerable progress in the sciences,
geography, mathematics and astronomy.

" She was of admirable beauty and well deserv-
ing a Crown, of a modest gravity, excellent wit,
royal soul, happy memory, and indefatigably given
to the study of learning; insomuch, as before she
was seventeen years of age, she understood well
the Latin, French and Italian tongues and had
an indifferent knowledge of Greek. Neither did
she neglect music so far as became a Princess,
being able to sing sweetly and play handsomely
on the lute," writes Camden, the contemporary
historian of her reign.

Elizabeth was always fond of poetry and com-



4 QUEEN ELIZABETH

posed some sonnets and other verses, which are
altogether worthy of mention. In addition, she
translated some poems from the French, and Sal-
lust's " De Bello Jugurthino " from the Latin ;
also a play of Euripides and two orations of Isoc-
rates from Greek into Latin. Further, she
wrote a comment on Plato, and translated a dia-
logue of Xenophon from Greek into English. In
1593, when she was sixty years old, Her Majesty
found time, in the midst of her State duties, to
translate from the Latin into smooth and very
elegant English the five books of Boethius' " Con-
solations of Philosophy," and in 1598 the greater
part of Horace's " De Arte Poetica," and a little
treatise by Plutarch, called " De Curiositate."
Almost the whole of these manuscripts are in the
Queen's own clear and beautiful handwriting,
which was so admired by her tutors. Roger
Ascham, the famous classical scholar, first tutor,
and later, Latin Secretary to Queen Elizabeth,
says that if Her Highness had had the leisure to
pursue her studies, her learning would have been
astounding. He considered that she possessed
extraordinary abilities for acquiring and retain-
ing knowledge.

Sir Richard Baker pays this eulogy to " the
heroine of the British throne " : " The beauty of
her mind was most admirable, which she was par-
ticularly happy in expressing both by speech and
writing. If a collection could be made of her
apothegms and her extemporal orations, it would



QUEEN ELIZABETH 5

certainly excel anything extant on that head."
Fuller offers an interesting description of the
Maiden Queen : " She was of person tall, of hair
and complexion fair ; well favoured but high nosed,
of limbs and features neat, of a stately and majestic
deportment. She had a piercing eye, wherewith
she used to touch what metal strangers were made
of that came into her presence. But, as she
counted it a pleasant conquest with her majestic
look to dash strangers out of countenance, so
was she merciful in pursuing those whom she over-
came ; and would comfort them with her smiles, if
perceiving towardliness and an ingenuous modesty
in them. She much affected rich and costly ap-
parel, and, if ever jewels had just cause to be
proud, it was with her wearing them."

Speed says : " Her royal actions and princely
qualities of mind were seated in such a body for
state, stature, beauty and majesty, as best be-
fitted an Empress."

Speed also relates how Her Majesty in 1597,
long after the time when she had the leisure to de-
vote to persistent and continued study, completely
worsted the Polish Ambassador in a lengthy Latin
debate. Says our chronicler, " Lion-like rising, she
daunted the malapert orator no less with her stately
port and majestic departure than with the tartness
of her princely cheek; and turning to the train
of her attendants, thus said : ' God's death, my
Lords, I have been enforced this day to scour up
my old Latin that hath long lain rusting.' "



6 QUEEN ELIZABETH

Thomas Fuller writes further : " She was well
skilled in the Queen-craft, and by her policy and
prosperity she was much beloved by her people;
insomuch, that since it hath been said, ' that Queen
Elizabeth might lawfully do that which King
James might not.' For, although the laws were
equally the rule to them both, yet her popularity
sugared many bitter things, her subjects thanking
her for taking those taxes which they refused
to pay her successor."

The carriage of the " Virgin Queen " was
stately and dignified, and her appearances in
public, splendidly attired, and accompanied by
the Lords and Ladies of her Court, never failed to
evoke the warmest enthusiasm from her loyal sub-
jects. To her people she was always affable, and
graciously appreciative of the pageants prepared
by them in her honour. ^JVell did she understand
the heart of the English people, and upon their
love and loyalty rested the strength of her throne
which was not to be shaken by civil war or foreign
invasion. And if England's Elizabeth occasion-
ally gave way to outbursts of royal wrath which
plainly showed her to be the daughter of Henry
VIII, to her subjects at large she invariably
presented only the greatest and best in her na-
ture, working unceasingly and with marked suc-
cess for the advancement and glory of her coun-
try. **" She was the living embodiment of the grow-
ing greatness of England and was both beloved and
feared by her subjects, ruling mightily, but wisely,



QUEEN ELIZABETH 7

and inspiring in her people fervent patriotism
and" chivalrous devotion to herself. Her courage,
in all crises, and her vigourous will were alike in-
domitable; in the words of one of her ministers,
" What she wills, she wills." She was, moreover,
a daring horsewoman, an excellent shot, a graceful
dancer, and a great lover of dramatic entertain-
ments and gorgeous pageants.

Camden pays the mighty English Queen this
further tribute : " A woman, and, if that be not
enough, an unmarried virgin, destitute of all help
of parents, brethren, husband, beset with divers
nations, her mortal enemies, while the Pope
fretted, the Spaniard threatened; and all her
neighbour Princes, as many as had sworn to
Popery, raged round about her, held the most
stout and warlike nation of the English four and
forty years and upwards, not only in awe and duty,
but even in peace also, and, which is most of all, in
the true Worship of God."



n

BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS

On Sunday, September 7, 1533, between three
and four o'clock in the afternoon, in the Royal
Palace at Greenwich, was born the future illus-
trious Queen of England, the daughter of Henry
VIII, and Anne Boleyn. Bells were rung, the Te
Deum sung in the churches, and great prepara-
tions made for the christening of the infant Prin-
cess. The Duke of Norfolk came home for the
ceremony, which took place on the following
Wednesday.

By order of the King, the Mayor of London,
with the Aldermen, forty of the chief citizens, and
a throng of Lords and gentlemen, came up the
river to Greenwich on the appointed day.

The christening was to take place at two
o'clock, and, at precisely one, the Mayor and his
brethren, clad in scarlet robes, stepped into their
barges and were quickly rowed to Greenwich.

The King's Palace and Grey Friars' Church,
where the ceremony was to be performed, were
richly hung with arras and cloth of gold. The
entire road from the Royal dwelling to the church

was strewn with green reeds. The font in the

8



QUEEN ELIZABETH 9

middle of the church, covered with costly velvet,
was of silver and three steps high. Over the font
hung a canopy of crimson satin, fringed with gold.
At two o'clock, the infant Princess, the uncon-
scious cause of all this pomp and splendour was
borne with great ceremony from the Palace to
the church. At the head of the long procession
marched the forty citizens of London, two by two,
next came the gentlemen and Chaplains, the Alder-
men and Mayor, then the King's Council, the King's
Chaplains, the Barons, Bishops and Earls. The
Earl of Essex bore the covered gilt basins, the
Marquis of Exeter a taper of virgin wax, and the
Marquis of Dorset carried the salt. Lady Mary
of Norfolk bore the chrisom, made of stone set
with pearls. After her proceeded the Dowager
Duchess of Norfolk, bearing the Royal infant,
wrapped in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long
train furred with ermine. The Duke of Norfolk,
holding the Marshal's rod, walked on the right
side of the Duchess, while the Duke of Suffolk
went on the left. The Countess of Kent carried
the long train of the baby Princess, while between
the Countess and the child walked the Earl of
Wiltshire and the Earl of Derby, supporting the
train on the left and right. Four other Lords
bore a canopy of crimson velvet over the Princess.
In this order, the imposing procession reached
the church door, where it was met by the Bishop
of London with other ecclesiastics, all in gorgeous
State-array, and the sacrament was begun.



10 QUEEN ELIZABETH

The Archbishop of Canterbury, who performed
the ceremony, was also god-father, while the Dow-
ager Duchess of Norfolk and the Dowager
Marchioness of Dorset were the godmothers.
The Royal infant was given the name of her pa-
ternal grandmother, Elizabeth of York.

After the child had been carried to the font
and solemnly christened, the Garter-King-at-
Arms cried, " God of his infinite goodness send a
prosperous life and long to the high and mighty
Princess of England, Elizabeth!"

Then the trumpet blew loudly, and the Princess
was brought to the altar and confirmed; after
which, the Archbishop presented a standing cup
of gold, as his gift to the daughter of the King.
The Duchess of Norfolk gave a cup of gold,
fretted with pearls, and the Marchioness of Exeter
gave three gilt bowls.

After a solemn banquet, the procession returned
to the Court in the same order as before, with the
addition of four other Nobles who followed the
Royal Elizabeth, bearing the costly presents that
had been given her. The splendid retinue ac-
companied the child to the door of Queen Anne's
apartments, where the King met it and gave his
thanks for the honours paid his youthful daugh-
ter.

Shortly after this, Henry, acceding to the
wishes of the Queen, had an Act of Parliament
passed, whereby Elizabeth was solemnly recog-
nized as the heir to the Throne, and the title of



QUEEN ELIZABETH 11

Princess of Wales was conferred upon her.*
Thus the claims of the Princess Mary, the daugh-
ter of the King by his first wife, Katherine of
Aragon, were abruptly set aside.

A Royal residence was then provided for the
little Princess and her attendants. Soon after,
the King entered into negotiations for a marriage
between her and the Duke of Angouleme, third
son of the French Monarch. But Henry added so
many stipulations to the marriage treaty that the
affair came to naught.

The brilliant career of the young Princess of
Wales, which had opened amid such pomp and
splendour, was rudely checked, before she was
quite three years old, by the tragic death of her
mother.

Rapid as had been Anne Boleyn's rise from the
post of maid of honour to Katherine of Aragon
to the exalted position of Queen of England, still
more rapid was her disgrace and dreadful fall
from the lofty pinnacle to which she had been
raised by the hand of her capricious Lord, the
King. She was accused of misconduct and
treason, and, after a judicial farce, hardly worthy
the name of trial, went to the scaffold, and, protest-
ing her innocence to the last, died with queenly
dignity.

Henry's resentment against the unfortunate
Anne Boleyn and his persistent disbelief in her

* This title was somewhat irregular and could only be pre-
sumptive, as Henry still hoped for a son by Anne.



12 QUEEN ELIZABETH

innocence, had been strengthened by his passion
for Jane Seymour, one of Anne's own ladies-in-
waiting, whom he married on the very day after
the execution. The King had an Act of Parlia-
ment passed annulling his marriage with Anne,
and rendering the little Elizabeth illegitimate and
incapable of inheriting the Crown.

When a son, Edward, was born later to the
Royal pair, he was hailed as the heir to the Throne.
The Princess Elizabeth, then four years old,
borne in the arms of the Earl of Hertford, car-
ried the chrisom to the splendid christening which
was soon followed by the death of the new Queen.

The little Princess was a child of such remarka-
ble promise and such pleasing manners that her
father softened toward her, and allowed her to be
brought up with the young scion of the Royal
House. The neglected child of Anne Boleyn, far
from cherishing feelings of envy against the little
usurper of her royal privileges, conceived a very
tender affection for him, which he heartily re-
turned. On his second birthday she presented
him with a cambric shirt, worked by her baby
hands.

Elizabeth and Edward were brought up in the
Protestant faith, while the elder sister, Mary,
was a strict Catholic, as her mother had been.
The winning manners and endearing caresses of
the little Princess caused even Mary, who, at first,
felt bitter jealousy toward the child of her
mother's rival, to warm toward her.



QUEEN ELIZABETH 13

The tutors of Elizabeth were very enthusiastic
in their praises of her. John Aylmer, her first
tutor, said that he learned more of her every day
than she of him. " I teach her words," he writes,
" and she teacheth me things. I teach her tongues
to speak, and her modesty and maidenly life
teacheth me words to do. For I think she is
the best inclined and disposed of any in all Eu-
rope."

Her Italian teacher, Ca^tigjione, says : " I
find in her two qualities which are never lightly
yokefellows in one woman; which are a singular
wit and a marvellous meek stomach."

When Elizabeth and Edward were separated in
154*6 by the removal of the former to Enfield and
the latter to Hertford, the young Prince was so
grieved that she wrote to him, begging him to be
comforted and to keep up a correspondence with
her.

Sir Robert Naunton, speaking later of the af-
fection between the two younger children of Henry
VIII writes : " Besides the consideration of blood,
there was between these two Princes, a concurrency
and a sympathy in their natures and affections,
together with the celestial bond, conformity in re-
ligion, which made them one and friends, for the
King called her his sweetest and dearest sister, and
was scarce his own man, she being absent, which
was not so between him and the Lady Mary."

It is said that Queen Elizabeth throughout her
life, whenever she tried a new pen, customarily



14 QUEEN ELIZABETH

V wrote the name of Edward, her dearly loved
brother.

The young Princess found such favour in the
eyes of Anne of Cleves, her father's fourth wife,
that Anne declared "sh~ should esteem it a greater
happiness to be mother of Elizabeth than Queen
of England." After Henry and this new ,wife
had been divorced by mutual agreement, the King
granted Anne's request, seconded by the pleading
of his daughter, that the Princess should visit her
frequently.

Elizabeth was treated with equal affection and
consideration by her next step-mother, Katherine
Howard, own cousin to Anne Boleyn. At all the
banquets and fetes in honour of her marriage,
Katherine insisted that Elizabeth be seated by her
side and called her " cousin." It was also her in-
tention to ask the King to have that Act of Par-
liament repealed, which had rendered the Princess
incapable of inheriting the Crown. Elizabeth,
however, while she manifested a loving regard for
her partial young step-mother, spent as much time
as her father would allow, with Anne of Cleves,
for whom she always showed a deep and sincere
affection. Indeed, she ever remained constantly
faithful throughout her life to the friends of her
youth, aiding and advancing them to the best of
her power and their own abilities.

After the disgrace and execution of Katherine
Howard, the Princess Elizabeth lived for a time
with her sister, Mary, at Havering Bower.



QUEEN ELIZABETH 15

On the marriage of King Henry to Katherine
Parr, a woman of strong character and rare
scholarship, Elizabeth and Mary took their proper
places in the Royal household. The younger Prin-
cess was ten years old at this time. The new
Queen showed a motherly interest in both her step-
daughters, but particularly in the little Eliza-
beth, whose studies she personally directed and
encouraged.

It was upon history that the young Princess
bent her thoughts in particular, and spent three
hours of each day in the pursuit of this study,
in which she began to interest herself when only
five years old.

She read works on this subject in all languages,
and used to give especial attention to the lives of
the rulers. She was studying to be a worthy
Queen, for, from her earliest youth, the glittering
vision of the Crown shone before her eyes, to at-
tain which was the aim and object of her life.
And those who were brought in personal contact
with her said that Heaven in endowing her with
such remarkable gifts certainly destined her for
some high office.

During the last illness of the King, Elizabeth
and Edward again resided together and their af-
fection for each other grew even stronger. When
their father's death was announced to them, they
burst into such passionate tears that all those
present were deeply moved, and Heywood writes,
" Never was sorrow more sweetly set forth, their



16 QUEEN ELIZABETH

faces seeming rather to beautify their sorrow than
their sorrow to cloud the beauty of their faces."

By the conditions of Henry's will, sanctioned
by Parliament, the Crown was to pass to Edward,
then to Mary, if he died without heirs, and, in
default of heirs to Mary, to Elizabeth, and from
her to the children of their father's younger sister,
Mary, Duchess of Suffolk. Lady Jane Grey was
the oldest of these children. And so, by the tardy
justice of her father, the daughter of Anne Boleyn
was restored to her proper rank as Royal Prin-
cess and reversionary heiress to the Throne. She
was given an income of three thousand pounds a
year and a marriage portion of ten thousand
pounds, provided her marriage was approved by
King Edward and his Council, otherwise she would
lose her dowry.

The ambitious Lord Admiral Seymour, brother
to the Protector Somerset and uncle to the young
King, made a daring, but unsuccessful attempt to
unite himself in marriage to the fourteen year
old Princess Elizabeth, exactly a month after the
death of Henry VIII.

Upon Her Highness' refusal Seymour promptly
married his former fiancee, Katherine Parr, the
Queen Dowager, who had been appointed the
guardian of Elizabeth and with whom the Princess
was then living.

Mary and Elizabeth were both displeased at
their step-mother's hasty marriage, which seemed
derogatory to their father's memory, but Eliza-



QUEEN ELIZABETH 17

beth continued for a year, at least, to reside with
Katherine Parr. Here she was treated with the
royal dignity befitting the sister of the King and
was attended by a retinue of ladies and officers of
State.

Seymour, a man of unprincipled character and
boundless ambition, now attempted to obtain a
hold upon his wife's young Royal ward by indecor-
ous romping and undue familiarity. Katherine
prevented any mischief arising from these evil
designs, fostered by ambition, by insisting that
the young Princess and her establishment remove
from the house. Elizabeth then lived chiefly at
Hatfield and Ashbridge.

Katherine Parr, however, remained her faithful
friend and guide until her death, writing to her
frequently in a friendly and affectionate manner.
In her will she left her half her jewels and a
heavy chain of gold, admonishing her to cultivate
the great qualities bestowed on her by God and


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