Thomas Carlyle.

Carlyle's complete works (Volume 11) online

. (page 1 of 49)
Online LibraryThomas CarlyleCarlyle's complete works (Volume 11) → online text (page 1 of 49)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


'■^'MM ■■'■







Ti>■■';^rT








P


r^^-:


.'■A






■-■,,. l


':^'^i


<'r'


'''i-i'i-'.




:5.


rt\:'.


f'

'•::


', _.W"'


PV'^'


yV


; 1 ..






^i.iy.


'/''^ 1


''(■'■ V








i



•';



^^



01"" s» date •t'i'Tiped bel''



SOUTHERN BRANCH,

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA,

LIBRARY,

LOS ANUt-LtS. CALIF.



-~^- .




%^^:^



/:.^,v So



m-i



CARLYLE'S COMPLETE WORKS

THE STERLING EDITION



HISTORY



OF



FRIEDRICH II. OF PRUSSIA



CALLED



FREDERICK THE GREAT



BY

THOMAS CARLYLE



Vol. VII.



BOSTON
ESTES AND LAURIAT, PUBLISHERS

4 9 91 1









o



tSnibcrsHn ^rtsa;
John Wilson and Son, Cam bridge.



• t • • •.



c «

t * *•



• • r •



* • • •

»• • ••

• • •






CONTENTS.



1S0Ok XX. — Continued.

FRIEDRICII IS NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED: THE SEVEN-YEARS

WAR GRADUALLY ENDS.

25th April, 1760-15th February, 1763.

Chapter Page

VI. Winter-quarters 1760-1761 3

King Friednch in the Apel House at Leipzig {8th December,
1760-17th March, 1761), p. 8.

Interview with Herr Professor Gellert (Thui-sday, 18th Decem-
ber, 1760), 10.

Dialogue with General Saldern (in the Apel House, Leipzig,
21st January, 1761), 18.

There are some War-movements during Winter ; general Finan-
ciering Difficulties. Choiseul proposes Peace, 22.

VII. Sixth Campaign opens : Camp of Bunzelwitz ... 36
Of Ferdinand's Battle of Vellinghausen (15th-16th July) ; and

the Campaign 1761, p. 53.
Third Siege of Colberg, 62.

VIII. Loudon pounces upon Scuweidnitz one Night (last of

September, 1761) 67

IX. Traitor Warkotsch 74i



iy CONTENTS.

Chapter Page

X. Friedeich in Breslau ; HAS News from Petersburg . 86
The Pitt Catastrophe : how the Peace-Negotiation went off by
Explosion ; how Pitt withdrew (3d October, 1761), and there
came a Spanish War nevertheless, p. 88.
Tiff of Quarrel between King and Henri (March- April, 1762),

99.
Bright News from Petersburg (certain, January 19th) ; which
grow ever brighter ; and become a Star-of-day for Friedrich,
103.
"What Colonel Ilordt and the Others saw at Petersburg (Januaiy-
July, 1762), 116.

XL Seventh Campaign opens 133

XII. Siege of Schweidnitz ; Seventh Campaign ends . . 147

XIII. Peace of Hubertsburg 167

ISooU XXI.

AFTERNOON AND EVENING OF FRIEDRICH'S LIFE. 1763-1786.
I. Prefatory 180

II. Repairing of a ruined Prussia 188

Landrath Niissler and the King (30th March-3d April, 1763),

p. 190.
Kriegsrath Roden and the King (6th-13th June, 1763), 194.
Of Friedrich's new Excise System, 204.
The Neue Palais, in Sans-Souci Neighborhood, is founded and

finished (1763-1770), 215.
" Obituary in Friedrich's Circle till 1771," 221.

III. Troubles in Poland ^^3

King of Poland dies ; and there ensue huge Anarchies in that

Country," p. 227.
Ex-Lover Poniatowski becomes King of Poland (7th September,

1764), and is crowned without Loss of his Hair, 247.
For several Years the Dissident Question cannot be got settled ;

Confederation of Radom (23d June, 1767-5th March, 1768)

pushes it into Settlement, 250.
Confederation of Bar ensues, on the per-contra side (March

28th, 1768) ; and, as first Result of its Achievements (October

6th, 1768), a Turk-Russian War, 254.



CONTENTS. V

CH.VPTEB Page

IV. Pahtition of Poland 267

First Interview between Friedrich and Kaiser Joseph (Neisse,
25tli-28th August, 1709), p. 208.

Next Year, there is a Second Interview; Friedrich making a
Return- Visit during the Kaiser's Moravian Reviews (Camp
of Mlihrisch-Neustadt, 3d-7th September, 1770), 277-

Russian-Turk War, First Two Campaigns, 289.

Prince Henri has been to Sweden; is seen at Petersburg in
Masquerade (on or about New-year's Day, 1771) ; aud does
get home, with Results that are important, 299.

What Friedrich did with his new Acquisition, 310.

V. A Chapter of Miscellanies 321

Herr Doctor Zimmermann, the famous Author of the Book " On
Solitude," walks reverentially before Friedrich's Door in the
Dusk of an October Evening; and has a Royal Interview
next Day, p. 322.

Sister Ulrique, Queen-Dowager of Sweden, revisits her native
Place (December, 1771-August, 1772), 333.

Wilhelmina's Daughter, Elizabeth Frederike Sophie, Duchess
of Wiirtemberg, appears at Ferney (September, 1773), 341.

No. 1. Doctor Burney has sight of Voltaire (July, 1770), 332.

No. 2. A Reverend Mr. Sherlock sees Voltaire, and even diuea
with him (April, 1776), 356.

General or Fieldniarshal Conway, direct from the London Cir-
cles, attends one of Friedrich's Reviews (August-September,
1774), 361.

Exuberant Sherlock and Eleven other English are presented to
Friedrich on a Court Occasion (8th October, 1777) ; and Two
of them get spoken to, and speak each a Word. Excellency
Hugh Elliot is their Introducer, 378.



•'o*-



VI. The Bavarian War 391

VII. Miller Arnold's Lawsuit 424

VIII. The FiJRSTENRUND : Friedrich's Last Years .... 450
Prince de Ligne, after Ten Years, sees Friedrich a second Time ;

and reports what was said, p. 460.
How General vou de Marwitz, in early Boyhood, saw Friedrich

the Great Three Times (1782-1783), 472.
General Bouille, home from his West-Indian Exploits, visits

Friedrich (August 5th-llth, 1784), 479.

IX. Friedrich's Last Illxess 'md Death 492



vi CONTENTS.



APPENDIX.
A Day witu Friedricu . , . . 511



MAPS.

BUNZELWITZ-BURKEKSDORF, ReiCHEWBACH COUNTRY 152 a

Kingdom of Prussia. end of volume.



ILLUSTRATIONS.



Portrait : Frederick on Horseback.

Painted by Joseph CtJNNiNGHAM. Etched by E. A. Fowle.

Frontispiece.

Portrait : Frederick ox Parade,

Redrawn, from Old Engraving (Chodowiecki's Print), by W. L.
Taylor. Photogravure by F. H. Allen.

To face page 1 .



HISTORY OF

FEIEDRICH 11. OF PRUSSIA,



CALLED



FREDERICK THE GREAT.



IN TWENTY-ONE BOOKS.



VOL. XI.



FREDERICK THE GREAT.



BOOK XX.

{CONTINUED.)

FRIEDRICH IS NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED: THE
SEVEN-YEARS WAR GRADUALLY ENDS.

25th April, 1760-15tli February, 1763.



CHAPTER VI.

WINTER-QUARTERS 1760-1761.

A MELANCHOLY little eveiit, which afterwards proved unex-
pectedly unfortunate for Friedrich, had happened in England
ten days before the Battle of Torgau. Satvirday, 25th October,
1760, George II., poor old gentleman, suddenly died. He Avas
in .. is 77th year ; feeble, but not feebler than usual, — unless,
perhaps, the unaccountable news from Kloster Kampen may
have been too agitating to the dim old mind ? On the Mon-
day of this week he had, " from a tent in Hyde Park," presided
at a Review of Dragoons ; and on Thursday, as his Coldstream
Guards were on march for Portsmouth and foreign service,
*' was in his Portico at Kensington to see them pass ; " — full
of zeal always in regard to military matters, and to this War
in particular. Saturday, by sunrise he was on foot ; took his
cup of chocolate ; inquired about the wind, and the chances of
mails arriving ; opened his window, said he would have a turn
in the Gardens, the morning being so fine. It was now be-
tween 7 and 8. The valet then withdrew with the chocolate



4 FKIEDRICH NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED. Book XX.

17G0-17G1.

apparatus ; but had hardly shut the door, when he heard a
deep sigh, and fall of something, — " billet of wood from the
fire ?" thought he; — upon which, hurrying back, he found it
was the King, who had dropt from his seat, " as if in attempt-
ing to ring the bell." King said faintly, " Call Amelia," and
instantly died. Poor deaf Amelia (Friedrich's old love, now
grown old and deaf) listened wildly for some faint sound from
those lips now mvite forever. George Second was no more;
his grandson George Third was now King.^

Intrinsically taken, this seemed no very great event for
Friedrich, for Pitt, for England or mankind : but it proved
otherwise. The merit of this poor King deceased, who had
led his Nation stumbling among the chimney-pots at such a
rate in these mad German Wars for Twenty Years past, was,
Tliat he did now stand loyal to the Enterprise, now when it
had become sane indeed ; now when the Nation was broad
awake, and a Captain had risen to guide it out of that perilous
posture, into never-expected victory and triumph ! Poor old
George had stood by his Pitt, by his Ferdinand, with a perfect
loyalty at all turns ; and been devoted, heart and soul and
breeches-pocket, to completely beating Bourbon's oppressive
ideas ou.t of Bourbon's head. A little fact, but how important,
then and there ! Under the kSuccessor, all this may be dif-
ferent : — ghastly beings, Old Tutors, Favorites, Mother's-
Favorites, flit, as yet invisible, on the new backstairs : —
should Bute and Company get into the foreground, people will
then know how important it was. Walpole says : —

"The Yorkes [Ex-Chancellor Hardwicke people] had long
distasted this War : " yes, and been painfully obliged to hold
their tongues : " but now," within a month or so of the old
King's death, " there was published, under Lord Hardwicke's
countenance, a Tract setting forth the burden and ill policy of
our German measures. It was called Considerations on the Ger-
man War ; was ably written, and changed many men's minds."
This is the famous "Mauduit Pamphlet : " first of those small
stones, from the sling of Opposition not obliged to be dormant,
which are now beginning to rattle on Pitt's Olympian Dwellin
^ Old Newspapers (in Geiiileman's Magazine, xxx. 486-488).



(T.

o



Chai-. VI. WINTER-QUARTEKS 17(JU-17(J1. 5

Dec. 1760-April, 1761.

place, — high really as Olympus, in comparisoii with others of
the kind, but which unluckily is made of glass like the rest
of them ! The slinger of this iirst resounding little missile,
Walpole informs us, was " one Mauduit, formerly a Dissenting
Teacher," — son of a Dissenting Minister in Bermondsey, I
hear, and perhaps himself once a Preacher, but at present con-
cerned with Factorage of ^ i^ool on the great scale ; got soon
alterwards promoted to be lead of the Custom-house in South-
ampton, so lovely did he seem to Bute and Company. '^ How
agreeable his politics were to the interior of the Court, soon
appeared by a place [Southampton Custom-house] being be-
stowed on him by Lord Bute." A fortunate Mauduit, yet a
stu2:>idly tragical ; had such a destiny in English History !
Hear Walpole a little farther, on Mauduit, and on other things
then resonant to Arlington Street in a way of their own. "Jb
Sir Horace Mann [at Florence] : —

" November 14th, 1760 [tenth night after Torgau]. . . . We
are all in guns and bonfires for an unexpected victory of the
King of Prussia over Daun ; but as no particulars are yet ar-
rived, there are doubters."

" December 5th, 1760. I have received the samples of broca-
della. ... I shall send you a curious Pamphlet, the only
work I almost ever knew that changed the opinions of many.
It is called Considerations on the Present German War,^ and is
written by a wholesale Woollen-Draper [connected with Wool,
in some way ; " Factor at Black well Hall," if that mean Dra-
per : — and a growing man ever after ; came to be "Agent for
Massachusetts," on the Boston- Tea occasion, and again did
Tracts ; was " President of the " — in short, was a conspicuous
F/ce-President, so let us define him, of The general Anti-Penalty
or Life-made-Soft Association, with Cause of civil and religious
Liberty all over the World, and such like ; and a Mauduit com-
fortably resonant in that way till he died ^ ] ; but the materials
are supposed to be furnisheil by the faction of the Yorkes.

^ " London : Printed for John Wilkie, at the Bible, in St. Paul's Church-
yard, 1761," adds my poor Copy (a frugal 12nio, of pp. 144), not adding of
what edition.

2 Chalmers, Dio(j. Dictionary; Nichols, Lilerary Anecdokx ; &c. &c.



6 FltlEDRICH NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED. Book XX.

1700-1701.

The confirmation of the King of Prussia's victory near Torgau
does not prevent the disciples of the Pamphlet from thinking
that the best thing which could happen for us would be to have
that Monarch's head shot off. [Hear, hear !] —

" There are Letters from the Hague [what foolish Letters
do fly about, my friend !], that say Daun is dead of his wounds.
If he is, I shall begin to believe that the King of Prussia will
end successfully at last. [Oh !] It has been the fashion to
cry down Daun ; but, as much as the King of Prussia may ad-
mire himself [does immensely, according to our Selwyn infor-
mations], I dare say he would have been glad to be matched
with one much more like himself than one so opposite as the
IMarshal."

" January 2d, 1761. The German War is not so popular as
you imagine, either in the Closet or in the Nation." ^ (Enough,
enough.)

The Mauduit Pamphlet, which then produced such an effect,
is still to be met in old Collections and on Bookstalls ; but
produces little save weariness to a modern reader. " Hanover
not in real danger," argues he ; " if the French had it, would
not they, all Europe ordering them, have to give it up again ? "
Give it up, — gratis, or in return for Canada and Pondicherry,
Mauduit's does not say. Which is an important omission !
But Mauduit's grand argument is that of expense ; frightful
outlay of money, aggravated by ditto mismanagement of
same.

A War highly expensive, he says — (and the truth is, Pitt
was never stingy of money : " Nearly the one thing we have
in any plenty ; be frank in use of that, in an Enterprise so
ill-provided otherwise, and involving life and death ! " thinks
Pitt) ; — " dreadfully expensive," urges Mauduit, and gives
some instances of Commissariat moneys signally wasted, —
not by Pitt, but by the stupidity of Pitt's War Offices, Com-
missariat Offices, Offices of all kinds ; not to be cured at once
by any Pitt : — How magazines of hay were shipped and re-
shipped, carried hither, thither, up this river, down that
(nobody knowing where the war-horses would be that were to

^ Walpole, Letters to Sir Horace Mann (Lond. 1843), i. 6, 7.



CuAP. VI. WINTER-QUARTERS 1700-17(31. 7

Dec. 176()-ApriI, 17G1.

eat it) ; till at length, when it had reached almost the value of
bohea tea, the right place of it was found to be Embdeu (nearest
to Britain from the first, had one but known), and not a liorse
would now taste it, so spoiled was the article ; all horses
snorted at it, as they would have done at bohea, never so
expensive.^ These things are incident to British warfare ;
also to Swedish, and to all warfares that have their War Offices
in an imaginary state, — state much to be abhorred by every
Bane creature ; but not to be mended all at once by the noblest
of men, into whose hands they are suddenly thrust for saving
his Nation. Conflagration to be quenched ; and your buckets
all in hideous leakage, like buckets of the Danaides : — your
one course is, ply them, pour with them, such as they are.

Mauduit points out farther the enormous fortunes realized
by a swindling set of Army-Furnishers, Hebrews mainly, and
unbeautiful to look on. Alas, yes ; this too is a thing incident
to the case ; and in a degree to all such cases, and situations
of sudden crisis ; — have not we seen Jew Ephraim growing
rich by the copper money even of a Friedrich ? Christian
Protestants there are, withal, playing the same game on a
larger scale. Herr Schimmelmann (•' Ifouldy-nisui ") the
Dane, for instance, — Dane or Holsteiner, — is coining false
money for a Duke of Holstein-Plun, who has not a Seven-
Years War on his hands. Diligently coining, this Mouldy
Individual ; still more successfully, is trading in Friedrich's
Meissen China (bought in the cheapest market, sold in the
dearest) ; has at Hamburg his " Auction of Meissen Porce-
lain," steadily going on, as a new commercial institution of
that City ; — and, in short, by assiduously laboring in such
harvest-fields, gathers a colossal fortune, £100,000, £300,000,
'Or I will not remember what. Gets "ennobled," furthermore,
by a Danish Government prompt to recognize human merit :
Elephant Order, Dannebrog Order ; no Order good enough for
this Mouldy-man of merit ; ^ — and is, so far as I know, be-
getting " Kobles," that is to say, Vice-Kings and monitory

1 Mauduit (towards the end) has a story of that tenor. — particialars not
worth verifying.

- Preuss, ii. 391., 282, &c.



8 FRIEDRICH NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED. Book XX.

17GO-1701.

Exemplars, for the Danish People, to this day. Let us shut
down the iron lid on all that.

Mauduit's Pamphlet, if it raised in the abhorrent unthink-
ing English mind some vague notion, as probably it did, that
Pitt -was responsible for these things, or was in a sort the
cause or author of them, might produce some effect against
him. ''What a splash is this you are making, you Great Com-
moner ; wetting everybody's feet, — as our Mauduit proves ; —
while the Conflagration seems to be going out, if you let it
alone ! " For the heads of men resemble — My friend, I will
not tell you what they, in multitudinous instances, resemble.

But thus has Avoollen Mauduit, from his private camp (" Cle-
ment's Lane, Lombard Street," say the Dictionaries), shot, at
a very high object, what pigeon's-egg or small pebble he had ;
the first of many such that took that aim ; with weak though
loud-sounding impact, but with results — results on King
Friedrich in particular, which were stronger than the Cannon-
ade of Torgaxi ! As will be seen. For within year and day, —
Mauduit and Company making their noises from without, and
the Butes and Hardwickes working incessantly with such rare
power of leverage and screwage in the interior parts, — a cer-
tain Qixasi-Olynipian House, made of glass, will lie in sherds,
and the ablest and noblest man in England see himself forbid-
den to do England any service farther : " Not needed more.
Sir ! Go you, — and look at us for the remainder of your
life!"

King Friedrich in the Apel House at Leipzig (8th Decem-
ber, 1760-17th March, 1761).

Friedrich's Winter in the Apel House at Leipzig is of cheer-
fuler character than we might imagine. Endless sore business
he doubtless has, of recruiting, financiering, watching and pro-
viding, which grows more difficult year by year ; but he has
subordinates that work to his signal, and an organized ma-
chinery for business such as no other man. And solacenients
there are Avithal : his Books he has about him ; wclcomer than
tver in such seasons: Friends toO;, — he is not solitary; nor



Chap. VI. WINTER-QUARTERS 17GU-1761. 9

i>ec. 1760-April, 1761.

neglectful of resources. Faithful D'Argens came at once
(stayed till the middle of March) : ^ D'Argens, Quintus Icilius,
English Mitchell ; these three almost daily bore him company.
Till the middle of January, also, he had his two Nephews with
him (Sons of his poor deceased Brother, the late tragic Prince
of Prussia), — the elder of whom, Priedrich Wilhelm, became
King afterwards ; the second, Henri by name, died suddenly
of small-pox within about seven years hence, to the King's
deep and sore grief, who liked him the better of the two.
Their ages respectively are now about 16 and 14.^ Their ap-
petite for dancing, and their gay young ways, are pleasant now
and afterwards to the old Uncle in his grim element.*

Music, too, he had ; daily evening Concert, though from him-
self there is no fluting now. One of his Berlin Concert people
who had been sent for was Fasch, a virtuoso on I know not
what instrument, — but a man given to take note of things
about him. Fasch was painfully surprised to see his King so
altered in the interim past : " bent now, sunk into himself,
grown old ; to Avhom these five years of war-tumult and anx-
iety, of sorrow and hard toil, had given a dash of gloomy seri-
ousness and melancholy, which was in strong contrast with his
former vividly bright expression, and was not natural to his
years." *

From D'Argens there is one authentic Anecdote, worth giv-
ing. One evening D'Argens came to him ; entering liis Apart-
ment, found him in a situation very unexpected ; which has
been memorable ever since. " One evening [there is no date
to it, except vaguely, as above, December, 1T60-March, 1761],
D'Argens, entering the King's Apartment, found him sitting
on the ground with a big platter of fried meat, from which
he was feeding his dogs. He had a little rod, with which he

1 (Euvres de Frederic, xix. 212, 213. Sends a Courier to conduct D'Argens
"for December 8th ; " " 21st March," D'Argens is back at Berlin.

2 Henri, born 30th December, 1747, died 26th May, 1767; — Friedricli
Wilhelm, afterwards Friedrich Wilhelm II. (sometimes called Dpr Dirke, Tlie
Big), born 25th December, 1744; King, 17th August, 1786; died 16th No
vember, 1797.

2 -Letters, &c, in Srhilninq.

* Zelter's Life of Fasch (cited in Preuss, ii. 278).



10 FRIEDRICH NOT TO BE OVERWHELMED. B<'<.k XX.

17(ifj-17Cl.

kept order among them, and shoved the best bits to his favor-
ites. The Marquis, in astonishment, recoiled a step, struck
liis hands together, and exclaimed : ' The Five Great Powers
of Europe, who have sworn alliance, and conspired to undo the
Marquis de Brandebourg, how might they puzzle their heads
to guess what he is now doing ! Scheming some dangerous
plan for the next Campaign, think they ; collecting funds to
have money for it ; studying about magazines for man and
horse ; or he is deep in negotiations to divide his enemies, and
get new allies for himself ? Not a bit of all that. He is sit-
ting peaceably in his room, and feeding his dogs ! ' " i

Interview with Herr Professor Crellert (Thursday, 18th

December, 1760).

Still more celebrated is the Interview with Gellert ; though
I cannot say it is now more entertaining to the ingenuous
mind. One of Friedrich's many Interviews, this Winter, with
the Learned of Leipzig University ; for he is a born friend
of the Muses so called, and never neglects an opportunity.
Wonderful to see how, in such an environment, in the depths
of mere toil and tribulation, with a whole breaking world
lying on his shoulders, as it were, — he always shows such
appetite for a snatch of talk with anybody presumably of
sense, and knowledge on something !

This Winter, say the Books, " he had, in vacant intervals,
a great deal of communing with the famed of Leipzig Univer-
sity ;" this or the other famed Professor, — Winkler, Ernesti,
Gottsched again, and others, coming to give account, each for
himself, of what he professed to be teaching .in the world :
*' on the Natural Sciences, more especially the Moral ; on
Libraries, on Bare Books. Gottsched was able to satisfy the
King on one point ; namely. That the celebrated passage of
St. John's Gospel — " There are Three that hear record — was
not in the famous Manuscript of the Vienna Library ; Gott-
sched having himself examined that important Codex, and
found in the text nothing of said Passage, but merely, written

1 Preuss, ii. 282.



Cir.u-. VI. WINTER-QUARTERS 17G0-17G1. 11

18th Dec. 1760.

on the margin, a legible intercalation of it, in Melanchthon's
hand. Luther, in his Version, never had it at all." ^ A Gott-
sched inclined to the Socinian view ? Not the least conse-
quence to Friedrich or us ! Our business is exclusively with
Gellert here.

Readers have heard of Gellert ; there are, or there were,
English Writings about him, Lives, or I forget what : and in
his native Protestant Saxony, ainong all classes, especially the
higher, he had, in those years- and onwards to his death, such a
popularity and real splendor of authority as no man "before or
since. Had risen, against his will in some sort, to be a real
Pope, a practical Oracle in those parts. In his modest bachelor
lodging (age of him five-and-forty gone) he has sheaves of
Letters daily, — about affairs of the conscience, of the house-
hold, of the heart : from some evangelical young lady, for ex-
ample, " Shall I marry him, think you, ray Father ? " and
perhaps from her Papa, " Shall she, think you, my ditto ? "

— Sheaves of Letters : and of oral consulters such crowds,
that the poor Oracle was obliged to appoint special hours for
that branch of his business. His class-room (he lectures on
Morals, some Theory of Moral Sentiment, or such like) is crowded
with " blue uniforms " (ingenuous Prussian Officers eager to
hear a Gellert) in these Winters. Eugged Hulsen, this very
season, who commands in Freyberg Country, alleviates the
poor village of Hainichen from certain official inflictions, and
bids the poor people say " It is because Gellert was born



Online LibraryThomas CarlyleCarlyle's complete works (Volume 11) → online text (page 1 of 49)