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delusion of a mechanical age. The burden of history is for him always
the need of the Able Man. "I say, Find me the true _Könning_, King,
Able Man, and he _has_ a divine right over me." Carlyle thus throws
down the gauntlet at once to the scientific and to the democratic
movements of his time. His pronounced antagonism to the modern spirit
in these two most important manifestations must be kept steadily in
mind in our study of him.

Finally, we have to remember that in the whole tone and temper of his
teaching Carlyle is fundamentally the Puritan. The dogmas of
Puritanism he had indeed outgrown; but he never outgrew its ethics.
His thought was dominated and pervaded to the end, as Froude rightly
says, by the spirit of the creed he had dismissed. By reference to
this one fact we may account for much of his strength, and also for
most of his limitations in outlook and sympathy. Those limitations the
reader will not fail to notice for himself. But whatever allowance has
to be made for them, the strength remains. It is, perhaps, the secret
of Carlyle's imperishable greatness as a stimulating and uplifting
power that, beyond any other modern writer, he makes us feel with him
the supreme claims of the moral life, the meaning of our own
responsibilities, the essential spirituality of things, the
indestructible reality of religion. If he had thus a special message
for his own generation, that message has surely not lost any of its
value for ours. "Put Carlyle in your pocket," says Dr. Hal to Paul
Kelver on his starting out in life. "He is not all the voices, but he
is the best maker of men I know." And as a maker of men, Carlyle's
appeal to us is as great as ever.

WILLIAM HENRY HUDSON.


_Life of Schiller_ (_Lond. Mag._, 1823-4), 1825, 1845.
(Supplement published in the People's Edition, 1873). _Wilhelm
Meister Apprenticeship_, 1824. _Elements of Geometry and
Trigonometry_ (from the French of Legendre), 1824. _German
Romance_, 1827. _Sartor Resartus_ (_Fraser's Mag._, 1833-4),
1835 (Boston), 1838. _French Revolution_, 1837, 1839.
_Critical and Miscellaneous Essays_, 1839, 1840, 1847, 1857.
(In these were reprinted Articles from _Edinburgh Review_,
_Foreign Review_, _Foreign Quarterly Review_, _Fraser's
Magazine_, _Westminster Review_, _New Monthly Magazine_,
_London and Westminster Review_, _Keepsake Proceedings of the
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland_, _Times_). _Chartism_,
1840. _Heroes, Hero-worship, and the Heroic in History_, 1841.
_Past and Present_, 1843. _Oliver Cromwell's Letters and
Speeches: with Elucidations_, 1845. _Thirty-five Unpublished
Letters of Oliver Cromwell_, 1847 (Fraser). _Original
Discourses on the Negro Question_ (Fraser, 1849), 1853.
_Latter-day Pamphlets_, 1850. _Life of John Sterling_, 1851.
_History of Friedrich II. of Prussia_, 1858-65. _Inaugural
Address at Edinburgh_, 1866. _Shooting Niagara: and After?_
1867 (from "Macmillan"). _The Early Kings of Norway; also an
Essay on the Portraits of John Knox_, 1875.

There were also contributions to Brewster's _Edinburgh
Encyclopædia_, vols. xiv., xv., and xvi.; to _New Edinburgh
Review_, 1821, 1822; _Fraser's Magazine_, 1830, 1831; _The
Times_, 19 June, 1844 ("Mazzini"); 28 November, 1876; 5 May,
1877; _Examiner_, 1848; _Spectator_, 1848.

First Collected Edition of Works, 1857-58 (16 vols.).

_Reminiscences_, ed. by Froude in 1881, but superseded by C.
E. Norton's edition of 1887. Norton has also edited two
volumes of _Letters_ (1888), and Carlyle's correspondence with
Emerson (1883) and with Goethe (1887). Other volumes of
correspondence are _New Letters_ (1904), _Carlyle Intime_
(1907), _Love Letters_ (1909), _Letters to Mill, Sterling, and
Browning_ (1923), all ed. by Alexander Carlyle. See also _Last
Words of Carlyle_, 1892.

The fullest _Life_ is that by D. A. Wilson. The first of six
volumes appeared in 1923, and by 1934 only one remained to be
published.




CONTENTS


SARTOR RESARTUS


BOOK I

CHAP. PAGE
I. PRELIMINARY 1
II. EDITORIAL DIFFICULTIES 5
III. REMINISCENCES 9
IV. CHARACTERISTICS 20
V. THE WORLD IN CLOTHES 25
VI. APRONS 31
VII. MISCELLANEOUS-HISTORICAL 34
VIII. THE WORLD OUT OF CLOTHES 37
IX. ADAMITISM 43
X. PURE REASON 47
XI. PROSPECTIVE 52

BOOK II

I. GENESIS 61
II. IDYLLIC 68
III. PEDAGOGY 76
IV. GETTING UNDER WAY 90
V. ROMANCE 101
VI. SORROWS OF TEUFELSDRÖCKH 112
VII. THE EVERLASTING NO 121
VIII. CENTRE OF INDIFFERENCE 128
IX. THE EVERLASTING YEA 138
X. PAUSE 149

BOOK III

I. INCIDENT IN MODERN HISTORY 156
II. CHURCH-CLOTHES 161
III. SYMBOLS 163
IV. HELOTAGE 170
V. THE PHOENIX 174
VI. OLD CLOTHES 179
VII. ORGANIC FILAMENTS 183
VIII. NATURAL SUPERNATURALISM 191
IX. CIRCUMSPECTIVE 201
X. THE DANDIACAL BODY 204
XI. TAILORS 216
XII. FAREWELL 219

APPENDIX - TESTIMONIES OF AUTHORS 225

SUMMARY 231


ON HEROES, HERO-WORSHIP, AND THE HEROIC IN HISTORY

LECTURE I
THE HERO AS DIVINITY. Odin. Paganism: Scandinavian
Mythology 239

LECTURE II
THE HERO AS PROPHET. Mahomet: Islam 277

LECTURE III
THE HERO AS POET. Dante; Shakspeare 311

LECTURE IV
THE HERO AS PRIEST. Luther; Reformation: Knox; Puritanism 346

LECTURE V
THE HERO AS MAN OF LETTERS. Johnson, Rousseau, Burns 383

LECTURE VI
THE HERO AS KING. Cromwell, Napoleon: Modern Revolutionism 422


INDEX 469




SARTOR RESARTUS




BOOK FIRST




CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY


Considering our present advanced state of culture, and how the Torch
of Science has now been brandished and borne about, with more or less
effect, for five-thousand years and upwards; how, in these times
especially, not only the Torch still burns, and perhaps more fiercely
than ever, but innumerable Rush-lights, and Sulphur-matches, kindled
thereat, are also glancing in every direction, so that not the smallest
cranny or doghole in Nature or Art can remain unilluminated, - it might
strike the reflective mind with some surprise that hitherto little or
nothing of a fundamental character, whether in the way of Philosophy
or History, has been written on the subject of Clothes.

Our Theory of Gravitation is as good as perfect: Lagrange, it is well
known, has proved that the Planetary System, on this scheme, will
endure forever; Laplace, still more cunningly, even guesses that it
could not have been made on any other scheme. Whereby, at least, our
nautical Logbooks can be better kept; and water-transport of all kinds
has grown more commodious. Of Geology and Geognosy we know enough:
what with the labours of our Werners and Huttons, what with the ardent
genius of their disciples, it has come about that now, to many a Royal
Society, the Creation of a World is little more mysterious than the
cooking of a dumpling; concerning which last, indeed, there have been
minds to whom the question, _How the apples were got in_, presented
difficulties. Why mention our disquisitions on the Social Contract, on
the Standard of Taste, on the Migrations of the Herring? Then, have we
not a Doctrine of Rent, a Theory of Value; Philosophies of Language,
of History, of Pottery, of Apparitions, of Intoxicating Liquors? Man's
whole life and environment have been laid open and elucidated;
scarcely a fragment or fibre of his Soul, Body, and Possessions, but
has been probed, dissected, distilled, desiccated, and scientifically
decomposed: our spiritual Faculties, of which it appears there are not
a few, have their Stewarts, Cousins, Royer Collards: every cellular,
vascular, muscular Tissue glories in its Lawrences, Majendies,
Bichâts.

How, then, comes it, may the reflective mind repeat, that the grand
Tissue of all Tissues, the only real Tissue, should have been quite
overlooked by Science, - the vestural Tissue, namely, of woollen or
other cloth; which Man's Soul wears as its outmost wrappage and
overall; wherein his whole other Tissues are included and screened,
his whole Faculties work, his whole Self lives, moves, and has its
being? For if, now and then, some straggling, broken-winged thinker
has cast an owl's-glance into this obscure region, the most have
soared over it altogether heedless; regarding Clothes as a property,
not an accident, as quite natural and spontaneous, like the leaves of
trees, like the plumage of birds. In all speculations they have
tacitly figured man as a _Clothed Animal_; whereas he is by nature a
_Naked Animal_; and only in certain circumstances, by purpose and
device, masks himself in Clothes. Shakespeare says, we are creatures
that look before and after: the more surprising that we do not look
round a little, and see what is passing under our very eyes.

But here, as in so many other cases, Germany, learned, indefatigable,
deep-thinking Germany comes to our aid. It is, after all, a blessing
that, in these revolutionary times, there should be one country where
abstract Thought can still take shelter; that while the din and frenzy
of Catholic Emancipations, and Rotten Boroughs, and Revolts of Paris,
deafen every French and every English ear, the German can stand
peaceful on his scientific watch-tower; and, to the raging, struggling
multitude here and elsewhere, solemnly, from hour to hour, with
preparatory blast of cowhorn, emit his _Höret ihr Herren und lasset's
Euch sagen_; in other words, tell the Universe, which so often forgets
that fact, what o'clock it really is. Not unfrequently the Germans
have been blamed for an unprofitable diligence; as if they struck into
devious courses, where nothing was to be had but the toil of a rough
journey; as if, forsaking the gold-mines of finance and that political
slaughter of fat oxen whereby a man himself grows fat, they were apt
to run goose-hunting into regions of bilberries and crowberries, and
be swallowed up at last in remote peat-bogs. Of that unwise science,
which, as our Humorist expresses it, -

'By geometric scale
Doth take the size of pots of ale;'

still more, of that altogether misdirected industry, which is seen
vigorously thrashing mere straw, there can nothing defensive be said.
In so far as the Germans are chargeable with such, let them take the
consequence. Nevertheless, be it remarked, that even a Russian steppe
has tumuli and gold ornaments; also many a scene that looks desert and
rock-bound from the distance, will unfold itself, when visited, into
rare valleys. Nay, in any case, would Criticism erect not only
finger-posts and turnpikes, but spiked gates and impassable barriers,
for the mind of man? It is written, 'Many shall run to and fro, and
knowledge shall be increased.' Surely the plain rule is, Let each
considerate person have his way, and see what it will lead to. For not
this man and that man, but all men make up mankind, and their united
tasks the task of mankind. How often have we seen some such
adventurous, and perhaps much-censured wanderer light on some
out-lying, neglected, yet vitally-momentous province; the hidden
treasures of which he first discovered, and kept proclaiming till the
general eye and effort were directed thither, and the conquest was
completed; - thereby, in these his seemingly so aimless rambles,
planting new standards, founding new habitable colonies, in the
immeasurable circumambient realm of Nothingness and Night! Wise man
was he who counselled that Speculation should have free course, and
look fearlessly towards all the thirty-two points of the compass,
whithersoever and howsoever it listed.

Perhaps it is proof of the stunted condition in which pure Science,
especially pure moral Science, languishes among us English; and how
our mercantile greatness, and invaluable Constitution, impressing a
political or other immediately practical tendency on all English
culture and endeavour, cramps the free flight of Thought, - that this,
not Philosophy of Clothes, but recognition even that we have no such
Philosophy, stands here for the first time published in our language.
What English intellect could have chosen such a topic, or by chance
stumbled on it? But for that same unshackled, and even sequestered
condition of the German Learned, which permits and induces them to
fish in all manner of waters, with all manner of nets, it seems
probable enough, this abstruse Inquiry might, in spite of the results
it leads to, have continued dormant for indefinite periods. The Editor
of these sheets, though otherwise boasting himself a man of confirmed
speculative habits, and perhaps discursive enough, is free to confess,
that never, till these last months, did the above very plain
considerations, on our total want of a Philosophy of Clothes, occur to
him; and then, by quite foreign suggestion. By the arrival, namely, of
a new Book from Professor Teufelsdröckh of Weissnichtwo; treating
expressly of this subject, and in a style which, whether understood or
not, could not even by the blindest be overlooked. In the present
Editor's way of thought, this remarkable Treatise, with its Doctrines,
whether as judicially acceded to, or judicially denied, has not
remained without effect.

'_Die Kleider, ihr Werden und Wirken_ (Clothes, their Origin and
Influence): _von Diog. Teufelsdröckh, J.U.D. etc._ _Stillschweigen und
Co^{gnie}._ _Weissnichtwo_, 1831.

'Here,' says the _Weissnichtwo'sche Anzeiger_, 'comes a Volume of that
extensive, close-printed, close-meditated sort, which, be it spoken
with pride, is seen only in Germany, perhaps only in Weissnichtwo.
Issuing from the hitherto irreproachable Firm of Stillschweigen and
Company, with every external furtherance, it is of such internal
quality as to set Neglect at defiance.' * * * * 'A work,' concludes
the wellnigh enthusiastic Reviewer, 'interesting alike to the
antiquary, the historian, and the philosophic thinker; a masterpiece
of boldness, lynx-eyed acuteness, and rugged independent Germanism and
Philanthropy (_derber Kerndeutschheit und Menschenliebe_); which will
not, assuredly, pass current without opposition in high places; but
must and will exalt the almost new name of Teufelsdröckh to the first
ranks of Philosophy, in our German Temple of Honour.'

Mindful of old friendship, the distinguished Professor, in this the
first blaze of his fame, which however does not dazzle him, sends
hither a Presentation-copy of his Book; with compliments and encomiums
which modesty forbids the present Editor to rehearse; yet without
indicated wish or hope of any kind, except what may be implied in the
concluding phrase: _Möchte es_ (this remarkable Treatise) _auch im
Brittischen Boden gedeihen_!




CHAPTER II

EDITORIAL DIFFICULTIES


If for a speculative man, 'whose seedfield,' in the sublime words of
the Poet, 'is Time,' no conquest is important but that of new ideas,
then might the arrival of Professor Teufelsdröckh's Book be marked
with chalk in the Editor's calendar. It is indeed an 'extensive
Volume,' of boundless, almost formless contents, a very Sea of
Thought; neither calm nor clear, if you will; yet wherein the toughest
pearl-diver may dive to his utmost depth, and return not only with
sea-wreck but with true orients.

Directly on the first perusal, almost on the first deliberate
inspection, it became apparent that here a quite new Branch of
Philosophy, leading to as yet undescried ulterior results, was
disclosed; farther, what seemed scarcely less interesting, a quite new
human Individuality, an almost unexampled personal character, that,
namely, of Professor Teufelsdröckh the Discloser. Of both which
novelties, as far as might be possible, we resolved to master the
significance. But as man is emphatically a proselytising creature, no
sooner was such mastery even fairly attempted, than the new question
arose: How might this acquired good be imparted to others, perhaps in
equal need thereof: how could the Philosophy of Clothes, and the
Author of such Philosophy, be brought home, in any measure, to the
business and bosoms of our own English Nation? For if new-got gold is
said to burn the pockets till it be cast forth into circulation, much
more may new truth.

Here, however, difficulties occurred. The first thought naturally was
to publish Article after Article on this remarkable Volume, in such
widely-circulating Critical Journals as the Editor might stand
connected with, or by money or love procure access to. But, on the
other hand, was it not clear that such matter as must here be revealed,
and treated of, might endanger the circulation of any Journal extant?
If, indeed, all party-divisions in the State could have been abolished,
Whig, Tory, and Radical, embracing in discrepant union; and all the
Journals of the Nation could have been jumbled into one Journal, and
the Philosophy of Clothes poured forth in incessant torrents therefrom,
the attempt had seemed possible. But, alas, what vehicle of that sort
have we, except _Fraser's Magazine_? A vehicle all strewed
(figuratively speaking) with the maddest Waterloo-Crackers, exploding
distractively and destructively, wheresoever the mystified passenger
stands or sits; nay, in any case, understood to be, of late years, a
vehicle full to overflowing, and inexorably shut! Besides, to state the
Philosophy of Clothes without the Philosopher, the ideas of
Teufelsdröckh without something of his personality, was it not to
insure both of entire misapprehension? Now for Biography, had it been
otherwise admissible, there were no adequate documents, no hope of
obtaining such, but rather, owing to circumstances, a special despair.
Thus did the Editor see himself, for the while, shut out from all
public utterance of these extraordinary Doctrines, and constrained to
revolve them, not without disquietude, in the dark depths of his own
mind.

So had it lasted for some months; and now the Volume on Clothes, read
and again read, was in several points becoming lucid and lucent; the
personality of its Author more and more surprising, but, in spite of
all that memory and conjecture could do, more and more enigmatic;
whereby the old disquietude seemed fast settling into fixed
discontent, - when altogether unexpectedly arrives a Letter from Herr
Hofrath Heuschrecke, our Professor's chief friend and associate in
Weissnichtwo, with whom we had not previously corresponded. The
Hofrath, after much quite extraneous matter, began dilating largely on
the 'agitation and attention' which the Philosophy of Clothes was
exciting in its own German Republic of Letters; on the deep
significance and tendency of his Friend's Volume; and then, at length,
with great circumlocution, hinted at the practicability of conveying
'some knowledge of it, and of him, to England, and through England to
the distant West': a work on Professor Teufelsdröckh 'were undoubtedly
welcome to the _Family_, the _National_, or any other of those
patriotic _Libraries_, at present the glory of British Literature';
might work revolutions in Thought; and so forth; - in conclusion,
intimating not obscurely, that should the present Editor feel disposed
to undertake a Biography of Teufelsdröckh, he, Hofrath Heuschrecke,
had it in his power to furnish the requisite Documents.

As in some chemical mixture, that has stood long evaporating, but
would not crystallise, instantly when the wire or other fixed
substance is introduced, crystallisation commences, and rapidly
proceeds till the whole is finished, so was it with the Editor's mind
and this offer of Heuschrecke's. Form rose out of void solution and
discontinuity; like united itself with like in definite arrangement:
and soon either in actual vision and possession, or in fixed
reasonable hope, the image of the whole Enterprise had shaped itself,
so to speak, into a solid mass. Cautiously yet courageously, through
the twopenny post, application to the famed redoubtable OLIVER YORKE
was now made: an interview, interviews with that singular man have
taken place; with more of assurance on our side, with less of satire
(at least of open satire) on his, than we anticipated; - for the rest,
with such issue as is now visible. As to those same 'patriotic
_Libraries_,' the Hofrath's counsel could only be viewed with silent
amazement; but with his offer of Documents we joyfully and almost
instantaneously closed. Thus, too, in the sure expectation of these,
we already see our task begun; and this our _Sartor Resartus_, which
is properly a 'Life and Opinions of Herr Teufelsdröckh,' hourly
advancing.

* * * * *

Of our fitness for the Enterprise, to which we have such title and
vocation, it were perhaps uninteresting to say more. Let the British
reader study and enjoy, in simplicity of heart, what is here presented
him, and with whatever metaphysical acumen and talent for meditation
he is possessed of. Let him strive to keep a free, open sense; cleared
from the mists of prejudice, above all from the paralysis of cant; and
directed rather to the Book itself than to the Editor of the Book. Who
or what such Editor may be, must remain conjectural, and even
insignificant:[1] it is a voice publishing tidings of the Philosophy
of Clothes; undoubtedly a Spirit addressing Spirits: whoso hath ears,
let him hear.

[1] With us even he still communicates in some sort of mask,
or muffler: and, we have reason to think, under a feigned
name! - O. Y.

On one other point the Editor thinks it needful to give warning:
namely, that he is animated with a true though perhaps a feeble
attachment to the Institutions of our Ancestors; and minded to defend
these, according to ability, at all hazards; nay, it was partly with a
view to such defence that he engaged in this undertaking. To stem, or
if that be impossible, profitably to divert the current of Innovation,
such a Volume as Teufelsdröckh's, if cunningly planted down, were no
despicable pile, or floodgate, in the logical wear.

For the rest, be it nowise apprehended, that any personal connexion of
ours with Teufelsdröckh, Heuschrecke, or this Philosophy of Clothes
can pervert our judgment, or sway us to extenuate or exaggerate.
Powerless, we venture to promise, are those private Compliments
themselves. Grateful they may well be; as generous illusions of
friendship; as fair mementos of bygone unions, of those nights and
suppers of the gods, when, lapped in the symphonies and harmonies of
Philosophic Eloquence, though with baser accompaniments, the present
Editor revelled in that feast of reason, never since vouchsafed him in
so full measure! But what then? _Amicus Plato, magis amica veritas_;
Teufelsdröckh is our friend, Truth is our divinity. In our historical
and critical capacity, we hope we are strangers to all the world; have
feud or favour with no one, - save indeed the Devil, with whom, as with
the Prince of Lies and Darkness, we do at all times wage internecine
war. This assurance, at an epoch when puffery and quackery have



Online LibraryThomas CarlyleSartor resartus; and, On heroes, hero-worship and the heroic in history → online text (page 2 of 43)