Thomas Carlyle.

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village in Germany, as the traveler in that country
knows too well to his cost, but any particular village
denominated Duck-pond is to us altogether terra incog-
nita. The names of the personages are not less singular
than those of the places. Who can refrain from a smile
at the yoking together of such a pair of appellatives as


Diogenes Teufelsdrockh ? The supposed bearer of this
strange title is represented as admitting, in his pre-
tended autobiography, that 'he had searched to no pur-
pose through all the Heralds' books in and without the
German empire, and through all manner of Subscribers'-
lists, Militia-rolls, and other Name-catalogues,' but had
nowhere been able to find ' the name Teufelsdrockh,
except as appended to his own person. ' We can readily
believe this, and we doubt very much whether any
Christian parent would think of condemning a son to
carry through life the burden of so unpleasant a title.
That of Counselor Heuschrecke 'Grasshopper'
though not offensive, looks much more like a piece of
fancy work than a ' fair business transaction.' The
same may be said of Blumine ' Flower-Goddess ' the
heroine of the fable ; and so of the rest.

"In short, our private opinion is, as we have re-
marked, that the whole story of a correspondence with
Germany, a university of Nobody-knows-where, a Pro-
fessor of Things in General, a Counselor Grasshopper,
a Flower-Goddess Blumine, and so forth, has about as
much foundation in truth as the late entertaining ac-
count of Sir John Herschel's discoveries in the moon.
Fictions of this kind are, however, not uncommon, and
ought not, perhaps, to be condemned with too much
severity ; but we are not sure that we can exercise the
same indulgence in regard to the attempt, which seems
to be made to mislead the public as to the substance of
the work before us, and its pretended German original.
Both purport, as we have seen, to be upon the subject
of Clothes, or dress. Clothes, their Origin and Influence,
is the title of the supposed German treatise of Professor
Teufelsdrockh, and the rather odd name of Sartor Re-
sartus the Tailor Patched which the present Editor


has affixed to his pretended commentary, seems to look
the same way. But though there is a good deal of re-
mark throughout the work in a half-serious, half-comic
style upon dress, it seems to be in reality a treatise upon
the great science of Things in General, which Teufels-
drockh is supposed to have professed at the university
of Nobody-knows-where. Now, without intending to
adopt a too rigid standard of morals, we own that we
doubt a little the propriety of offering to the public a
treatise on Things in General, under the name and in
the form of an Essay on Dress. For ourselves, ad-
vanced as we unfortunately are in the journey of life,
far beyond the period when dress is practically a mat-
ter of interest, we have no hesitation in saying, that the
real subject of the work is to us more attractive than
the ostensible one. But this is probably not the case
with the mass of readers. To the younger portion of
the community, which constitutes everywhere the very
great majority, the subject of dress is one of intense
and paramount importance. An author who treats it,
appeals like the poet, to the young men and maidens
virginibus puerisque and calls upon them, by all the
motives which habitually operate most strongly upon
their feelings, to buy his book. When, after opening
their purses for this purpose, they have carried home the
work in triumph, expecting to find in it some particular
instruction in regard to the tying of their neckcloths,
or the cut of their corsets, and meet with nothing bet-
ter than a dissertation on Things in General, they will
to use the mildest term not be in very good humor.
If the last improvements in legislation, which we have
made in this country, should have found their way to
England, the author, we think, would stand some
chance of being Lynched. Whether his object in this



piece of supercherie be merely pecuniary profit, or
whether he takes a malicious pleasure in quizzing the
Dandies, we shall not undertake to say. In the latter
part of the work, he devotes a separate chapter to this
class of persons, from the tenor of which we should be
disposed to conclude, that he would consider any mode
of divesting them of their property very much in the
nature of a spoiling of the Egyptians.

"The only thing about the work, tending to prove
that it is what it purports to be, a commentary on a
real German treatise, is the style, which is a sort of
Babylonish dialect, not destitute, it is true, of richness,
vigor, and at times a sort of singular felicity of ex-
pression, but very strongly tinged throughout with the
peculiar idiom of the German language. This quality
in the style, however, may be a mere result of a great
familiarity with German literature ; and we cannot,
therefore, look upon it as in itself decisive, still less as
outweighing so much evidence of an opposite char-
acter." North- American Review, No. 89, October, 1835.


" The Editors have been induced, by the express de-
sire of many persons, to collect the following sheets out
of the ephemeral pamphlets * in which they first ap-
peared, under the conviction that they contain in them-
selves the assurance of a longer date.

"The Editors have no expectation that this little
Work will have a sudden and general popularity. They
will not undertake, as there is no need, to justify the gay
costume in which the Author delights to dress his
thoughts, or the German idioms with which he has

*Fraser's (London) Magazine, 1833-4.


sportively sprinkled his pages. It is his humor to ad-
vance the gravest speculations upon the gravest topics
in a quaint and burlesque style. If his masquerade
offend any of his audience, to that degree that they will
not hear what he has to say, it may chance to draw
others to listen to his wisdom ; and what work of im-
agination can -hope to please all? But we will venture
to remark that the distaste excited by these peculiarities
in some readers is greatest at first, and is soon forgot-
ten ; and that the foreign dress and aspect of the Work
are quite superficial, and cover a genuine Saxon heart.
We believe, no book has been published for many
years, written in a more sincere style of idiomatic
English, or which discovers an equal mystery over
all the riches of the language. The Author makes
ample amends for the occasional eccentricity of his
genius, not only by frequent bursts of pure splendor,
but by the wit and sense which never fail him.

" But what will chiefly commend the Book to the dis-
cerning reader is the manifest design of the work, which
is, a Criticism upon the Spirit of the Age we had al-
most said, of the hour in which we live; exhibiting
in the most just and novel light the present aspects of
Religion, Politics, Literature, Arts, and Social Life.
Under all his gayety the Writer has an earnest meaning,
and discovers an insight into the manifold wants and
tendencies of human nature, which is very rare among
our popular authors. The philanthropy and the purity
of moral sentiment, which inspire the work, will find
their way to the heart of every lover of virtue. " Preface
to Sartor Resartus ;. Boston, 1835, 1837.


London, $Qth June, 1838.



CHAP. I. Preliminary.

No Philosophy of Clothes yet, notwithstanding all our
Science. Strangely forgotten that Man is by nature a
naked animal. The English mind ail-too practically
absorbed for any such inquiry. Not so, deep-thinking
Germany. Advantage of Speculation having free course.
Editor receives from Professor Teufelsdrockh his new
Work on Clothes, (p. 5. )

CHAP. II. Editorial Difficulties.

How to make known Teufelsdrockh and his Book to
English readers ; especially such a book ? Editor re-
ceives from the Hofrath Heuschrecke a letter promising
Biographic Documents. Negotiations with Oliver
Yorke, Sartor Resartus conceived. Editor's assurances
and advice to his British reader, (p. n.)

CHAP. III. Reminiscences.

Teufelsdrockh at Weissnichtwo. Professor of Things
in General at the University there : Outward aspect and
character ; memorable coffee-house utterances ; domicile
and watch-tower : Sights thence of City-life by day and



by night ; with reflections thereon. Old 'Liza and her
ways. Character of Hofrath Heuschrecke, and his rela-
tion to Teufelsdrockh. (p. 16.)

CHAP. IV. Characteristics.

Teufelsdrockh and his Work on Clothes : Strange free-
dom of speech ; transcendentalism ; force of insight and
expression ; multifarious learning : Style poetic, un-
couth : Comprehensiveness of his humor and moral
feeling. How the Editor once saw him laugh. Differ-
ent kinds of Laughter and their significance, (p. 30.)

CHAP. V. The World in Clothes.

Futile cause-and-effect Philosophies. Teufelsdrockh's
Orbis Vestitus. Clothes first invented for the sake of
Ornament. Picture of our progenitor, the Aboriginal
Savage. Wonders of growth and progress in mankind's
history. Man defined as a Tool-using Animal, (p. 37.)

CHAP. VI. Aprons.

Divers Aprons in the world with divers uses. The
Military and Police Establishment Society's working
Apron. The Episcopal Apron with its corner tucked
in. The Laystall. Journalists now our only Kings
and Clergy, (p. 44.)

CHAP. VII. Miscellaneous-Historical.

How Men and Fashions come and go. German Cos-
tume in the fifteenth century. By what strange chances
do we live in History ! The costume of Bolivar's
Cavalry, (p. 47.)


CHAP. VIII. Tlie World out of Clothes.

Teufelsdrockh's Theorem, "Society founded upon
Cloth ; " his Method, Intuition quickened by Experi-
ence. The mysterious question, Who am I ? Philoso-
phic systems all at fault : A deeper meditation has al-
ways taught, here and there an individual, that all
visible things are appearances only ; but also emblems
and revelations of God. Teufelsdrockh first comes
upon the question of Clothes : Baseness to which
Clothing may bring us. (p. 52.)

CHAP. IX. Adamitism.

The universal utility of Clothes, and their higher
mystic virtue, illustrated. Conception of Mankind
stripped naked; and immediate consequent dissolu-
tion of civilized Society, (p. 59.)

CHAP. X. Pure Reason.

A Naked World possibly, nay actually exists, under
the clothed one. Man, in the eye of Pure Reason, a
visible God's Presence. The beginning of all wisdom,
to look fixedly on Clothes till they become transparent
Wonder, the basis of Worship : Perennial in man.
Modern Sciolists who cannot wonder : Teufelsdrockh's
contempt for, and advice to them. (p. 65.)

CHAP. XL Prospective.

Nature not an Aggregate, but a Whole. All visible
things are emblems, Clothes ; and exist for a time only.
The grand scope of the Philosophy of Clothes. Bio-


graphic Documents arrive. Letter from Heuschrecke
on the importance of Biography. Heterogeneous char-
acter of the documents : Editor sorely perplexed ; but
desperately grapples with his work. (p. 72.)

CHAP. I. Genesis.

OLD Andreas Futteral and Gretchen his wife ; their
quiet home. Advent of a mysterious stranger, who
deposits with them a young infant, the future Herr
Diogenes Teufelsdrockh. After-yearnings of the youth
for his unknown Father. Sovereign power of Names
and Naming. Diogenes a flourishing Infant (p. 82. )

CHAP. II. Idyllic.

Happy Childhood ! Entepfuhl: Sights, hearings and
experiences of the boy Teufelsdrockh ; their manifold
teaching. Education ; what it can do, what cannot
Obedience our universal duty and destiny. Gneschen
sees the good Gretchen pray. (p. 91.)

CHAP. III. Pedagogy.

Teufelsdrockh's School. His Education. How the
ever-flowing Kuhbach speaks of Time and Eternity.
The Hinterschlag Gymnasium: rude Boys; and pedant
Professors. The need of true Teachers, and their due
recognition. Father Andreas dies; and Teufelsdrockh
learns the secret of his birth : His reflections thereof.
The Nameless University. Statistics of Imposture
much wanted. Bitter fruits of Rationalism : Teufels-
drockh's religious difficulties. The young Englishman
Herr Towgood. Modern Friendship, (p. 101.)


CHAP. IV. Getting under Way.

The grand thaumaturgic Art of Thought. Difficulty
in fitting Capability to Opportunity, or of getting under
way. The advantage of Hunger and Bread-Studies.
Teufelsdrockh has to enact the stern monodrama of No
object and no rest. Sufferings as Auscultator. Given
up as a man of genius. Zahdarm House. Intolerable
presumption of young men. Irony and its conse-
quences. Teufelsdrockh's Epitaph on Count Zahdarm.
(p. 119.)

CHAP. V. Romance.

Teufelsdrockh gives up his Profession. The heavenly
mystery of Love. Teufelsdrockh's feeling of worship
towards women. First and only love. Blumine.
Happy hearts, and free tongues. The infinite nature
of Fantasy. Love's joyful progress ; sudden dissolu-
tion ; and final catastrophe, (p. 133.)

CHAP. VI. Sorrows of Teufelsdrockh.

Teufelsdrockh's demeanor thereupon. Turns pilgrim.
A last wistful look on native Entepfuhl: Sunset amongst
primitive Mountains. Basilisk-glance of the Barouche-
and-four. Thoughts on View-hunting. Wanderings
and Sorrowings, (p. 148.)

CHAP. VII. The Everlasting No.

Loss of Hope, and of Belief. Profit-and-loss Philos-
ophy. Teufelsdrockh in his darkness and despair still
clings to Truth and follows Duty. Inexpressible pains
and fears of Unbelief. Fever-crisis : Protest against
the Everlasting No : Baphometic Fire-baptism, (p. 159.


CHAP. VIII. Center of Indifference.

Teufelsdrockh turns now outwardly to the Not-me ;
and finds wholesomer food. Ancient Cities : Mystery
of their origin and growth : Invisible inheritances and
possessions. Power and virtue of a true Book. Wag-
ram Battlefield: War. Great Scenes beheld by the Pil-
grim : Great Events, and Great Men. Napoleon, a
divine missionary, preaching La carriere otiverle aux
talens. Teufelsdrockh at the North Cape : Modern
means of self-defense. Gunpowder and duelling. The
Pilgrim, despising his miseries, reaches the Center of
Indifference, (p. 168.)

CHAP. IX. The Everlasting Yea.

Temptations in the Wilderness : Victory over the
Tempter. Annihilation of self. Belief in God, and love
to man. The Origin of Evil, a problem ever requiring to
be solved anew : Teufelsdrockh's solution. Love of
Happiness a vain whim : A Higher in man than Love
of Happiness. The Everlasting Yea. Worship of Sor-
row. Voltaire ; his task now fi- ished. Conviction
worthless, impossible, without Conduct. The true
Ideal, the Actual : Up and work ! (p. 181.)

CHAP. X. Pause.

Conversion ; a spiritual attainment peculiar to the
modern Era. Teufelsdrockh accepts Authorship as his
divine calling. The scope of the command Thou shalt
not steal. Editor begins to suspect the authenticity of
the Biographical documents ; and abandons them fpr


the great Clothes volume. Result of the preceding ten
Chapters : Insight into the character of Teufelsdrockh:
His fundamental beliefs, and how he was forced to seek
and find them. (p. 195.)


CHAP. I. Incident in Modern History.

Story of George Fox the Quaker ; and his perennial
suit of Leather. A man God-possessed, witnessing for
spiritual freedom and manhood, (p. 204.)

CHAP. II. Church-Clothes.

Church-Clothes defined ; the Forms under which the
Religious Principle is temporarily embodied. Outward
Religion originates by Society : Society becomes pos-
sible by Religion. The condition of Church-Clothes in
our time. (p. 211.)

CHAP. III. Symbols.

The benignant efficacies of Silence and Secrecy.
Symbols ; revelations of the Infinite in the Finite : Man
everywhere encompassed by them ; lives and works by
them. Theory of Motive-millwrights, a false account
of human nature. Symbols of an extrinsic value ; as
Banners, Standards : Of intrinsic value ; as Works of
Art, Lives and Deaths of Heroic men. Religious Sym-
bols ; Christianity. Symbols hallowed by Time ; but
finally defaced and desecrated. Many superannuated
Symbols in our time, needing removal, (p. 215.)


CHAP. IV. Helotage.

Heuschrecke's Malthusian Tract, and Teufelsdrockh's
marginal notes thereon. The true workman, for daily
bread, or spiritual bread, to be honored ; and no other.
The real privation of the Poor not poverty or toil, but
ignorance. Over-population : With a world like ours
and wide as ours, can there be too many men ? Emi-
gration, (p. 224.)

CHAP. V. The Phcenix.

Teufelsdrockh considers Society as dead; its soul
(Religion) gone, its body (existing Institutions) going.
Utilitarianism, needing little farther preaching, is now
in full activity of destruction. Teufelsdrockh would
yield to the Inevitable, accounting that the best ; As-
surance of a fairer Living Society, arising, Phoenix-like,
out of the ruins of the old dead one. Before that
Phoenix death-birth is accomplished, long time, strug-
gle and suffering must intervene, (p. 229.)

CHAP. VI. Old Clothes.

Courtesy due from all men to all men : The Body of
Man a Revelation in the Flesh. Teufelsdrockh's respect
for Old Clothes, as the "Ghosts of Life." Walk in
Monmouth Street, and meditations there, (p. 236.)

CHAP. VII. Organic Filaments.

Destruction and Creation ever proceed together ; and
organic filaments of the Future are even now spinning.
Wonderful connection of each man with all men ; and
of each generation with all generations, before and
after : Mankind is One. Sequence and progress of all


human work, whether of creation or destruction, from
age to age. Titles, hitherto derived from Fighting,
must give way to others. Kings will remain and their
title. Political Freedom, not to be attained by any
mechanical contrivance. Hero-worship, perennial
amongst men ; the cornerstone of polities in the Future.
Organic filaments of the New Religion : Newspapers
and Literature. Let the faithful soul take courage 1
(p. 242.)

CHAP. VIII. Natural Supernaturalism.

Deep significance of Miracles. Littleness of human
Science : Divine incomprehensibility of Nature. Cus-
tom blinds us to the miraculousness of daily-recurring
miracles ; so do Names. Space and Time, appearances
only ; forms of human Thought : A glimpse of Immor-
tality. How Space hides from us the wondrousness of
our commonest powers ; and Time, the divinely mirac-
ulous course of human history, (p. 252.)

CHAP. IX. Circumspective.

Recapitulation. Editor congratulates the few British
readers who have accompanied Teufelsdrockh through
all his speculations. The true use of the Sartor Resar-
lus, to exhibit the Wonder of daily life and common
things ; and to show that all Forms are but Clothes,
and temporary. Practical inferences enough will fol-
low, (p. 265.)

CHAP. X. The Dandiacal Body.

The Dandy defined. The Dandiacal Sect a new
modification of the primeval superstition Self-worship :
How to be distinguished. Their Sacred Books (Fashion-


able Novels) unreadable. Dandyism's Articles of Faith.
Brotherhood of Poor-Slaves ; vowed to perpetual
Poverty ; worshippers of Earth ; distinguished by pecul-
iar costume and diet. Picture of a Poor-Slave House-
hold ; and of a Dandiacal. Teufelsdrockh fears these
two Sects may spread, till they part all England be-
tween them, and then frightfuHy collide, (p. 270.)

CHAP. XL Tailors.

Injustice done to Tailors, actual and metaphorical.
Their rights and great services will one day be duly rec-
ognized, (p. 285.)

CHAP. XII. Farewell.

Teufelsdrockh's strange manner of speech, but reso-
lute, truthful character : His purpose seemingly to pros-
elytize, to unite the wakeful earnest in these dark
times. Letter from Hofrath Heuschrecke announcing
that Teufelsdrockh has disappeared from Weissnichtwo.
Editor guesses he will appear again. Friendly Fare-
well, (p. 289.)

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Online LibraryThomas CarlyleSartor resartus; the life and opinions of Herr Teufelsdrockh → online text (page 21 of 22)