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on the brink of theriyer, through the Landof Beulah,
whose orchards stood open to solace the pilgrims,
and where there, waa the continual singing- of birds,
and where, being on the borders of the Celestial
country, a neyer-setting li^it» like a beautiful cdes-
tial dawn, rested on its fields;— thouj^ all the scenery,
moral and physicai, of this wonderful tale, had actu-
ally existed— though all its personages had liyed and
journeyed, as Banyan narrates, from the city of De-
struction to the country beyond the riyei^how small
a matter would that be^ how insignificant the inte*
rest and importance of the tale, compared with the
grandeur which it is seenreally to possess, wheneyer
we are enabled to look through its shadows to its
mighty yeritiea— wheneyer we are enabled to regard
the dty of Destruction as being the earth; the
straight and narrow way from it, aa the path that
leads upwards through the skies; the shining light
oyer it, as the Bible which GM himself has kindled
amidst the darkness that broods oyer our lower
region, to tell man that there is a brighter world
aboye, and to guide them into the way that leads to
it; and the Cdestial dty, as the land of immortality,
and of immortal men— the seat of boundless splen-
dour, and of unfading blessednen.

But though the great depths of the weik begin
now to be known, We find that we haye made a
mighty adyance as regards our ability to sound these
depths, so soon as we haye made ourselyes ft^mii^r
with the soul-struggles of the man who wrote it.
Great aa we may haye accounted it before, we now
account it mnch greater. Of Bunyan it cannot be
affirmed with the same truth that he inyented, a
that he described. His facts and illustrations were
not so mnch produced by the fiat of his imagination,
as drawn from the store-house of his experience.
He had been all that he describes his pilgrim. He
had gone eyery footstep of the way along which he
leads Christian. He knew all its by-lanes and croii
paths. There is not an enemy upon it whom he had
not fought with, nor a danger bdonging to it with
which he was not familiar. . All the toils, burdens,
and perils in dd ent to it he had borne. He had

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■hared beyond most in iti lorrows; and his, too, and
that in no stinted measure, had been its niTishiog
delights— the joy known only to those who find the
narrow way. The city of Destruction was to him
no imaginary place. Many days and nights, full of
dreadful iq>prehensions, had he passed within its
walls. His eye had marked the black clouds, edged
with red, which lower continually upon it; and his
ear had caught the distant mutterings of that f^ous
tempest which is destined one day to break oboye it.
He could tell in truth that it is no easy matter to
find the strait gate, but a blessed thing to be safe
within it He had stooped and groaned beneath
his great burden; but when it rolled down firom
his back, he had leaped for yery joy. He had
tasted sweet deep in the ** chamber called peace,^*
and awaked to see the morning breaking in the east
He had wrestled not only against flesh and blood, but
against powers and principalities. He had walked
in darkness, and had no light; and trusted in the
name of the Lord. He had had trial of cruel mock-
ings; nay, moreoyer, of bonds and imprisonments, in
the town of Yafiity Fair. Many, many days had he
languished in the dungeons of Doubting Castle; but,
plucking the key of promise firom his bosom, he had
seen the iron gates of that dismal place fly open, and
taking heart, he had gone forth to solace and inyigo-
rate himself in the clear air, and by the pure springs
of the Delectable Hills. Thus eyer as he went on
he began to enjoy more of that which he knew he
should ei\joy in full at the end of his journey. At
last he left the Valley of the Shadow of Death and
the towers of Doubting Castie fiur behind; and being
now on the borders of the better country, his path
began to shine more and more with the reflection of
the splendours of that city to which he was drawing
nigh, and his heart to be rayished by the melodies
which came floating towards him— the distant echo
of the songs of those with whom he knew he should
dwell for eyer.

This, we are satisfied, is the true key to the " Pil-
grim's Progress**— Bunyan's own life. No one need
wonder why this work is so inmieasurably superior
to eyery other work of the kind; why it awakens in
eyery bosom an interest so deep and endtiring; why
there is such life in its pictures, such power in its
imagery, and so much of nature and truth in the
actors it brings upon the stage; why the delineation
of thdr characters is so faultiessly correct, and yet
characterized by such perfect fi:«edom, that the con-
ception and execution of them appear ta haye cost
the author not the smallest effort; why there is such
an nresistible force in its least words; why the writer
is so prodigal in eyery line of the treasuresof his genius,
and is apparently all the while perfectly unconscious
of the riches he is scattering around him; why,
among mortal books, this book occupies the first
place, and is inferior only to the Bible in point of
its combined simplicity uid grandeur; and why, in
fine, as we pass on, we oome, at eyery short distance,
to openings by which we are let see into another
world— why it is all this, no one need, or can won-
der, who considers what the author was. This
we shall endeayour to make good in our next



The arrow-smitten hart, deep wounded, flies
To th* springs, with water in his weeping eyes :
Heay*n is thy spring; if Satan^ fiery dart
Pierce thy faint sides, do so, my wounded heart,


My soul, cheer up ! what if the night be long ?
Heay^n finds an ear when sinners find a tongue;
Thy tears are morning showers : Heay^n bids me

When Peter^s cock begins to crow, ^tis day.


My heart !— but wherefore do I call thee so ?
I haye renounced my interest long ago :
When thou wert false and fleshly, I was thine;
Mine wert thou neyer, till thou wert not mine.


Canst thou be sick, and such a doctor by ?
Thou canst not liye, unless thy doctor die :
Strange kind of grief, that finds no med''cine good
To *Buage her pains, but the physician's blood 1


What ails the fool, to laugh ? Does something

His yain conceit ? Or ist a mere disease ?
Fool, giggle on, and waste thy wanton breath^-
Thy morning laughter breeds an ey'ning death.


What need that house be daub'd with flesh and

Hang'd round with silks and gold? repair 'd with

Cost idly spent ! That cost doth but prolong
Thy thraldom. Fool, thou mak'st thy jail too



Some years ago Llorente pubUshed a History of the
Inquisition in Spain. He enjoyed peculiar adyantages
for the composition of such a work. Sources of in-
formation were accessible to him from which the
public haye been generally excluded. He was secre-
tary to the Inquisition at Madrid during the years
1789-90-91; and during the years 1809-10-11,
when it was suppressed in Spain, all the archiyes and
records were placed in his hand; and from these
authentic materials he compiled his History.

It has been supposed that the Inquisition was first
introduced into Spain in 1477 or 1483. Llorente is ot
opinion that it existed there so early as the thirteenth
century. Preparations were made for it, as against
the Albigenses, as &r back as 1203; and it was
finally established by Oregory IX. in 1227, about two
years before laymen were first prohibited, by the
Council of Toulouse, from reading the Scriptures in
their yemacular tongues. At the time of its intro-

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dttctim into Spttin, that ooontiy was dirided into
foar datinct kingdoms— Caatile, Arragon, NaTarre,
isd Portugal : and in each it was Tigorously opposed
It fint hj many of the nobles, and eren magistrates
and bishops; bat their opposition was OTerwhebned
bj the penereranoe and boldness of the Inquisition,
who, being chieflj of the orders of Dominican and
Aagnstixuan Friars, were independent of the bishops,
and sobject only to the will of a foreign power.
They held of the Pope alone. The princes, nobles,
lad parochial clergy, as well as the laity, were sub-
ject to this tremendous engine of tyranny— the only
pcnoDS exempted firom its jurisdiction being the
Pope, his l^ci^ and nuncios, and the officers and
fusSSan of the In<iuidtion xtsell

Its professed object was to detect and suppress
here^; but, in practice, it was not confined to heresy
opcnlj arowed and capable of direct proof, but em-
bneed the mere nuptcion of heresy: and the symp-
toos or indications which it recognised as sufficient
writtt for prosecution, were infrutely rarious, and
often hificrously absurd. Thus the absence of a
right faith was inferred from blasphemy, sorcery,
dirination, demonology — from abuse of the sacra-
ncoti, or neglect &f them — from absolution not being
Mked by a man under censure for a year — from
schiim, or denial of the Pope^s authority— from abet-
ting or concealing heresy— hiding those chargeable
with it, or net denouncing them to the Holy Office —
from any manifestation of repugnance to the Inqui-
lition itself— frxmi the refusal to expel heretics from
tbdr estates on the part of the nobles— frxmi the re-
fusal to repeal statutes that were offensive to the
Pope on the part of princes — from professional adrice
rendered to heretics by lawyers — from permitting
heretics or suspected persons to be buried in ecclesi-
astical ground— from a refusal of eridence when any
one was summoned before the Inquintion as a wit-
oesB— from any thing in the work of an author that
•eemed to encourage or palliate error. All these
were held to be grounds of suspicion; and it is easy
to aee how numy persons might in this way be in-
Tohed m a charge of heresy, who were in all essential
ntpects attached to the Popish Church.

The method of ]>rocedure was somewhat different
in the old than in the more modem Inquisition; but
the latter was most serere. On being appointed, an
^n^iointor demanded a mandate frtnn the king or
iDAgistrate, requiring the tribunals to arrest suspected
pcnons: if the magistrate refused, he was excom-
iiuoacated. When he went to a particular station,
^ inqoiator preached in public, and then read an
*^ reqmring all heretics to confess, and all baring
uij knowledge of such persons, to come forward and
*o^QK them, on pain of excommunication. If persons
cune forward confessing their heresy within thirty
i ^7t|ihey receired absolution in public, and were re-
^^■^cQed, hot subjected to certain penances and penal-
tifii-ncli as being forbidden the use of gold, silrer,
pcarli, alk, and fine wooL If they confessed after the
^^^ daji' grace, their goods were confiscated. If
they did not confess, but were accused, and prored to
^foilty, tikere was no altematire, but either to abjure
titt heresy, or to be punished: in the case of a semi-
inof being established, torture was had recourse to,

for the purpose of eliciting confeaioiL In the course
of his trial a prisoner nerer saw his accusation, nor
knew his accusers: the eridenoe against him was not
made known, except a few extracts tmrn the decla-
ration of witnesses, which were sufficient to alarm
him, but which left him in total ignorance of the real
state of the suit against him. In these drcumKances,
it was safer for an innocent man to confess heresy
and abjure it at once, than to run the hasard of a
trial If, after confession, he relapsed or was again
suspected, he was again subjected to torture, or given
over to be executed or burnt.

After burning Hebrew Bibles and other books,
from 1490 to 1523, the Inquisition took measures for
preventing the circulation of such works as were dis-
tasteful to them. In 1539 the Unirenity of Louvar
was ordered to make up an index of prohibited
books: in 1549 it was augmented by the inquisitor-
general ; in 1550 it was again published with additions,
indudixig tramlatioM qf tJu Holy BtbUI nay, in
1558, theologians were required to give up the Hebrew
and Greek Bibles! and by a law of Philip II., those
who should buy, keep, read, or sell books thus pro-
hibited by the inquisitor, were subject to the penalty
of death and confiscation. In this same year. Paid
IV. addressed a brief to the inquisitor-general Valas,
commanding him to prosecute all schismatics and
heretics — ** to deprive aU such persons of their dig-
nities and offices, whether bishops, archbishops,
patriarchs, cardinals, or legates; barons, counts, mar-
quises, dukes, princes, kings, or emperors !**

The horrible results of this system of tyranny and
persecution are thus stated by Llorente. From 1481
to 1809, under forty-four inquisitors-general, there
were, in the Peninsula alone —




Burnt in effigy, the parties having fled

or died,

Severe penances, • • • •

841,021 1
The Spanish Inquisition was suppressed by Na-
poleon in 1808, and by the Cortes in 1813. But it
was restored by Ferdinand in 1814. Pius TIL ex-
pressed an intention to ameliorate it, by prohibiting
torture, and by confronting the witnesses with the

In 1820 the Inquidtion was thrown open, by order
of the Cortes of Madrid. Twenty-one prisoners were
found in it, not one of whom knew the name of the
city in which he vras, nor the precise crime of which
he vras accused. *'One of these prisoners had been
oondenmed, and vras to have been executed on the
following day. His punishment was to be death by
the pendulum. The method of thus destroying the
rictim is as follows : The condemned is fastened in a
groove upon a table, on his back — suspended above
him is a pendulum, the edge of which is sharp, and
it is so constructed as to become longer with every
movement The wretch sees the instrument of de-
struction swinging to and fro above him, and every
moment the keen edge approaching nearer — at length
it cuts."

This, let it be remembered, was a punishment of
the Secret Tribunal in 1820 1

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Op late yean a TerjremaricableandmtercstmgelaflB
of oontemponrj records has been brought to light
and deciphered, affording most Taluable testimony to
the anthentidty of the Mosaic history— we refer to
the monumental scolptnres and inscriptions of Egypt
The walls of the temples, pahuses, and sepulchres,
which abound in such numbers in Egypt, are com-
pletely oorered with sculptures, representing the
battles, 8iege% and Tictories of the successiTe mo-
narchs who ruled oyer that country, and delineating,
with erery appearance of minute fidelity, the erery-
day life of the people— their pursuits and trades—
their amusements and labours— their feasts and fti-
nerab— their public processions and their religious
ceremonies. All these sculptures were accompanied
by hicrogiyphical inscriptions, supposed to be ex-
planatoiy of the scenes depicted. But these sacred
characters had long remained an inscrutable mystery.
Their (Mrigin, object, and meaning, were all enveloped
in the profoundest darkness. Ooi^ectures there were,
indeed, in abundance on the subject, but their contrsr
dictory character showed how little confidence could
be placed in their accuracy; and the mysterious in-
i scriptions remuned a sealed book, which no man
could open. While matters were in this position, the
abetters of infidelity, like birds of evil omen, who love
the darkness, were peculiarly actire, and looked with
eager expectation to the deciphering of these Uero-
glyphio legends, as certain to afford conclusiye proofs
of the falsehood of the Mosaic history. ** They called
upon those huge and half-buried colossal images, and
those now subterranean temples, to bear witness to
the antiquity and early oiTilisation of the nation which
erected them. They appealed to their astronomical
remains, to attest the skill, matured by ages of obser-
Tation, of those who projected them. More than all,
they saw in those hieroglyphic legends, the venerable
dates of sovereigns deified long before the modem
days of Moses or Abraham. They pointed in triumph
to the mysterious characters which an unseen hand
had traced on those primeval walls, and boasted that
only a Daniel was wanted to decipher them, to show
\\^»^ the evidences of Christianity had been weighed
and found wanting, and its kingdom divided between
the infidel and the libertine! Vain boast! The
temples of Egypt have at length answered their ap-
peal, in language more intelligible than they could
possibly have anticipated ; for a Daniel has been found
in judicious and persevering study. After the suc-
cession had been so long interrupted. Young and
ChampoUion have put on the linen robe of the hiero-
phant, and the monuments of the Nile, unlike the
fearful image of Sais, have allowed themselves to
be unveiled by their hands, without any but the
most wholesome and consoling results having fol-
lowed firom their labours.*"*

Yarious s^proaches were made by diffierent philo-
lophers towards the deciphering of the hieroglyphic
• Wiieman*! Lecturas, toL li^ PP* 61-82.

inscriptions; but the k«y to these mysteries, m laatd
sought in vdn, was at length disoovtred by meana oj
a luge block of black basalt, termed the Boaett^
Stone. This celebrated monument, which had IsuM
for ages under ground, wasaocidentally diaintflRvd bgp
the French army in digging the fmrndatinn of a. fbx4|
near Rosetta, and, having been oaptox^d on board «
French frigate, was brought to England and depo»
sited in the British Museum. This interestiiig relioj
bears three inscriptions— one in Qreek, one in hiero«
glyphics, and a third in the common writing of thA
country, which is in good measure an abridgnoBt or
running form of the hieroglyphics.* In the Greek
version of the inscription there oocor the proper
names A Itxander and Akxamdna; and two groups of
characters were found closely res«nbHng each otker,
and oocnpyinga corresponding positicm in the hiero-
glyphic inscription. The word king occnxt twenij-
nine times in the Greek version; and as there ia onlj
one word which occurs so often in the hierogl jphio
inscr^tion, it was concluded that these two most
correspond in their meaning. The proper name
PtoZ«njr, occurs fourteen times in the G^reek; and an
assemblage of characters is found in the hieroglyphio
inscription, agreeing in inqjaexkcj with this name,
and generally oocnrring in passages correqxtDding in
their rela^ve situation. The merit of these ingsniouB
discoveries belongs to our learned oountrymany Dr
Thomas Young; and the ttij to the monumental
legends having thus been at length discovered, his
investigations were greatly extended and improved
by Messrs ChampoUion and Bank^ 1^ G. Wilkin-
son, Lord Prudhoe, and other distinguished writers.
One portion of these interesting investigations is
worthy of being reUted in detail, in order to show
the manner in which the knowledge of this ancient
mode of expressing ideas was obtained. In the island
of Philae an obelisk was found by Belzoni, and after-
wards brought to England by Mr Bankes. It had
originally been placed on a sijuare pedestal, bearing
a Ghieek inscription, which, on examination, proved to
be a petition of the priests of Isii, residing at Philae,
addressed to King Ptolemy, to Cleopatra his sister,
and to Cleopatra his wife. There was good reason
to believe, therefore, that as the inscription on the
base expressly referred to these royal personages, the
hieroglyphic inscription on the obelisk itself would
bear their names also. On examination it was found
that in the midst of the inscription there were two
rings, enclosing certain hieroglyphic characters joined
together. One of these groups presented the same
characters as were engraved on the Rosetta Stone, no
fewer than fourteen times, and had there been satis-
factorily shown by Dr Young to represent the name
Ptolemy. Supporing this to be correct, the other
ring would, as a matter of course, contain the name
of Cleopatra. The comparison and analysis of these
two names is in itself so curious, and in its results so
important, that we may give a brief extract from the
letter of M. ChampoUion to M. Dader, in which he
first announced his disooveiy.

commanding an inaciipUon to be placed over our Savtour*!
croM, written in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hetetw.

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MXhe first sign of the name of Cleopatra, Trhicli
repreaenti a kind of quadrant, and which ought to be
the letter K (C), should not occur in the name of
Ptolemy, and it is not there. The second, a crouching
Hon, which should represent the L, is identical with
the fourth of Ptolemy, which is also an L. The third
rign is a feather or leaf, which should represent the
short Towel £. Two similar leaves may be observed
at the end of the name of Ptolemy, which by their
poBitian must have the sotmd of E long. The fourth
character represents a kind of flower or root, with its
stalk bent downward, which should answer to the
letter O, and is accordingly the third letter in the
n % Tnt^ of Ptolemy. The fifth is a sort of square, which
should represent the letter P, as it is the first in the
name of Ptolemy. The sixth is a hawk, which should
be the letter A. That letter does not occur in the
Qreek name Ptolemy, neither does it occur in the
hieroglyphic transcription. The seventh is an open
hand, representing the T; but this character is not
found in the name Ptolemy, where the second letter
T is expressed by the segment of a sphere. The
author thought that these two characters might
be homophonic; that is, both expressing the same
sound: and he' was soon able to demonstrate that
his opinion was well founded. The eighth sign or
mark seen in front ought to be the letter R; and
as that letter does not occur in Ptolemy, it is also
absent from his hieroglyphic name. The ninth
and last sign, which ought to be the vowel A, is a
repetition of the hawk, which has that sound in the
rixth.'»» ^

By these laborious researches the Egyptian alpha-
bet was gradually enlarged, and has at length been
completed: so that we are now in possession of the
means of deciphering the hieroglyphic inscriptions by
which the walls of the monuments are covered, and of
perosing the records of the exploits of the successive
kings who rdgned over Egypt, from the days of
Abraham down to the last of the Ptolemies, the suc-
cessors of Alexander the Oreat.

These interesting discoveries gave a powerful im-
pulse to the investigation of the Egyptian antiquities;
and in the year 1828 a commission was undertaken,
under the joint auspices of the French and Tuscan
6K>vemments, for the purpose of examining and
making drawings of the sculptures and inscriptions
engraved on the monuments of Egypt and Nubia.
The celebrated ChampoUion and Professor Rosellini
of Pisa, were placed at the head of the commission,
and with them were associated a complete staff of
cnipneers, draftsmen, and architects. They remained
in Egypt for upwards of two years; and, on their
return to Europe, brought back with them not less
than fifteen hundred drawings, together with a par-
ticular description of every monument in Egypt ynd
Nubia. The precious materials thus accumulated
were arranged by Professor Rosellini, and are now in
course of publication at Pisa, at the expense of the
Tuscan Grovemment.

The publication of this splendid work has excited
intense interest, in consequence of tho expectation
that the invaluable mass of materials which it con-

« The Antiquities of Bgypt, ftc, p. 78.

tains would cast great light on the history and man-
ners of the ancient Egyptians, and especially on the
Biblical narrative. From the earliest ages there had
been a close connection between God's chosen people
and the "land of marvels," as Egypt is termed by the
" father of history.'" " So intimately connected," says
Wilkinson, " are Egyptian history and manners with
the scriptural accounts of the Israelites, and the
events of succeeding ages relative to Judea, that the
name of Egypt need only to be mentioned to recall
the early impressions we have received from the study

Online LibraryThomas CarlyleThe Christian treasury, Volume 2 → online text (page 6 of 145)