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touching, with the thumb and first two fingers united,
first its forehead, then its breast, next the right
shoulder, and afterwards the left; and to lisp the
Oosjwdi Pomilui: and when the pnest brings out the >
crucifix, at the end of the service, to bestow the bene-
diction, behold, she presses forward in the crowd,
and devoutly embraces the feet of the image of the
suffering Saviour, and the infant follows her examplel '
Without any further knowledge of the service,!
people, and pnnciples of the Greek Church, the tra-
veller must at once come to the conclusion that the I
Eastern Church is, in all respects, as corrupt in doc- 1
trine, and as superstitious in practice, as the Church
of Rome. On obtaining better information, however, i
he finds this a hasty conclusion, as it regards doctrine, '
and not borne out by facts; for the Church that
permits every one of its members to read the Holy
Scriptures in a language which he understands, and
acknowledges this Word as the highest tribunal in
matters of faith on earthy is still poMessed of the best
reformer of all superstition— a reformation which!
will no doubt take place vrith the hicrease of learning :
and scriptural knowledge, both in Russia and Greece. !

The sentiment here expressed by Dr Pinker-
ton is borne out by facts mentioned in other
parts of his book: —

In March 1822, 1 met with a most interesting spi-
ritual Christian, the minister of one of their assem-
blies in St Petersburg, and had a long conversation
with him in the house of a Russian noble. His name
was Isaiah. He was a man about sixty years of age
—in appearance, a simple bearded peasant, dressed in
coarse wide russet garments. I conversed with him
for nearly three hours on the essential doctrines of
the Gospel, and found him, in general, very sound
His knowledge was taken solely from the Word of
God, of which he was one of the most powerful

?[uoter8 I ever conversed vrith. His views of the
aith and practice of a Christian, drawn from this
source, were beautifully simple and harmonious. But,
like the Duchobortzi, he rejected the external ordi-
nances of baptism and the Lord^s supper. He seemed
to insist much upon the evidences of a liring faith;
and that nothing could entitle a person to the name
of Christian but Christianity in practice. As he had
no acquaintance with scholastic theology, nor any
systematic foim of faith, I was astonished at his skill
in illustrating one part of Scripture by another, com-
paring spirihuil things with spiritual, and the won-
derfiu facility with which he applied the whole force
of truth to the regulation of the heart and life. In
this poor peasant 1 saw an illustrious example of the
power of the Divine Word, under the blessing of
God, to make even the simple, and those who, in re-
spect of human learning, are babes, truly wise. His
congregation, he told me, consisted of about five hun-
dred souls, who formed a village near Mosdok. They
had five elders to labour among them in spiritual
thin^ who are chosen from among themselves, and
ordamed to their office by the laying on of the hands
of the whole Church, and prayer. He spoke of their
brethren as being very numerous, and scattered over
all the prorinces of the empire ; they were also known
under the name of Molochani; but were not all
equally pure in doctrine and practice. He said that
he had been sent forth by his Church for the express
purpose of visiting the brethren, and ministering to
then* spiritual wants by doctrine and conversation :
many of them, he added, were becoming purer in
faith and practice.

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But perhaps the moat intereetiDg document
of all, is one put fo'rth by Philaret, Archbishop
of Moscow, containing a statement of the dif-
ferences between the doctrines of the Eastern
and Western Churches. These are given in
opposite colunms, and we regret that we have
only space to present a few : —

doctrine of the eastern
(or qreek) church.
The only pure and all-
sufficient source of the
doctrineB of faith is the
revealed Word of God,
contained now in the
lioly Scriptures.

Eyerything necessary to
salvation is stated in the
Holy Scriptures with such
clearness, that every one,
reading it with a sincere
desire to be enlightened,
can understand it. " Thy
Word is a lamp unto my
feet, and a light unto
my path.''— Ps. cxix. 105.
" But if our Grospel be
hid, it is hid to them that
are lost."— 2 Cor. iv. 3.

The decimons of Coun-
cils are to be tried by the
Holy Scriptures; so that
no Council whatever can
set up an article of faith
which cannot be proved
from the Holy Scriptures.
This rule was always held
by the ancient Church.

Grace justifies through
the power of the merits
of Jesus Christ, which a
man receives by living
faith: good works are the
fruits of faith and grace,
and therefore they do not
constitute in man any
kind of personal merit.

Jesus Christ is the only
Head of the Church.—
" And gave him to be the
Head over tdl things to
the Church, which is his
body, the fulness of Him
that fiUeth aU hi alL"—
£ph. L 22, 23.


Holy Scripture is not
an adeouate source of
saving doctrine; for in
Christianity ^ere is much
necessary to be known
which is not in the Scrip-

Holy Scripture is so
unintelligible, that it is
impossible to understand
it without an interpreter;
for many passa^ of it
admit of various mterpre-

Councils have an equal
degree of exemption from
error' with tne Holy
Scriptures; for in them
Jesus Christ is present*

Grace and faith only
lay the beginning of the
work of justification: a
man acquires perfect jus-
tification, and eternal Ufe,
by his own merits, which
are his good works.

Jesus Christ is the in-
visible, and the Pope of
Rome the visible H^ of
the Church.—" Thou art
Peter, and upon this rock
I will build my Church.**
—Matt. xvi. 18.

These words refer to
the Bishop of Rome, as
the successor of St Peter.

While we much fear that the enlightened
and scriptural sentiments expressed in the first
column cannot be received as those of the
general body of the Russian clergy, still, as
coming from one of her most distinguished
dignitaries, it has high value> especially when
we consider that what exists at all may be ex-

What, then, it may be asked, is our duty to
the Greek Church in Russia, as well as to its

other branches in other regions of the Eastt
We have no hesitation in avowing it as our
conviction, that the Refonned oommunions in
general have not discharged their duty to the
.Eastern Churches, and tbat the sleepless ac-
tivity of Jesuitism has taken fatal advantage
of our ProtestAQt supineness. The policy of
Rome for many centuries has been to assimi-
late the forms and ceremonies of the Greek
Church as nearly as possible to her own, thus
making the passage back to her own fold the
easier. The consequence has been, that Rome
has of late years made considerable additions to
her numbers from the Greek communion.

But the very history of the two Churches
places them in natural antagonism to each other,
and, were evangelical Protestants only faithful
to their trust, and alive to their opportunity,
they might soon, with the Bible in their hand,
succeed in widening and deepening the gulf!
which it has been the policy of Rome to fill np.{
It is the testimony of travellers, that, while the
Roman Catholic priest reg^s even a Bible
agent with reserve and suspicion, the Greek
pastor, and his people with him, are, in many in-
stances, disposed to cheer him <m in his work.

Inquiry, then, should be made in regard to
the precise condition of all the great branches
of the Greek communion — the good men in all
of them that retain a simple faith amid a cor-
rupt ceremonial, should be sought out — corres-
pondence should be established with them, pe-
cuniary assistance freely given when it may be
advantageously bestowed, missionaries sent forth
when a door of entrance is open for them, col-
porteurs where the missionary would be sus-
pected and turned aside; while we should stand
watching with prayerful and longing hearts for
the hour when He who has been made Head
over all things to the Church, shall so arrange
the events of his providence as to lay open to
the unfettered efforts of evangelical Cluistianity
the viride extent of the empire of the czar.

Protestants have looked too exclusively upon
the Roman Catholic Church as the only proper
antagonist to wrestle with. But while the
West is to be reconquered, let us not foiget that
the East is to be reclaimed. Let us not foi^et
that, vast in its intrinsic importance, its relative
importance is, if possible, vaster still. The ter-
ritories of the Greek Church border on those
of Mohammedanism, and the tide of life, once
flowing over her, would pass over the regions
given to the false prophet, and at length meet
and mingle with the tide that had meanwhile
been advancing from the shores of converted
India. Never do we feel the magnitude and
the grandeur of the missionary enterprise as
we ought, until we awake to the truth tliat
its field is the world; and never do we see
our own <*ountry in its true majesty of re-
sponsibility and of destiny, until we perceive
that, for ages to come, she must stand foremost
in the work — the centre at once of action aud

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dedgn. And what a destiny, my friends?
"Every crown,** it has been finely said, **has
been earned and worn; every other sort of
glory has become trite and faded. To renovate
not a nation, but the hnman race — to place the
moral world on a new foundation, and to com-
mence an era in the history of mankind, might
be the destiny of England, at a small expense
compared with the expenditure of keeping
nations in subjection by terror alone. Thus,
with more than the literary glory of Greece,
and with gratitude as sacred as belonged to
Israel of old, England, at once the sacred and
classic land of latter da3r8, would have the fulness
of the Gentiles, and the completion of science
for her inheritance of glory.** •


** The earthly house of this tabernacle.** was to be
" dinolved,** and exchanged for a building of God,
** a house not made yrith hands, eternal in the hea-
vens." But before we go to see him die, we will
retrace our steps a little, to notice an instance or two
of the foretastes that had been granted him of the
I joy on which he was about to enter. '

Rarely has there existed loch a combination of
great devotional susceptibilitv with great intellectual
power, as in the case of Mr Howe. This may be
gathered from his writings, which abound with burtU
of hallowed fervour^ and other evidence is at hand.
On the fly-leaf of his study Bible were found, afler
his death, some memoranda in Latin, which have
been thus translated:—" Dec, 26, *89. After that I
had long seriously and repeatedly thought with my-
self, that besides a full and undoubted assent to the
objects of faith, a vivifying savoury taste and relish
of them was also necessary, that with stronger force
and more powerful energy, they might penetrate
.into the most inward centre of my heart, and there
j being most deeply fixed and rooted, govern my life;
and that there could be no other sure ground where-
on to conclude and pass a sound judgment on my
good state Godward; and after I had in my course
of preaching been largelv insisting on 2 Cor. L 12,
this very morning I awoke out of a most ravishing
and delightful di^am, that a wonderful and copious
{stream of celestial rays, from the lofty throne of the
, Divine Maiesty, seemed to dart into my expanded
I breast. I have often since, with great complacency,
t reflected on that very signal pledge of special divine
i favour vouchsafed to me on tnat memorable day^ and
have, with repeated fresh pleasure, tasted the delights
thereof. But what on Oct. 22, 1704, of the same
kind I sensibly felt, through the admirable bounty
of my God, and the most pleasant comforting influ-
'ence of the Holy Spu^t, far surpassed the most ex-
pressive words my thoughts can suggest. I then
I experienced an inexpressibly pleasant melting of
heart; tears gushing out of mine eyes, for joy that
God should shed abroad his love abundantly through
the hearts of men, and that for this very purpose
my own should be so signally possessed of and by his
blessed Spirit. — Rom. v. 5.** In addition to these
private memoranda of matters which were at the
time secret within his own breast, it was observed
that, in his last iDness, and when he had been de-
clining for some time, he was once in a *' most affect-

BiiiU oo If Moot, bf Douglas of Cavers.
Trom Bssav by Dr Urwick. prefixed to (
of the works of the BnglUh Puritan Divtaies.

t From Bssav by Dr
ume of the works of tb*
and Edinburgh. Nelson.

•refixed to the third vol-

ing, melting, heavenly frame,** when adiiiinisterine
the Lord's supper, and was carried out into ** such
a ravishing and transporting celebration of the love
of Christ, that both he himself and the communicants
were apprehensive he would have expired in that
venr service."

Having these fkcts before us, in addition to what
we had previously learned respecting Mr Howe, we
are prepared for what his biographer, Dr Calamy,
farther states of him — that ** he discovered no fear
of dying, but even when his end drew near, was very
serene and calm;" that ** he seemed, ind^sd, some-
times to have been got to heaven, even before he had
laid aside that morUlity which he had been long ex-
pecting to have swallowed up of life;" and that,
** though nature was oonnderably spent in him. yet
was there somewhat even in the manner of his dying
that was remarkable and worthy of observation."
We must not lay too much stress upon what is called
** dying experience." Had Howe*s been the opposite
of what it was, our assurance of his salvation — our
respect for his Christian excellence — our admiration
of the grace of God in the moral greatness of his
character, would have been in no degree diminished.
The last hours of some men, eminent in piety and
usefulness, as they were in talents and Ubours through
life, have been overcast with gloom that prevented
bystanders from recognising the glories of their
departure. But the orb setting behind a bank of
dense black clouds, is himself far beyond their reach.'
They a£fect not his brightness, but merely our view
of it. While to us he seems to sink in darkness that,
extinguishes his beams, he is really rising in other
skies gladdening the sight of other observers, and
clothed in splendours, as if the Almighty bad an-esh,
or for the first time, robed him in the reflection of
his own divine effulgence. " We walk by j[aith, not
by tight z^"* and when a man's life has testified that
his fieart is right with Chrtstf we know that his safety
for glorifloatton is in ChritCn hands, though his ene-
mies be in malice loading him with anathemas, oi
he, by morbid influence from what is animal or what
is mental, be writhig volumes of bitter things against
hhnself, at the crisis of leaving the body. Still, a
cloudless sunset is pleasant to witness, though in its
effects on nature quite secondary to a cloudless day.
And such a sunset was John Howe's.

We are told that, during his last sickness, he was
visited by many of all ranks, and that he conversed j
very pleasantly with them. Among others was
Richard Cromwell, who was now grown old, and had
lived many years in retirement from the world since
the time when he was Protector of England's Com-
monwealth, and Howe was his domestic chaplain.
The mterview was deeply affecting. Both parties in
it held the same faith, cherished the same hope, and
were inspired with the same love. " There was a
great deal of serious discourse between them. Tears
were shed fireely on both sides, and the parting was
very solemn." " Many elder and younger mhiisters
also frequently visited him, and he was very free in
his discourse with them, and talked like one of
another world, and that had raised uncommon hopes
of that blessedness there which his heart had long
been set upon."

One morning, finding himself much better than
could have been expected after the severe pain he
had endured the preceding evening, he became quite
cheerful. An attendant noticed it; on which he
said, that "he was for feeling that he was o/tve,
though most willuig to die. and hiy the clog of mor-
tality aside." He once tola Mrs Howe that, ** though i
he thought he loved her as well as it was fit for one
creature to love another, yet if it were put to his I
choice, whether to die thai moment, or to lire that I

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night, and the living that night would eecure the
continuance of his life for seven yean to come, he
would choose to die that moment/* Great as he was
accounted by others, he had no dependence but on
Christ. " I expect," said he, " my salvation, not as
a profitable serrant^ but as a pardoned sinner.**
Shortly before his dissolution a change took place
which raised the hopes of his friends. Probably it
was during this paiiial reviral, that he laid on his
son the command to destroy his " memorials.** The
change was of brief duration. On Thursday. March
29, it was certain that his end was near; and on the
following Monday, April 2, 1705, ** being quite worn
out,*' he expired.

Thus died John Howe ! — thus, with a composure
that became his sanctified, majestic soul, confiding in
**the First and the Last and the Laying One, who
has the keys of hades and of death,** dkl this hon-
oured servant, at his Master's bidding, lay down his
earthly charge, and rise to receive the •* Well-done,**
which sovereign mercy, through the cross in which
he gloried, IumI prepared to compensate and crown
for ever his watchful, toilsome, suffering, fiuthful
stewardship below.


In the district of Einsiedeln, particularly at the cele-
brated place of pilgrimage, I witnessed scenes of
sad misery. Here the inhabitants, formerly inn-
keepers, rosary makers, beggars, and small shop-
keepers, had lost their lirelinood by the stopping of
the pilgrimages, while they had been plundered of
all their savings by the soldiers. The abbey stood
deserted; the interior of the temple was plundered
and desecrated. The members of the municipality,
beaded by Meinrad Ochsner, a Cwpuchin, but to my
astonishment, an enthusiast for Kant's philosophy,
led me into the sanctuary. Here I saw the marble
chapel of St Meinradus, which, four years ago I had
approached upon my knees, torn down with ruthless
Vandalism, so that even the beams of the church roof
itself were loosened and injured. Ornaments and
effigies of saints and angels lay scattered in fragments
on the floor, or hung in their places, mere mutilated
wrecks. I ordered the imme<fiate clearance and re-
pair as far as possible of the beautiful sanctuary, and
that the site of the destroyed chapel should be cover-
ed at least by an altar. But I knew not how to
perform the important du^ of restoring prosperity
to the destitute village. ** The most simple and effec-
tual means,'* said my companion, " would doubtless
be the restoration of the miraculous image of the
mother of God to the altar. Pilgrimages would
then again take place, and the inhabitants be restored
to their means of livelihood." " But the miraculous
im^e," I replied, ** has been carried off by the French
to Paris; or, as some assert, has eloped with the
abbot into the TyroL" " Both are true," was the
answer, " yet the mother of God is still present at
Einsiedeln." "What! present in the Tyrol, at Paris,
and at Einsiedeln^ at one and the same time !** I ex-
claimed. " Convmce me of the truth of this miracle,
and no good Catholic shall henceforth believe more
firmly in the omnipresence of the Blessed Virgin than
I !*' Upon this they led me into a narrow sacristy,
before an old locked-up chest. They opened it, and I
saw a row of dolls of exactly the same size, lying side
by side, each with the same bright black face, as if
blackened by the smoke of the eternal lamps. Each
of these representatives of the Queei^ of Heaven wore
a broad, ftill robe, which gave her a pyramidal shape :
but each was decorated with different ornaments ana

jewels. I now learned that the image of the Holy
V irgin had to be presented for the worship of the
people in a different costume every holiday ; and that,
m order to spare any trouble at her toilet, a number
of dolls were kept ready dressed, and substituted, aa
convenient, one for another. — J)r Zchohkt.


Thou hast lost thy friend; say rather. Thou hast part-
ed with him. That is properly lost which is past all
recovery — ^which we cannot hope to see any more.
It is not so with this friend for whom thou moumest.
He is only gone home a little before thee; thou art
following him. You, too, shall meet in your Father's
house, and ei\joy each other more happily than yon
could have done here below. How just is that charge
of the blessed apostle, that we should not mourn as
men without hope for those who sleep in Jesus !
Did we think their souls vanished into air, as a Heathen
poet profanely expresses it; and their bodies resolved
into dust, without all possibility of reparation; we
might well cry out our eyes, for the utter extinc-
tion of those we loved. But if they do but sleep, they
shall do well. Why are we impatient at their silent
repose in the bed of death, when we are assured of
their awaking to glory ? — Bishop Hall,



Mr Venn was one daj thus addressed by a neigh-
bouring clergyman : '* Sir, I should really think that
your doctrines of grace and faith were calculated to
make all your hearers live secure in sin, and yet I
must own there has been an astonishing reformation
in your parish; whereas I dont believe I ever made
one soul the better, though I have been telling them
their duty for many years." Mr Venn smiled at the
clergyman's honest confession, and finmkly told him
he would do well to bum idl his old sermons, and ±Jir



' The Rev. John Howe, one of the chaplains to Crom-
well, was applied to by men of all parties for protec-
tion, nor did he refuse his influence to any on account
of difference in religious opinions. One day the Pro-
tector siud to him, ** Mr Howe, you have asked favours
for everybody besides yourself; pray when does your
turn come ?" He replied : " My turn, my Lord Pro-
tector, is always come, WHEN I CAN SERVE ANOTHER."


The Rev. Samuel Pearce, of Birmingham^ vras a
man of an excellent spirit. It was a rule with him
to discourage all evil speaking; nor would he approve
of JUST censure unless some good end was to be an-
swered by it. Two of his friends being on a visit at;
his house, one of them during the absence of the;
other, su^ested something to ms disadvantage. He \
put a stop to the conversation b^ answering, *' He is
here; take him aside, and tell him of it by himself * '
you may do him good."

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** Mark the perfect man, and behold the npright,
for the end of that man is peace." In a pre-
ceding paper we have described his character,
we are now to contemplate his " end."

The English term " end" is sometimes used
to denote the object we propose to ourselves —
the purpose we seek to accomplish by the means
we put in operation. On this account, some
writers have imagined that the words of the
Psalmist merely express the sentiment, that
the perfect and upright man will be a man of
peace— that his aim, and his effort will be to
promote peace in all the relations sustained by
him, in the family, in society at large, and in
the Church of God, guarding himself, and
endeavouring to preserve others, from those
ebullitions of temper, those hasty and unkind
words, and that course of conduct, which en-
danger the peace of all around.

And tliere can be no doubt that, in this sense
of the term, the "end" of the perfect and
upright man will be peace— that he will aim at
it — seek by all means, except such as would
involve a dereliction of principle, te promote
it. Nor let it be supposed for a moment that

Online LibraryThomas CarlyleThe Christian treasury, Volume 2 → online text (page 65 of 145)