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I that to be an Inquisitor was to be equal to a
I bishop; and so complete was the ascendency of
i the Holy Office, that the proud kings of Castile,
( prior to their coronation, bound themselves and
I all their subjects, by a solemn oath, to obey the
Holy Tribunal.

When any heretic was excommunicated by
I it, no authority but that of the Pope could
I absolve him. The Church was no sanctuary
I against its power, as it was to other offenders.
i A delinquent could be dragged from the
I horns of the altar; while the Inquisitors could
grant indulgences, partial or penary, to all
I who died in their service, not one of them-
selves being exposed to the perils of purga-
tory. Their indulgence was ex officio plenary
— that is, there was no purgatory for them.
They could proceed for heresy against bishops,
priests, and friars; nay, against cardinals and
archbishops as well as kiym^i. Not even
princes and kings were exempted from their
power; and Charles V., despot as he was,
trembled before the Inquisition; while members
of the imperial family, when cited* i^peared
before it as their memak worold have done.

The Inqninion oonld f arth^ comp^ civil
governors to extirpate from tbdur territory all
iriw were known as heretics. Witnesses might
be cempelled to give etideaoe, under pain of
exconuBunioation or the torture; and the for-
ner was tha award whenever a layman dared
to dispvie aboai the £uth, whether in public or
private. The power of the Office extended also
to booln, not one of which could be published
wxthoat the Inquisitor's permission; while Tor-
qnenukda bamed six thousand volumes in one fire
at Salamanca. To render theOfficials sufficiently
stringent in the application of their laws, they
were, for any instance of lenien^, forbidden to
enter a ohorch for a pmod of four years. In
^■prfpnining prisonors, lawyeTs acted as mmiiswn
to the clergjf to hielp forward their cruelty.
They were sworn to secrecy regarding their dia-
bolical proceedings, as were the other officers
<^ the Tribunal; and so strict were the instruo-
tioneto certain of the functionaries, that, in
recording the dealings with the accused,
every trivial incident connected with the cri-
minal required to be noticed. If he changed
colour, trembled, hesitated or faltered in his
speech, or coughed, or spoke with tremulous
tone during the inquest— all must be engros<
sed, ** that by these circumstances the Inqui<
sitors may know when to put the criminals
to the torture.*' If any one refused to aid in
detecting or apprehending a criminal, he was
fined and put to the ban. The bailiffs or Fami-
Uan, who apprehended the accused, were chiefly
the nobles of the kingdom, and not one of them
dared to daim exemption from theservice — nay,
that despicable office was coveted as an honour
even by them. So expert were these myrmi-
dons of old, that a father, with his sons and
daughters, six in all, were on one occasion ap-
prehended in the same house, carried to the
Inquisition about the same time, and detained
in it for seven years, in perfect ignorance of
each oUier^s destiny, till they met when they
were brought forth in an Auio-de-fe, Of these
Familiars there was one order, instituted by
Dominic, who took an oath to defend the Popish
faith at the cost of fortune and of life; and one
section of the persecutors was called by that
saint The MUUia of Chriet. Strange soldiers
these in the service of the Prince of Peace I

In accordance with the general spirit of this
system, eivil magistratee were in complete sub-
jection to the Inquisition. They swore to
exterminate heretics at the bidding of the In<
quisitors; and if any lord of a province refused
obedience, or, in technical language, declined
<< to purge his dominions from heretical pravity,"
his territory was ordered to be seized, e^r a
year of grace; and the person who seized it pos-
sessed it thereafter without challenge. Surely
Peter Martyr had reason to exclaim : '^O, un-
happy Spain, mother of so many heroes^ how
nnjustly disgraced by such a horrible scoui^e !"
it may easily be supposed that the prisons oi

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these horrid tribimalswere inhumanly construc-
ted for torture. They have been likened to
ffTftves for the dead, though they varied aocor-
3ing to the degree of alleged delinquency. A
Jail in Spain and Portugal was actually named
[Santa CaiUk, or the hobf home, because the In-
I quiaition imparted of its own sanctity to all
! oonneeted with it. On enterinc^ it (in Portugal),
I the prisoners were shaved and dressed. Their
I hre was wretched, and kept in some oases as
near as possible to the point of starvation, that
if the prisoners had property, the more mi^ht
remain to the Inquisition at the confiscation
that followed upon the sentence. The harpies of
the Holy Office oflen lived upon the prisoners, if
they had means, like vermin upon those whom
they infest. Henoe annoyances and privations
more galling to some generous spirits than even
the torture and the rack. Those who were
confined in the worst class of cells, generally
■sat in utter darkness, and were sometimes kept
there for several years, without a visitor but
their keeper, that they might be subdued by
the horrors of their dungeon, and compelled by
suffering ** to confess things which oftentimes
they had never done." No one durst even
mutter a syllable in those dungeons. The
silence was absolute and profound, like that of
the grave ; and if a lamentation, a moan, or a
wail was heard, the rules of the Inquisition,
commanding sUence, were strictly enforced
against the sufferer. J£ admonition failed to
restore it^ bodily correction was resorted to;
and a case is on record, in which one of those
confined died of blows inflicted because he
could not re&ain from coughing. One design of
this stringency was to preserve perfect secrecy,
which was proverbiallyregardedas^thestrengUi
^f the Inquisition," and prevent any interoourse
between ceU and cell. Any relaxation that
was granted, was in word and appearance rather
than reality, and if danger was dreaded, the pri-
soner might be laid in irons. In short, of all
the systems ever devised for harassing and tor-
menting men accused, and wearing them out
by a kind of living death, the system adopted
by the Inquisition, especially in Spain, was
the most perfect — solitude, starvation, silence,
bodily correction, and chafing insult, were the
bitter ingredients which made up the lot of the
prisoners. From such wretchedness even the
lack was a kind of relief ; and if any other alle-
viation was vouchsafed, it was rather in contra-
vention of the laws than in harmony with them,
while in all that regarded what was reckoned
heresy, men and women shared the same fate.
On one occasion clemency to one of the accused,
^n the part of a servant of the prison, was re-
warded with incarceration for a year, with two
hundred stripes, wearing a varment of yellow
{the badge ofdiagnce), and banislmient for ten
years from the city and territory where the
nercy had been abowii; while the odious title,
*Tho Protector of Heretics," was attaohied

as a stigma, on account of the humanity dis-

In our next notice we design to advert to
the crimes of which the Inquisition takes eog-
nizance, with the mode of procedure before the
Tribunal. Meanwhile let us ask, Would any one
suppose, while glancing over these peragrapha,
that we have been describing measures adopted
for spreading and upholding the relinon of
peace, and mercy, and love ! Has it ever
occurred to think Uiat all these diabolical plans
were executed by men professing the religion,
or pretending zeal for the cause, of Him who
would not break the bruised reed nor quench
the smokiuc; flax t Nay, rather, do not these
details exhibit, as in the lurid li^ht of the fires
which the Inquisition so often kindled, the ori-
gin, the spirit, and the tendency of the revolting
system t We here see into the very heart's core
of Popery. We discover its real nature, as the
Antichristian system which tends to overlay the
religion of love, and rear in its place the inven-
tion of fiends. Popery is, no doubt, now i^om
of much of its virulence. The Inquisition now
has not the same startling sound, nor the same
Satanic power, as of old. But let that creed
regain its former sway over men's oonsoiences,
and souls, and fears, and the system will be
found essentially and unchangeably the same.
Its errors are part of its very being — ^nay
Popery has no existence but as error, inas-
much as it is, in all its parts, the direct antago-
nist of the revelation of (rod, whioh is truth.
Then, its delusions are organic, and not merely
functional — you cannot remove one of its dog-
mata without destroying Popery itself, fa
other words, it must be utterly swept away —
it cannot be improved or amended ; and unless
the nations become alive to the horrors of the
system, others besides Constantine of Seville,
one of its murdered victims, may have reason
to exclaim—** O my God, were there no Scy-
thians in the worid — no i^nni^<|iff more fierce
and cruel than Scythians, into whose bands
thou couldst carry me, that I might escape the
paws of these wretches ! "

Let no Romanist, or no enemy of God's truth
here retort^ Did not Melancthon, did not
Cranmer, did not Calvin, did not others of the
Reformers persecute in their turn! Poperr
itself, the creed in which they were refu^
must be held responsible for all such violations
of the law of love — the liberty which man enjoys
of being responsible only to his God for his
futh. So thoroughly does Popery appear to be
the religion of blood, that even those who had
escaped from its thraldom in other respects,
retained some marks of their bondage in this;
and all who seek the emancipation of mind, the
salvation of the soul, the glory of God in the
growth and propagation of liborty, civil and
religious, will seek, by CSiristian means, and
in a Christian spirit the down&l of the Man of
Sin, the overthrow of Antichrist^ the nnmask-

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ing of the Mystery of Iniquity, the extinction
of that deceivableness of unrighteousness which
signalizes the system which exalts itself above
eS. that is called God. It is mercy to the na-
tions, it is mercy to the Ronumists themselves,
to unveil the real nature of that false faith.
The well-being of man throughout the world is
identified with its downfal; and all who are
knit together in the bonds of the true Catholic
religion should labour and pray, in the spirit of
their Lord, for the subveraion of the delusions of
Rome. Since Friar Thomas Torquemada gave
the Inquisition its laws in 1483, and Valdes
recast them in 1561, how many thousands of
God*s saints have been slaughtered! Though
dead, do they not still speak against the odious


(From, JRev, B. Stowe^s ** Whole Family in Hcavtn
I and Earih:^)

I Wholb family ! It is not easy to conjoin other two

'words that would awoken so many tender associa-
tions ,or furnish so many topica of exhilarating or

' saddening interest.

I ** CK>d setteth the solitary in families;*^ and you

'can probably recollect when you was a constituent of

'a whole, and, in some respects, of a happy family.

>Then you were all, parents and children, sheltered
by the same roof, and grouped at the same fire-side.

jTlien, thrice arday, you surrounded the same table,
and partook of the bounty of Him who " openeth his
hand and satisfieth the desires of every living thing.^*
Then you " went to the house of God in company,"
and occupied the same pew, and listened to the same

I expounder of the heavenly oracles. Then, morning
and evening, you sat in reverent silence, and heard a
chapter ret^ from the family Bible— a peculiar book,

' whose shape and appearance you can never forget, and

the like of which you have never yet seen. Then you

bowed, an unbroken circle, around a common altar,

" When kneeling down to heaven's eternal King.

The Mint, the (kther, and the husband prayed."

Then, as you had one home, and sought no other,
! your joys, griefs, and interests were one. You had
I** all things conunon.'** Then, as afiection bound to-
gether, the thought of separation was inexpressibly
painful. You deprecated the rupture of the family
tie as an evil of unsurpassed magnitude.
I Those days of homo comfort — of sweet domestic
endearment — are fresh in your recollection, and only
by the annihilation of your being can they be extur-
pated from yomr memory. Yoiu* thoughts love to
Jinger about those sunny scenes, and from them ex-
tract the honey that sweetens the bitterness of pre-
sent cares and disappointments. And the farther
you advance in life, the more frequently do your
muids recur to them as a fount of solace that the
heart knows how to appreciate.
I But that circle of home kindred, once and so long
complete, has been broken. That family, once whole,
has felt the touch of the breaker^s wand, and some
' of the fragments are mouldering in the tomb where
I other dead are congregated, or in some countrv grave-
! yard, where in summer grow the fern and the wild-
! brier, and in winter the cold north wind spreads over
I them a snowy mantle. Other portions, widely^ sun-
dered, have become centres around which new circles
are forming, that are soon, in like manner, to be

broken and dispersed. O how tender and subduiog j
are the reminiscences of family connections and
fiumily scenes! Father! mother! — blessing on
their memories! — ^where are they? Brothers! Bistera!!
where are they ? Husband! wife! children! where
are they ? Youthful readers, how little do you know
what lies before you in the pathway of life. These
touching, melting recollections, will soon be youit
While the family, in whose warm bosom you now
nestle, remains wnole, prize the bleasmg as from
Heaven, and improve tms season as the happiest of
your temporal existence.

•* We all are here.
You that I love, with love so dear ;
This may not long of us be xaid—
Soon must we join the gathered dead.
And by the hearth we now sit round
Some other dicle will be found.
O, then, that wisdom may we know.
Which yields a life of peace below ;
So, In the world to follow this,
M35 each repeat, in words of bliss.

We're all— all here !"


(From the Free Church Magadne.)
OuE present design is to gather from the pages
of the elaborate work whose title we have
prefixed to this paper, some notices of the
English Bible. It never was the policy of
Popery to put the Scriptures into the hands
of the people. Till nearly the end of the four-
teenth ceuturjr there was no translation of the
Word of €rod mto the English language. Trans-
lations of some small fragments there were,
but no translation of the whole Bible. Those
who were unacquainted with the Hebrew,
Greek, and Latin lan^ages, knew as much
or as little of the Word of God, which maketb
wise unto salvation^ as an ignorant and vicious
priesthood mijht be able and willing to teach

"Wickliffe was the first who translated the
whole Bible into English. He knew neither
Hebrew nor Greek, and translated from the
Latin. His, therefore, was a translation frt)m
a translation^ and so far it was imperfect^
though still an unspeakable boon to his country.
It was finished in 1380. Printing was not in-
vented till about 1435, and therefore copies of
Wicklifib's translation could be multiplied only
by the slow and expensive process of the
transcriber's pen. Notwithstanding this it ob-
taiued a wide circulation^ and exercised a great
and salutary influence. Wickliffe's opinions,
or rather the knowledge and belief of Scrip-
ture truth, made great progress. The Dukes
of Lancaster and Gloucester, sons of Edward
III., favoured and protected WickliflTe; and
the former, in his place in Parliament, opposed
successfully a bill brought in to suppress the
English version of the Word of God. England
possessed no Bible in her own language, except

* The Annals of the English Bible. By Christopher
Anderson, in two volumes. London : William Pickering,

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this versiOD in xnanuscript, for the next 150
years; and it is not a little singular Uiat Wiok-
liffe's translation is now being printed for the
fint time.

I The substratnm or foundation of our present
: English Bible is not the translation of Wick-
liffe, but that of William Tyndale^ which, after
five revisions from the Helnrew and Greek, still
' Btands, word for word, in many places of our
authorized version. Tyndale waa a man of
ooBsiderable learning, having studied at both
the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. At
an eariy period of his life he was deeply oon-
Tinced that the best remedy for the ignorance
of the laity, and the corruptions of the clergy,
was the throwing open to fdl the Scriptures of
truth; and, in an argument which he had with
a dignitary of the Church, he was roused to
say to his opponent, '^ If Grod spare my life, ere
I many years I will cause a boy that driveth the
|dongh to know more of the Scriptures than
you do."

! Tyndale went abroad, probably to Hamburg,
' where he seems to have published a translation
first of Matthew and then of Mark. In 1625
he is believed to have removed to Cologne,
, where he put his translation of the New Testa-
ment to the press. But the printing had pro-
ceeded only as far as the tenth sheet, when
; John CochlsBus, one of the bitterest enemies
I that ever lived to the translation of the Sciip-
I tores, came to the knowledge of whai was
' going on. By his influence with Herman Binck,
one of the leading men of Cologne, the senate
was prevailed upon to interdict the printer from
proceeding with Tyndale's work. Tyndale
: immediately fled from Cologne, taking with him
the printed sheets of his tnuoudation, and went
I up the Bhine to Wonns, where there was more
, Lutheranism and more freedom. And striking
'enough, that which CochlfiBus designed to be
,a hindrance to the publication of the Scrip-
jtures in the English tongue, proved tiie oooa-
sion of two editions instead of one issuing from
I the press; for at Worms Tyndale not only com-
pleted the printing of the quarto edition begun
at Cologne, but also printed an octavo edition.
CochlEeus and Rinck, on discovering what
was going on at Cologne, had written to Eng-
land informing Henry VIII. and Wolsey of
the translation of lyndale, and beseeching
them to be on their guard against its introduc-
tion into England. Tyndale was aware of this
— was aware that his book had been minutely
described to the king and Wolsey; and this
seems to have led him to change its form, with
the view of baffling the vigilance which miffht
be employed to keep it out of the hands of nis
countrymen. The quarto size was changed for
the octavo, and certain notes or glosses which
he had added on the margin were omitted ; —
indeed, Tyndale seems to have come very early
to the conviction that the Word of God, with-
out note or comment, was the best weapon

with which to combat ignorance and supers

The quarto edition was completed as well as
the octavo one, and both of them found their
way into this country soon after they came
from the press. But as it was of the quarto
edition that the king and Wolsey luid been
forewarned, it was that edition which was
seized, denounced, and condemned; whilst its
smaller oompamon, the octavo edition, w«s
dreulating unnoticed and unoppMed in thou-
sands throughout the land. And it is a re-
naarkahle fact, that God permitted man's con-
demnation to fall first on that translation which
was loaded with glosses and comments, and to
fiUl so heavily as to crush it entirely; whilst
the translation without note or comment re-
mained, and spread, and multiplied in ^ite of
the most furious and persevering endeavours
to destroy it. God will take care of his own
Word: when man. makes addition to that
Word, even in the shape of an honest and
faithful oamment, the mingled gold and da^
must take its chance among human composi-

Tyndale's New Testaments arrived in Eng-
land in the early part of 1526. It is not known
from what port of the Continent they were
shipped; it was probably from seveial, as the
stock which had been printed was wisely kept
in difierent places. Simon Fyshe, a lawyer m
Lond<m, and George Harman, a merchant in
Antwerp, were the first active instruments in
bringing over the English New Testament, and
putting it into circmation among the people.
And so earlv as January 1526, many of the
learned youuis in London, and in the two uni-
versities, were eagerly reading the Word of
God in their own language, m a very short
period the effects of tUs appeared. A numl^
of the most promising students of Wolsey's
own college (Cardinal College) at Oxford were
suspected of heresy, apprehended, and subject-
ed to very harsh treatment

To stay the progress of the evilj a number of
Tyndale's New Testaments and other books
were publicly burnt in London by Wolsey's
order, and in his presence, in February of the
above year. This was iramedtaiely followed
by an address in the long's name, denouncing
Tyndale's quarto New Testament^ the only one
apparently yet known to the enemies of the
Word of God, and ordering the book to be
burned ^fdierever it could be found.

But all this was of no avail Unable to pre-
vail on the people to give up the treasure of
the Scriptures to be (testroyed^ it was deter-
mined by Warham, archbishop of Canterbury,
to try what could be done by purchasing up and
burning this very troublesome and -dangerous
translation. Three editions had been published,
and the archbishop succeeded in obtaining a
part of these, at a cost of £60 : 9 :4d. of the
money of those days, and equal to about £997

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of our money. Of course, as far as the sup-
pression of Tyndale*8 translation went, the at-
tempt was perfectly futile. Many copies con-
tinued to be brought over from the Continent.
Zealous, active men were found who en^i^d
heartily in circulating them in England. These
carried them to the principal towns, and tra-
velled through the country disposing of them
to the people, who were now both well pre-
pared to receive, and anxious to possess them.
From February 1526, we have Garret, Necton,
Lome, Fyshe, and others, receiving books from
abroad, including the quarto and octavo edi-
tions, and also the editions of Matthew and
Mark, published separately, and disposing of
them in London, Oxford, Cambridge, Bradford,
Lynn, and many other places.

Tjnidale, who was stiU on the Continent, now
set himself to translate the Old Testament; and
by the year 1530, the five books of Moses were
published and introduced into England; and in
1531 he further published a translation of
Jonah, with a bold, searching, seasonable pro-

In 1534, whilst the star of Anne Boleyn was
i in the ascendant, the Scriptures were brought
fireely into England; no one hindered.

But the translator's life was drawing to a
close. He had been hunted from place to place
by the active enmity of Wolsey, Sir Thomas
More, the king, and the bishops, for many
years; but the hand of the Lord had protected
him; at length he was apprehended at Antwei-p
I by one Phulips, at the instigation probably of
'the enemies of the Bible in England, and
, under the authority of certain persecuting de-
\ crees of the German Emperor. This was in
1 1535. He was imprisoned in the Castle of
Vilvorde for about a year and a half, and
I suflTered mart3rrdom on the 6th ot October 1536;
being first strangled, and then consumed to
' ashes. Before his death about twenty editions
; of his translation of the New Testament had
1 been published; and at the very time when he
I was suffering martyrdom, a folio edition — the
.first copy of the New Testament printed in
I England— was going through the press of the
lung's printer in London.
I In 1587 the whole Scriptures were translated
. into English, and published by Miles Coverdale.
I A curious circumstance attended the publica-
, tion of Coverdale's translation. It was dedi-
cated to Henry and Qneen Anne Boleyn. But
after it was printed, and before it was publish-
I ed, that unfortunate queen was beheaded. The
dedication, therefore, must needs be changed,
, and accordingly some copies are found in which

Online LibraryThomas CarlyleThe Christian treasury, Volume 2 → online text (page 79 of 145)