Thomas Carlyle.

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trifles. But supposing the fact to be as alleged, let|
us see for a little where this finger is to be found.;
There is one at Desan<;on, in the Church of John the
Great, another at Toulouse, another at Lyons, another |
at Bourges, another at Florence, and another at thei
Church of JFortuitus, near Mascon. All I would do|
here Is to ask my readers not to harden themselves*
against evidence so clear and certain— not to close]
their eyes in such bright light, and allow themselves]
to be led astray, as it were, in the dark. If thorc '
were jugglers, who could so impose on our eye-sight
as to make it appear that there were six fingers on
one hand, we would yet guard cautiously against im
posture, and try to detect it. Here, however, there
18 nothing that even looks like a clever trick. The
whole question is, whether we are to believe that the
same one finger of John is at Florence, and five other
places, as at Lyons, Bourges, and other towns; or,
to state the matter in fewer words, whether we are
to believe that six fingers make no more than one
finger, or that one finger makes six. I have mention-
ed only places that are known to me, but I doubt not



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EVANGELISM, RITUALISM, RATIONALISM.



tkfttjif inqoirywefeiiMide, at many more would be
diw^Tered, Mid thai6 fraguMBiitf of the head also would
be fooBd of bulk Boffieient to make up the head of
an ox. But that nothing might be omitted^ they
pretend that they have got his ashes also, some of
them beinff at Genoa, and others at Rome^ in the
Ohurch of Joamies Latoranensis. The historioal ao-
ONiBt is, that they wevesoattered to the winds. How
does this agree with what.is said, eq^eciaUy l^ the
Genoese?

It -now remuns to consider oertain articles which
Are a kind of aocesBaries of the body; for instance,
the shoe which is at Paris in the Monastery of the
Gartiraeians. ItwBSst<^en some twelve or fifteen
years ago, bat another Ibrthwith made its wppemt-
anoe; and, indeed, so long as shoemakers eiist there
will be no want of soch relics. The^ glTC oat that
m the Church of Joannes Lateranensis at Borne they
have got his girdle. They say they haye also in the
same place the altar at which he said his ^yers in
the desert, as if at that tnne it had been the eastom
to erect altars in erery plaee, and on erery oooanon.
It is stringe they do not also make him pemrmmass.
At Aiignon they haye the sword with which his head
was cat off; and at Acqs, in Germany, the linen doth
which was placed under him in the act of beheadioff
him. How, I would fain know, was there so mnoh
kindness and civility in the executioner as to cover
tiie bottom of the dungeon wifeh a carpet at the time
he was going to put the Baptist to an ignominious
dettkh ? I would also like to know how these things
happened to come into their hands. Is it probable
that the executioner, whether he were a oomrtier or
a common soldier, gave the linen cloth and his sword,
that they might be converted into relios? As th^
wished to make the ooUeotioin of relios so very pecfisc^
the V have blundered sadljr in overlooking the knife
with which Herodias is sfud to have wounded him in
the eye, and likewise all the blood that must have
been spilt, together with his tomb. But peihape
the mistake is in me. It is quite possible ttuit these
fuomm articles^ are exhibited in places I WBblWt
aequainted with^



EVANGELISM, RITUALISM, RATIONALISM.

(^ofll the Frincetan, Rpview,)
HiflVOBT teaches us that Christianity appears under
three characteristio forms; which fmr the sake of
distinction may be called the BvangeMoal, the Ritual,
and the Rationalistic. These forms alv^ays co-exist
m the Church, and are constantly striving for the
mastery. At <»ie period, the one, and at another,
another gains the ascendency, and gives chsmoter to
that period. Daring the apostolic age, the Evange-
lical system prevailed, though in constant oonfliot
with Ritualism in the form of Judaism. PuriBg
the next age of the Church we find Rationalism
str ug g lin g for the aaoendency, under tiie Ibtm of
Gnosticism and the phikwophy of the Platoniiing
ihthers. RituaBsm, however, soon gained the mastery,
which it maintained almost vrithout a strugi^e until
the time of the R^ormation. At that period
EvangeHeal truth gained the ascendency, which it
maintained for more than a hundred years, and vras
succeeded on the continent by Rationalism, and in
England, under Archbishop Land, by Ritualism.
This latter system, however, vras there pressed
beyond endoranoe, and the measures adopted for
promoting it led to » violent reaction. The restoxa-



tkm of Chades IL commenced the reign of the
Rationalistic fonn of doctrine in England, manifest-
ing itself in low Arminian oft Pelagian views, and in
general indifference. This continued to characterize
the Church in Great Britain until the iq>pearance of
Wesley and Whitefield, about a oentuiy ago; since
which time th^e has been a constant advance in the
prevalence and power of Evangelical truth both in
Bni^bodandSoetlaad.. Within the last ten or fifteen
years^ however, » new movement has taken place
towards Ritnalism, irhich has attracted the attention

of the whob Christian worid.

The different forms of religion to which reference
has been made have each its peculiar basis, both
objective and subjective. The Evangelical form rests
on the Scriptures as its objective ground; and its
inward or subjective ground is an enlightened con-
viction of sin. The Ritual system rests outwardly on
the authority of the Church, or tradition; inwardly
on » vague religioas sentiment. The Rationalistic
rests on tike human understanding; and internally on.
inififlRuenoe.

The Bvangelioal system of doctrine starts vrith the
assumpticn that all men are under the condemnation
and power of sin. This is assumed by the sacred
writers as & fiMt of consciousness, and is made the
ground of the whole doctrine of redemption. From
the guilt of sin there is no method of deliverance
but throu^ the righteousness of Christ, and no way
in which fipeedom fitom its power can be obtained
but thxevgh the indwdling of his Spirit. Neman
who is not united to Christ by a living fiuth is a
partaker dther of his righteousness or Spirit; and
evezgrmaa who does truly believe is a partaker of
both, 80 as to be both justified and sanctified. This
vaiatL with Christ by the indwelling of his Spirit is
always manifested by the fruits of righteousness—
by lofe, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentieness, good-
nesi^ fiuth, meekness, temperanoe. Where these
firuits of the Spirit are» there, and not elsewhere, is
the Spirit; and where the l^irit is, there is union
vrith egoist; and vrhere union vrith Christ is, there
is msmboship in his body, which is the Church.
True bdievocs^ thereibre, according to the Scrqttures,
are the xXerM^ the l»X4»r«<, the h^Xn^m

The theory of tiie Church, then, which of necessity
fi>llows from the Evang^cal ^^stem of doctrine, is,
that all who really bdieve the Gospel constitute the
tMe Chnrch, and all who profess such iatth consti-
tute the visible Church; that in virtue of the pro-
fBSsioii of this commcm fyth, and of allegiance to the
ssBie Lord, th^ are one bo^, and in this one body
there may ri^^tly be subordinate and more intimate
unions of certain parts, for the purposes of combined
action, and of mutual oversic^t and consolation.
When it is said, in our Confession of Faith, that out
of this visible Church there is no ordinary possibility
of salvation, it is only saying that there is no salvia
tkm vrithout the knowledge and profeision of the
Goq>d; that there is no other nsme by which we;
must be saved but the name of Jesus Christ The
proposition, that '< out of the Church there is no sal-
vation,'* is true or &lse, liberal or illiberal, according ' H



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390



THE CHRISTIAN TREASURY.



I to the latitade gircn to the word Church. There
was, not long sinoe, and probably there is stfll, in
New York, a little society of Sandemaniaa Baptists,
oonnsting of seven persons, two men and five women,
who hold that they constitute the whdle Church in
America. In their months the proposition abore
stated would indeed be restrictire. In the mouth of
a Romanist, it means there is no salTation to any
wh(f do not belong to that body which acknowledges
the pope as its head. In the mouths of High Church-
men, it means there is no salration to those who are
not in subjection to some prelate who is in com-
munion with the Church catholic. While, in the
months of Protestants, it means there is no salration
without faith in Jesus Christ.

The system which, for the sake of distinction, has
been called the Ritual, agrees of course with the
Erangelical as to many points of doctrine. It in-
chides the doctrine of the Trmity— of the incarnation
of the Son of God — of original sin — of the sacrifice of
Christ as a satisfaction to satisfy divine justice— of
the supernatural influence of the Holy Spirit in
regeneration and sanctification — of the resurrection
of the body— and of an eternal judgment The great
distinction lies in the answer which it gives to the
question. What must I do to be saved.'— or by what
means does the soul become interested in the re-
demption of Christ ? According to the Evangelical
system, it is foith. Every sinner who hears the
Gospel has unimpeded access to the Son of God, and
can, in the exercise of faith and rfpentance, go
immediately to him, and obtain eternal life at his
hands. According to the Ritual system, he must go
to the priest; the sacraments are the channels of
grace and salvation, and the sacraments can only be
lawfully or effectively administered by men prelati-
cally ordained. The doctrine of the priestly cha-
racter of the Christian ministry, therefore, is one <^
the distinguishing characteristics of the Ritual system.
A priest is a man ordained for men in things per-
taiiiing to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices. The
very nature of the office supposes that those for
whom he acts have not in themselves liberty of
access to God; and therefore the Ritual system is
founded on the assumption that we have not this
liberty of drawing nigh to Gh>d. It is only by the
ministerial intervention of the Christian priesthood
that the sinner can be reconciled and made a par-
taker of salvation. Here, then, is a broa^l line of dis-
tinction between the two systems of doctrines. This
was one of the three great doctrines rejected by
Protestants at the time of the Reformation. They
affirmed the priesthood of all believers, asserting
that all have access to God through the High Priest
of their profession, Jesus, the Son of Qod; and they
denied the official priesthood of the clergy.

The second great distinction between the two
systems of doctrine, is the place they assign the
sacraments. The Evangelical admit them to be effi-
cacious signs of grace; but they ascribe their efficacy
not to any virtue in them or in him by whom they
are administered, but to the influence of the Spirit
in them that do by faith receive them. Ritualists



i



attribute to them an inhersot virtue, aq opu* ope-
ratum efficacy, independent of the moral state of
the recipient. According to the one system, the
sacraments are necessary only as matters of precept;
according to the other, they have the necessity uf i
means. According to the one, we are required to !
receive baptism, just as we are under obligatioii tc
keep the Sabbath, or as the Jews were required to
be -circumcised; and yet we are taught, that if any
man kept the law, his undrcumcision should be
counted for circumcision. And thus also, if any one
truly repents and believes, his want of baptism can*
not make the promise of God of none effect. The
neglect of such instituted rites may involve more
or less sin, or none at all, according to the circum-
stances. It is necessary only as obedience to any
other positive institution is necessary; that is, as
a matter of duty, the non-performance of which
ignorance or disability may palliate or excuse. Ac-
cording to the latter system, however, we are
required to receive baptism, because it is the only
appointed means of conveying to us the benefits of
redemption. It is of the same necessity as faith.!
It is a sine qua non. This alters the whole nature {
of the case, and changes in a great measure the plan
of redemption.

The theory of the Church connected with the
RiUud system of doctrine— that system which makes
ministers priests, and the sacraments the only ap-
pointed channels of communicating to men the
benefits of redemption — is implied in the nature of
the doctrines themselves. It makes the Church so
prominent, that Christ and the truth are eclipsed.
This made Dr. Parr call the whole system Churchi-

anity, in distinction from Christianity

The great advantage of the Ritual theory, however,
is to be found in its adaptation to the human heart.
Most men who live where the Gospel is known detire ^
some better foundation for confidence towards God
than their own good works. To such men the Chureh,
according to this theory, presents itself as an insti- 1 '
tute of salvation— venerfJ)le for its antiquity, attrac-
tive from the number and rank of its disctplea, and
from the easy terms on which it proffers pardon and
eternal life. There are three very comprehensive
classes of men to whom this system must commend
itself. The first consists of those who are at once
ignorant and wicked. The degnded inhabitants of
Italy and Portugal have no doubt of their salvation,
no matter how wicked they may be, so long as they '
are in the Church, and submissive to officers and rites.
The second includes those who are devout, and at the
same time ignorant of the Scriptures. Such men feel
the need of religion, of communion with (}od, and
of preparation for heaven; but, knowing nothmg
of the (jh>spel, or disliking what they know, a form
of religion which is laborious, mystical, and ritual,
meets all their necessities, and commands their
homage. The third class consists of worldly men,
who wish to enjoy this life, and get to heaven witk
aa little trouble as possible. Such men, the world
over, are High Churchmen. To them a Church which
claims the secure and exclusive custody of the bless-
ings of redemption, and which she professes to grant



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MEMORIALS OP THE INQUISITION.



391



on the condition of unresisting submission to her
anthoritj and rites, is exactly the Church thej desire.
We need not wonder, therefore, at the long-continued
and extensiye preralence of this system. It is too
much in accordance with the human heart to fail of
its support, or to be effectually resisted by any power
short of that by which the heart is changed.

It will not be necessary to dwell on that theory of
the Church which is connected with Rationalism.
Its characteristic feature is, that the Church is not a
divine institution, with prerogatives and attributes
authoritatirely determined by its Author, but rather
a form of Christian society, to be controlled according
to the wisdom of its members. It may be identified
with the state, or made dependent on it, or erected
into a co-ordinate body with its peculiar officers and
ends. It is obrious that a system which sets aside,
more or less completely, the authority both of Scrip-
ture and tradition, must leave its advocates at liberty
to make of the Church just what "the exigency of
the times,^^ in their judgment, requires. The philo-
sophical or mystic school of Rationalists have of course
a mystical doctrine of the Church, which can be un-
derstood only by those who understand the philo-
sophy on which it rests.



MEMORIALS OP THE INQUISITION.

NO VI.
BT THB BBY. W. K. TWBEDIB, EDINBUROH.

CoNKBOTBD with the Holy Office, there was a
class of men named QuaUfieaton, to whom much
of the misery which the Inquisition inflicted
may be traced Their business was to declare
whether the opinions imputed to the accused
were heretical; and, as they were often ignorant
monks, or scholastic divines, to whom every-
thing but their own narrow dogmas were offen-
sive, they were ready to brand as heretical what
was merely unknown to them. Like the kaliph,
they had a Koran, and, like him, they reasoned,
that if the opinions charged against any pri-
soner were not according to that standard, bmn-
ing was the remedy; and not merely a library,
but the owners of them in thousands were, on
such ignorant maxims, handed over to the bitter-
ness of death.

We draw these Memorials to a close by re-
counting some further illustrations of the fiery
tribunal, whose constitution and deeds we have
been studying.

It has already appeared, that neither age, sex,
nor condition was spared. The following cases
will exemplify the remark : —

Bartolom^ de Caranza y Miranda was arch*
bishop of Toledo, a member of the Council of
Trent, and so high in reputation for orthodoxy,
that he accompanied Philip II. to England,
where he actively aided in bringing Protestants
to the stake. He was at last denounced, how-
ever, to the Inquisition; not even the primacy
of Spain could shield him, and Bartolom^ was



cast into the prison of Valladolid. The reason
was, that he d4red to maintain a friendly inter-
course with some of his former associates, who
had become favourable to the hated Lutheran-
ism; and because he did not denounce them to
the Holy Office he was himself imprisoned.
He a^ipreed with certain of the cardinals of his
time m approximating to the Reformed doc-
trines, and adopted measures for iubti-ucting
the Spaniards in religion through means of
their native language. To the Holy Office this
was intolerable, 'fiie archbishop was tried at
Rome, and suspended for five years from the
exercise of his functions; but scarcely was the
sentence pnonounced when he sickened and
died, having been eighteen years under process,
and in a state of confinement.* Eight other
bishops, several of whom had assisted at the
Council of Trent, and twenty-five doctors of
theology, were denounced to the Inquisition
about the same time, and compelled either to
suffer or retract.

Among the laity, again, rank was no defence i
any more than among the priesthood. Domingo |
de Roxas, son of the Marquis de Poza, was ;
seized when about to flee from Spain, and was '
ordered to be tortured; but promised to confess '
all that he knew, if he mieht be spared the
horrorofthatappalling ordeal. He was gratified,
made some disclosures, and was immediately
smitten with compunction. He craved another
audience, and made all the reparation which be
could to those whom he had accused, and then
submitted to his own doom. When he ap-
peared at the Auto, and had been delivered
over to the secular judge who pronounced sen.
tence, Domingo had occasion to pass the roya)
box on the way to execution, and made an
appeal to Philip, who was present to enjoy the
spectacle, to rescue him from his doom. ** Canst
thou, Sire, thus witness tlie torments of thy
innocent subjects! Save us from so cruel a
death !" was the youth's appeal. ** No," wa^
the royal bigot's reply; " I would myself carr>
wood to bum my own son were he such a
wretch as thou." De Roxas was about to reply.
Philip waived him away, and the brutal gagj j
silenced the martyr's appeal. The mode of liis
death is differently narrated by Papists and
Protestants. The truth appears to be, tliat he
did not receive even the poor mercy of being
strangled before he was burned. Sepulveda has
recorded that De Roxas was thrown alive into
the flames, because he persevered in error.

We have already had occasion to refer to
several ladies who endured the cruelest treat-
ment at the hands of the Holy Office. The
following instances will illustrate the extent
to which false religion can extirpate, not only
all that is Christian, but all thait is humane
and generous, from civil society, and at the
perusal we cannot help exclaiming, where was
Spanish chivalry when shaveling monks could
• M'CMe



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392



THE CHRIBTIAN TBEASURY.



! perpetrate such brutalities! At Seville, for

example, the widow of Fernando Nugnez, of

I Lepe, with three of her dau^ters and a mar-

! ried sister, were seiced hy the Familiars. As

there was no evidence against them the^ were

' put to the torture, but still refused to inform

I against each other. Force failing, fraud was

.employed. One of the Inquisitors feigned an

' affection fbr one of the dau^ters, and induced

her to unbosom all to him, in the hope he might

befriend the persecuted party. She confessed

' her Luth^ttn leanings, but the villain Inquisitor

had her subsequently tortured by the pulley

and the wooden horse, because her public con-

fessions were not so explicit as those which she

I made in private; and thus there was extorted

from her an amount of evidence which led to her

'own condemnation along with her relatives, as

I well as to the discovery of others who subse-

quentlv perished in the flames. Aught more

diabohcal never was p»petrated. It is like a

i glimpse into pandemonium. But all this was

I for the upholding of Popery, and to presM^e

lit from the taint of Lutheranism.

I Further: Dona Mercia de Figueroa, wife of

:Don Piedro Sarmiento de Roxas, and dame of

I honour to the queen, was sentenced to wear the

coat of infamy, and to be imprisoned during

her life. Dona Ana Henriquez de Roxas,

'daughter of the Marquis of Aloagnizes, a lady

I of great accomplishments, and acquainted with

I the works of the Reformers, espedally of Calvin,

was condemned to wear the ton-^Miito, to be se-

'parated from her husband,, and to end her days

'in a monastery. Her aunt, Dona Maria de

Roxas, escaped from a similar doom only be-

I cause she was the special fiivourite of the

! Queen of Portugal. Dona Silva de Ribera,

Dona Constanza de Yibero Cazalla, and Dona

Francisca Zunoga de Baeza, were, along with

I others, sentenced to wear the garb of ignominy,

'and be imprisoned for life. Dona Isabella de

Oastilla, her niece. Dona Gatalina, and three

! nuns of St. Belen, appeared as penitents in an

lAuto-de-fe on the 28th of October, 1669; at

I which another nun. Dona CataHna de Reynoz%

daughter of the Baron de Auzillo, and sister of

the Bishop of Cordova, was delivered to the

' secular arm to be destroyed for her religion,

' when only twenty-one years of age.

But the treatment of Dona Mmna Guevaro,
a nun of St. Belep, illustrates most clearly the
sternness of the hateful Tribunal. She con-
fessed that she had leaned to Lutheran opinions,
but had never cordially adopted them. Her
oath to confess the truth would not allow her to
confess what was untrue, and she pled that
only to incense her judges. She was connected
with Yaldes, the Inquisitor-general; but even
his interference could not save his relative.
Dona Marina persisted in refusing to acknow-
ledge a lie as the trutli. She was sentenced,
dehvered to the secular arm at an Auto, strang-
led, and burned.



Again: an Auto, celebrated at Yalladolid in
1669, exhibited other examples of martyrB
among the finale friends of truth. Dona Isa-
bel de Baena allowed Lutherans to meet in
her house; ^e herself must therefore be mur-
dered by the Holy Office, her house razed to
the ground, its site sown with salt, and another
monument reared on it to proclaim the ferocity
of Popery. A similar fate awaited Maria de
Bohorques, the natural daughter of ft Spaniili
grandee of the first class. She avowed hot
udth before the Inquisitors, defended it as the
ancient truth of God, and was tortured to in-
duce her to implicate her Mends. First two
Jesuits, and then two Dominicans, were sent to
debate with or ensnare her; but she continued
stedfast — her convictions acquired strcoigth,
and her views grew clearer during the discus-
sions— and nothing remained for Maria but to
form her part in the bloody pageant of an Auto.
She there tried to comfort her companions in
tribulation, but was gagged. Her sentence
was read, the gag removedi and she was asked
to recant. *^ I neither can nor will,^ was the |
resolute reply; and she proceeded to the place of
execution. After she was bound to the stake, the
lighting of the pile was delayed for a little^
that another attempt might be made to reclaim
her. She was, by the grace of God, immov-
able still — was strangled, and burned, one of
her last employments being to comment on the
creed in the Protestant sense. In 1660, no



Online LibraryThomas CarlyleThe Christian treasury, Volume 2 → online text (page 90 of 145)