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REMINISCENCES



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

NBW YORK • BOSTON ■ CHICAGO
ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO

MACMILLAN & CO., Limited

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd.

TORONTO




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REMINISCENCES



BY

GOLDWIN SMITH, D.C.L.



EDITED BY

ARNOLD HAULTAIN, M.A.



ILLUSTRATED




THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
1911

AU rights reserved



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COPTBIQHT, 1910,

By the 8. S. McCLURE COMPANY,
By the ATLANTIC MONTHLY COMPANY,
By the ONTARIO PUBLISHING COMPANY,

AND

By the sun PRINTING AND PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION.

COPYBJGHT, 1910,

By THEODORE ARNOLD HAULTAIN.



Set up and electrotyped. Published November, 1910. Reprinted
January, igit.



Noriiiaoti ^ress

J. 8. Gushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co.

Norwood, Mftsa., U.S.A.



PEEFACE

BY THE EDITOR

I HAVE ventured to put my name on the title-
page of this book because its author assigned to
me the task of preparing it for the press.

That task has been a difficult one. The bulk
of the book was not composed till the writer had
passed his seventy-fifth year; and although the
manuscript was first written out by the author's
own hand, then dictated to me, twice type-written,
and constantly revised, yet not only is a septuagen-
arian's memory apt to slip, but a septuagenarian's
solicitude for accuracy is apt to be labile also. I
have corrected many errors ; probably many still
remain uncorrected. If so, I must plead that the
work of editing was done in haste, and done some
three thousand miles from the British Museum or
the Bodleian,

Again, much of the manuscript was in a chaotic
state; some of the chapters, indeed, consisted



210823



vi PREFACE

merely of fragmentary and inconsequent para-
graphs. With these I have dealt as best I could.

My own pen has hardly anywhere intruded
itself : it is not for me to despoil the book of its
peculiarities — even of its repetitions.

Elderly (and erudite) readers, however, must
forgive my footnotes. They are for a younger
generation. Besides, I have tried to remember
that names and events which may be quite famil-
iar to readers on one side of the Atlantic may be
very unfamiliar to readers on the other.

For the greater number of these notes, Messrs.
Smith, Elder, and Company's '' Dictionary of
National Biography " was invaluable.

I have sought information from many sources,
and amongst the many to whom I owe thanks are
the Reverend the Master of University College,
Oxford (for notes on the bust of King Alfred) ;
the Right Honourable Sir Roland L. B. Vaughan
Williams, Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal ;
the Editor of Tlie Spectator; Sir J. Gardner D.
Engleheart, K.C.B. ; the Reverend Professor Wil-
liam Clark, of Toronto; Mr. Mansfeldt de Car-
donnel Findlay, C.M.Gr. ; Herr Franz H. Bassenge,



PREFACE VU

British Vice-Consul at Dresden; Mr. Arthur W.
Kaye Miller, Assistant Keeper of Printed Books
at the British Museum; Mrs. Place, of Skelton
Grange, Yorkshire (a cousin of Mr. Goldwin
Smith) ; Mr. Frederic Harrison ; the Lady Frances
Bushby; Constance Lady Russell, of Swallowfield;
the Right Honourable G. W. E. Russell; Mr. Wil-
liam Prideaux Courtney; Mr. "W. George Eakins,
Librarian of the Law Society of Upper Canada,
Osgoode Hall, Toronto ; Mr. George William Harris,
Ph.B., Librarian of Cornell University.

I wish also here to thank Dr. J. G. Schurman,
President of Cornell University, and the Executive
Committee of his Board of Trustees, for a gener-
osity which has enabled me to edit these Remi-
niscences in the room in which they were written;
in the room in which, side by side, their writer
and I worked for more than seventeen years; the
room in which I watched that writer breathe his
last.

The Library, The Grange,

Toronto, Canada, November, 1910.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
BOYHOOD. 1823-1834

PAGES

Reading — Social Life — My Father and Family — Our House

— Old Customs 1-11

CHAPTER II

MORTIMER. 1848-1867

The Parish — Rural Society — Fox-hunting — The Duke of Wel-
Ungton — Miss Mitford — Sir Henry Russell — John Walter

— Sir John Mowbray — Lord Lyon — Sir Roderick and
Lady Murchison 12-31

CHAPTER III

SCHOOL. 1831-1840

School — Schoolmates — Eton — Dr. Goodall, the Provost — The
Head Master, Hawtrey — William IV — Queen Victoria —
Schoolmates 32-49

CHAPTER IV
OXFORD. 1841-1845

Dean Gaisf ord — Magdalen — Magdalen Demys — Martin Routh

— Fellows of Magdalen — The Tractarian Movement — The
Curriculum — Oxford Life — Contemporaries . . 50-74

CHAPTER V

OXFORD TUTORSHIP. 1851-1854

Fallows — Arthur Penrhyn Stanley — Benjamin Jowett — Thor-

old Rogers — Mark Pattison — Sir Travers Twiss . 75-87



X CONTENTS

CHAPTER VI

TRAVELS. 1847

PAGES

The Tyrol — Dresden — Prague — Normandy — Guizot — Italy

— Italian Exiles — Louis Blanc 88-97

CHAPTER VII

UNIVERSITY COMMISSIONS. 1854-1858

The Unreformed University — The Commissioners — Dr. Jeune

— Liddell — Tait — Johnson — The Report — The Bill—
The Executive Commission — The Executive Commission-
ers — Richard BetheU, Lord Westbury — The Commissioners'
Report 98-115

CHAPTER VIII
EDUCATION COMMISSION. 185^-1861

The Commissioners — William Charles Lake — Nassau Senior

— James Eraser — Popular Education .... 116-120

CHAPTER IX

LAW. 1846

Lincoln's Inn — On Circuit — English and American Courts of
Justice — Criminal Law — Judges — The Bar — Sir Gardner
Engleheart — Briton Riviere 121-131

CHAPTER X
LONDON. 1845-1861

Macaulay — Samuel Rogers — Lord Houghton — Henry Hallam

— Milman — Thackeray — Croker — Tyndall — Herbert
Spencer — " The Grange " — Lady Ashburton — Carlyle —
Tennyson — Bishop Wilberf orce — Lady Waldegrave — Par-
liamentary Debates — The Theatre — Louis Blanc —
Brougham — Lady Dukinfield 132-160



CONTENTS Xi

CHAPTER XI

JOURNALISM. 1855-1858

PAGES

Peel — The Saturday Revieto — Members of the Staff — Froude

— Letters on the Empire 161-173

CHAPTER XII
CONNECTION WITH PUBLIC MEN

Peel — Disraeli — " Lothair " — Beutinck — The Duke of New-
castle — Cardwell — " Welbeck " — Gladstone — The Peel-
ites — Sidney Herbert — Canning — Dalhousie — Sir James
Graham — Lord Aberdeen — Russell — Granville — Godley

— Joseph Chamberlain — Earl Grey .... 174-214

CHAPTER XIII
THE MANCHESTER SCHOOL _^

Objects of the School — Peace Policy — Anti-Imperialism —
Bright and Cobden — Socialism — Property — The Irish
Question 215-237



CHAPTER XIV
BRIGHT AND COBDEN



J



Bright's Oratory — Cobden — His Politics — Peel — Disraeli —

Peel as a Party Leader . . 238-271



CHAPTER XV
OXFORD PROFESSORSHIP. 1858-1866

Settling at Oxford — Telepathy — Halford Vaughan — Henry
Smith — Max Miiller — Monier Williams — Thorold Rogers
— Rolleston — Waring — Coxe — Froude — Cradock — The
Great Western Railway — King Edward VII — Prince
Leopold — Dr. Acland — Gladstone .... 272-286



Xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER XVI

PUBLIC EVENTS

PAGEB

Crimean War — The War Passion — The War Policy — Napo-
leon III — The Chartist Procession .... 287-293

CHAPTER XVII

ELECTIONS

Anthony John Mundella — Sheffield — Trades-Unionism —
Nursing a Constituency — Election Tactics — The Party
System 294-300

CHAPTER XVIII

IRELAND. 1862; 1881

Cardwell as Irish Secretary — The Irish People — Irish Liberals
— Crime in Ireland — Education — Social Life — Robei't
Lowe — Second Visit to Ireland — Lord O'Hagan — Royal
Visits to Ireland — W. E. Forster — Gladstone's Irish
Policy 301-318

CHAPTER XIX

AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. 1861-1865

Secession — Its True Character — Lincoln's View — The A lahama
Claim — Attitude of the British Government — British Lib-
erals — Visits to the United States — Friends in the United
States — J. M. Forbes — Emerson — Lowell — Bancroft —
The Attitude of the North — Finance — General Butler —
The Opposing Forces — General Grant — Sherman — Gen-
eral Meade — Lee — General Butler Again — Washington
-—Seward — Abraham Lincoln 319-356

CHAPTER XX

JAMAICA. 1866

Conflict of Races — Outbreak — Governor Eyre's Action — The
Jamaica Committee — Chief Justice Cockburn's Charge —



CONTENTS xiii



John Stuart Mill — Woman Suffrage — Thomas Hughes —
Frederick Deuison Maurice — Manchester Liberals . 357-364:



CHAPTER XXI



CORNELL. 1868-1871



Resignation of Oxford Professorship — Invitation to Cornell —
Ezra Cornell — The University — Cornell's Ideas — Arrival
at Ithaca — Fellow Lecturers — Life at Ithaca — The Oneida
Community — Friends at Cornell 365-379



CHAPTER XXII

VISITS TO EUROPE

Reading — Magdalen — Oxford — Spiritualism — Ignorance of
Canada — Kn aresborough — CuriousCrimes — Italy — Flor-
ence — Venice — Ravenna — Second Visit to Italy — Sicily
— The Mafia — Pizzo — Italian Cruelty — Amalfi — The
Papacy — Capua — Rome — Florence Again . . 380-398

CHAPTER XXIII

VISITS TO WASHINGTON

Settling in Canada — Washington — Bancroft — Bayard — The
Pensions Bill — The Capitol — American Oratory — Ameri-
can Statesmanship — Washington Society — The Party
System — Newspaper Reporters — E. L. Godkin . . 399-413

CHAPTER XXIV

VISITS TO THE NORTH-WEST. 1870; 1887; 1889

The North- West — Winnipeg — Skye Crofters — Immigration —
Annexation — The Canadian Pacific Railway — The Rocky
Mountains — British Columbia 414-423



xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER XXV
CANADIAN POLITICS

PAGES

The Relation of Canada to the Imperial Country — Confedera-
tion — Quebec — Titles for Colonists — Political Parties —
Sir John Macdonald — George Brown — Alexander Mac-
kenzie — Edward Blake — John Sandfield Macdonald —
Joseph Howe — Francis Hincks — Sir Richard Cartwright
— Sir Charles Tupper — The Destiny of the Colonies — An-
nexation — "Canada First" — The Irish Question — Free
Trade — Reciprocity — The Temperance Question — The
Patrons of Industry — The Weekly Sun . . . 424-449

CHAPTER XXVI

MY LIFE IN CANADA. 1871-1910

Marriage — " The Grange " — Our Household — General Mid-
dleton — Civic Charities — The Governor-Generalship —
The Athletic Club — Literary Opportunities — The Uni-
versity Question — Sports — Last Days . . . 450-465



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

GoLDWiN Smith Frontispiece

Photograph by Elliott and Fry.

PAOING PAGES

Dk. Richard Pritchard Smith 12

Goldwin Smith's Father.

Facsimile of Last Paragraph on Page 25 . . . .25

Goldwin Smith at about Forty Years of Age . . 75
Photograph by J. H. Guggenheim, Oxford.

Goldwin Smith at about Forty Years of Age . . 132
Copy of a photograph by Mayall, of Brighton. (The original
hangs in the Common Room of University College, Oxford.)

Facsimile of Paragraph on Page 183 183

Showing (i) original manuscript (as dictated to me) ; (ii) an
addition in pencil, and (iii) an emendation in ink, by the
author.

Photograph of a Bust of Goldwin Smith . . . 272

Made at Oxford about 1866, by Alexander Munro.

Goldwin Smith at about Forty-five Years of Age . 365
Photograph by C. H. Howes, of Ithaca, N.Y.

Goldwin Smith at Seventy-five Years of Age . . 399
Photograph by Dixon, of Toronto.

Goldwin Smith at Seventy-five Years of Age . . 424
Photograph by Dixon, of Toronto.

The Grange 450

Mr. Goldwin Smith's house at Toronto.

Photograph of a Death-mask of Goldwin Smith . . 464

Made by Mr. Walter S. Allward, of Toronto, on June the ninth,
1910.

XV




REMINISCENCES

CHAPTER I

BOYHOOD

1823-1834

Reading — Social Life — My Father and Family — Our House —
Old Customs.

The old town of Reading, with its still quaint-looking
streets, its ruined abbey and friary, its memories of
medieval Congresses and Roundhead sieges, sleeps, as
my memory paints it, in the summer sun. It is a very
quiet place. The mail-coaches travelling on the Bath
road at the marvellous rate of twelve miles an hour
change horses at The Crown and the Bear. So do the
travelling carriages and post-chaises of the wealthier
wayfarer. The watchman calls the hour of the night.
From the tower of old St. Lawrence's Church the curfew
is tolled. My nurse lights the fire with the tinder-box.
Over at Caversham ^ a man is sitting in the stocks. In
the streets are figures of a generation now bygone.
Mrs. Atkins Wright, the great lady of the neighbour-
hood, comes in with her carriage-and-four, postillions

[' A parish in Oxfordshire, a mile from Reading.]

B 1



2 REMINISCENCES

in gorgeous liveries, and an out-rider. Mr. Fyshe
Palmer/ the Radical Member for the borough, is known
by his Wliig costume of blue coat and buff waistcoat,
with a curious little hat stuck on his powdered head.
The Quaker dress abounds. It is worn by Huntley
and Palmer, who keep a little biscuit-shop in London
Street, where a little boy buys cakes, and from which
has since sprung the biscuit factory of the universe.
The shop of the principal draper is the ladies' Club.

Into old St. Lawrence's Church, not yet restored, the
Mayor and Aldermen march, robed, with the mace
borne before them. In the pulpit, orthodoxy drones
undisturbed by Ritualism or the Higher Criticism. The
clerk below gives out the Christmas Hymn, saying at
the end of each line "Hal ! " in which he does not recog-
nize an abbreviation of ''Hallelujah." On a high seat
in a high-backed pew sits a little boy, wishing the ser-
mon would end, staring at the effigy of St. Lawrence on
the capital of a pillar overhead, and wondering what
the man could have been doing on the gridiron. Now
and then his ear catches the sound of the Beadle's
cane waking up a slumbering charity-boy to the ortho-
dox excellence of the sermon. Compulsory Chapel
at Eton and Oxford confirmed the impression compul-
sory Church at Reading had made.

The clergyman, the doctor, the solicitor, the banker,

[1 Charles Fyshe Palmer, seven times elected Member for Read-
ing, was born in 1769 and died in 1843. — See "The Town of Read-
ing." By W. M. Childs. Reading: University College. 1910.
Page 62.]



BOYHOOD 3

the brewer, the retired general and admiral who has
served under WeHington or Nelson, the retired mer-
chant, the widower or spinster with a good income,
form a social circle the members of which meet in each
other's houses, play whist, the old game of long whist
as played by Sarah Battle, and end with the temperate
tray of sandwiches and negus. For the young people
there are county balls, archery meetings, and other
suitable diversions. There is no globe-trotting, hardly
any departure from home, unless it be for health.
Life, if it is not very lively, is calm; free from its present
restlessness, if it lacks its present interest. The young
are now, perhaps, by pastimes and summer gatherings,
brought more together than they were in those days
and provided with more pleasure. It may be doubted
whether the life of the elders is so social. A friend
with whom many years afterwards I was staying at
Sydenham pointed out to me from a hill the suburban
villas, from the number of which it would be supposed
there must be a good deal of society in the place.
"Yet," said he, ''there is none. You cannot bring
those people together for any purpose whatever. The
man goes up to town by the morning train, spends the
day in business, comes back to dinner, reads the paper,
and falls asleep. For two months each year the pair
go into lodgings by themselves at the seaside." The
society of such a place as Reading, in my early days
stationary, so that people passed their lives together,
is now shifting. Those who have made their fortune



4 REMINISCENCES

in business are nowadays always changing their abode
in quest of an Eden, and some of them chase the vision
till they die.

In the pulpit of the adjoining parish of St. Mary's
the Higher Criticism had just dawned. Milman/ who
was the Vicar, read German theology and gave
his congregation a slight taste of it, which was not
much relished. He also, being a poet, introduced new
hymns, to the disparagement of Brady and Tate.^
Orthodoxy confronted him in the person of a retired
East Indian, whose objections were sometimes aud-
ible in the Church. One Sunday afternoon the adver-
sary marched out of Church. It was supposed, as
a theological protest. But it afterwards transpired
that he had found the key of the curry-powder in his
pocket.

From this state of things I have lived into an age of
express-trains, ocean greyhounds, electricity, bicycles,
globe-trotting, Evolution, the Higher Criticism, and
general excitement and restlessness. Reading has
shared the progress. The Reading of my boyhood
has disappeared almost over the horizon of memory.
Whither is the train rushing, and where will the ter-
minus be?

In that quiet town one of the quietest streets was

[1 Henry Hart Milman, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's ; author
of "History of Christianity under the Empire"; ."Latin Chris-
tianity"; etc. 1791-1868.]

[2 Nicholas Brady and Nahum Tate wrote a metrical version of
the Psalms.)



BOYHOOD 5

Friar Street, in which my father Hved. He was a
physician in very good practice, personally much
respected, and very kind to the poor. He was the son
of the Rector of Long Marston in Yorkshire, and grand-
son of the Rector of WclHngton. The family, I believe,
came from Wyburnbury in Cheshire, in the church of
which parish there is a tomb with armorial bearings
the same as ours. The little mansion-house of the
family at Wyburnbury has disappeared; but its out-
line is preserved by the shape of the modern house
built upon its site. I never attempted to trace the
pedigree. A genealogy composed by my brother-in-
law, Mr. Homer Dixon, ^ is, I fear, totally unauthentic.
Our coat of arms denotes connection with the Prit-
chards, a Welsh family.

My mother's maiden name was Breton, a mark of
Huguenot descent. She was one of a numerous family
of brothers and sisters. She was the niece and almost
the adopted daughter of Mr. Goldwin of Vicar's Hill
near Leamington, a West India merchant, whose name
I bear.

One day I was suddenly called home from school.

[1 His wife's brother, Benjamin Homer Dixon, Knight of the
Order of the Netherlands Lion, Consul-General of the Netherlands
in Canada. — See "The Border or Riding Clans; Followed by a
History of the Clan Dickson, and a Brief Account of the Family
of the Author, B. Homer Dixon, K.L.N." Albany: Joel Munsell's
Sons. 1889. Page 213. — Also "Brief Account of the Family of
Homer or de Homere of Ettingshall, Co. Stafford, Eng., and Boston,
Mass." (Same publishers and date.) Page 23. — Also "The
Scotch Border Clan Dickson, the Family of B. Homer Dixon, and
the Family of De Homere or Homer." Toronto. 1884. Page 35.]



6 REMINISCENCES

I found the house in gloom. I was taken to my
mother's bedside ; she spoke to me very tenderly, then
told me to go and have my supper, and she would see
me again. I saw her no more. The loss of her was the
great misfortune of my life.^

Already, before my mother's death, three little
cofHns had left the door. It is hard to be born only to
suffer and die. Seventy years afterwards, when I
was living in Canada, a drawer which I had not before
noticed, in a desk which had belonged to my mother,
being opened, revealed the relics of a little sister;
her hair, her silver knife, fork and spoon, the stones
which were to form her necklace, the double guinea
given her on her birthday. One boy remained beside
myself.^ A brave boy he was, and a good soldier he
would have made. He went with me to Eton, and had
just got his conamission ^ in the army when he died.
His disease I have no doubt was appendicitis, the exist-
ence of which was unknown in those days and for which
there could have been no operation, as there were no
anaesthetics in those days.

Our house in Friar Street stood on ground which
had once belonged to the Abbey. In the garden, an
apparent wreck, its limbs held together by chains, yet
bearing fruit abundantly, stood a mulberry tree,

[1 She died on the nineteenth of November, 1833, when Goldwin
Smith was ten years old.]

P Arthur Smith. Born 1827 ; died 1845.]

[' The Commission is dated the 6th and 7th of November,
1843.1



BOYHOOD 7

believed to be one of those planted in the time of Eliza-
beth to introduce the silk trade. The garden was full
of the old-fashioned flowers which horticulturists have
now discarded, though those old flowers, the moss-rose,
the lily-of-the-valley, and the columbine, inferior in
size and brilliancy to the new, were perhaps superior
in form. In an adjoining garden rose the stately sum-
mer-house, with gilded ball, of Dr. Ring, a leader of
the Evangelical party in those days. I see the old
man now playfully shaking his cane at me when he was
on his way to a sermon and I was galloping off on my
pony. That scene the Great Western Railway has
swept away.

We children in those days at Christmastide looked
joyously forward to three festivals, — Christmas Eve
and Day, Twelfth Night, and New Year's Day. At
Christmas there was in every household a feast with
turkey, plum pudding, and mince pie.

At midnight on Christmas Eve the child as he lay in
bed heard with ravishment mixed with awe the music
of the Waits in the street. The Mummers, lineal repre-
sentatives perhaps of the Miracle Plays in the Middle
Ages, went in their fantastic disguises from house to
house, singing the hynm, ''Christ is Born in Bethlehem."
All houses were decked with the evergreen holly and its
bright berries, a piece of which, by the way, was sent
the other day to The Grange from England by an old
servant who had left us thirty j'-ears before. At Christ-
mas the children looked for gifts, though I do not



8 REMINISCENCES

remember any Santa Claus. The poor were feasted,
and I think there was something hke an opening of all
hearts. We in Canada — the Anglicans among us,
at all events — have preserved all this in some measure,
though perhaps with some abatement from the feelings
of the old time in the old land. Perhaps the feeling
about the sacredness of the season and belief in the
historical certainty of that birth in Bethlehem may
have somewhat declined. On Twelfth Night, the Feast
of the Epiphany, twelve days after Christmas, we had
parties for the children, with feasting on iced cakes
decked with little sugar figures, and playing at snap-
dragon, that is, plucking raisins out of a dish of blazing
brandy. There was also drawing for King and Queen,
a custom of which I never knew the origin or the con-
nection with the ecclesiastical festival. New Year's
Day again brought feastings and gifts, with good wishes
for the New Year. Both on Christmas Day and on
New Year's Day there were family gatherings, more
easily brought about in the tight little island than they
are here. I do not remember that New Year's Day
in England was a special day for paying calls, or that
it was supposed that by it enmities were buried.

Carnival in Protestant England, of course, there was
none, except among the Catholics. To the Protestant
child in England Good Friday was, in fact, a feast,
since it brought him hot cross buns. Cries of ''One a
penny, two a penny, hot cross buns ! " were heard in
all the streets.



BOYHOOD 9

The next festival, if it could be called one, was May
Day, the observance of which was connected with no
religious ordinance or event, with no Christian ordi-
nance at least, but with the revival of nature at the
coming of spring, which could nowhere be more fitly
celebrated than in England, with her verdant beauty,
her green lanes, and hedgerows white with blossoms
of May, her meadows full of cowslips and primroses,
her woods full of purple and white hyacinths and vocal
with the song of birds. In the days of Henry VIII
and Elizabeth, May Day had been celebrated w^th
sylvan pageantry and sports under the greenwood tree.
In later days the decoration of the house with branches
of May was about the only form of celebration generally
left.

May Day was the one day of happiness in the sad
year for the poor chimney-sweeps, children of misery,
parish orphans for the most part, but not seldom kid-
napped for that most cruel trade. They came fantas-
tically arrayed in rags of many colours and danced



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