Goldwin Smith.

The United kingdom; a political history online

. (page 78 of 84)
Online LibraryGoldwin SmithThe United kingdom; a political history → online text (page 78 of 84)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

witnessed to be understood and believed." The govern-
ment had removed some commissioners, who not content
with hangi'ng all the rebels they could lay their hands on,
had been insulting them by destroying their caste, telling
them that after death they should be given to the dogs.
A reverend gentleman could not understand the conduct
of government ; could not see that there was any impro-
priety in torturing men's souls; seemed to think that a
good deal might be said in favour of bodily torture as well.
" These," exclaims Lord Elgin, " are your teachers, O
Israel! Imagine what the pupils become under such
leading ! " A British soldier sought permission to burn
alive and impale. The cries for more blood will not be
forgotten by those who heard them.

When the news of the mutiny reached England the
public horror was enhanced by the thought that Lord
Canning was the governor-general. He had little reputa-
tion for ability; was believed to have been advanced in
public life out of regard for his father's memory; was
even supposed to have been sent to India to relieve the
cabinet of his vexatious pertinacity. But in the hour of
need his pertinacity became firmness, with which he con-
trolled the passions of the dominant race and in some
measure saved the honour of the country.


The native army, on which the dominion of the Com-
pany rested, had now broken down; and the Company's
rule had become a hollow form in the retention of which
there appeared to be no use. The empire of India was
united to the British crown, the wearer of which presently
adopted the title of Empress, on the understanding, how-
ever, that it should never be used in her constitutional

Thus closed, by final transformation into an empire, the
wonderful and romantic history of the East India Com-
pany. Some misgivings were felt as to the political effect
both on the imperial country and on the dependency.
They may perhaps have, been re-awakened by the action
of extremely liberal governors-general on one hand and
by the appearance of Hindoos as Radical candidates for
seats in the British parliament on the other. Any politi-
cal danger that there might have been from the transfer
of the mass of Indian patronage to the crown has been
averted by the adoption of the competition system; and
though success in a literary contest is no proof of practical
ability or vigour, competition does not seem to have pro-
duced less of either than were produced by nomination.
The Indian service remains a fine field for British youth;
that it supplies England with her best men has been said,
but cannot be maintained. Life when it has been spent in
the Indian service cannot be begun again. Even of the
governors-general, whose term is only five years. Lord
Wellesley alone has played a leading part in England
after his return.

What had been commenced before the transfer has been
carried on with unabated, perhaps with increased, vigour
since. The extension of railroads has united the country.


quickened industry and production, improved the distri-
bution of population and of food. Other works of utility
have been performed. It cannot now be said of the British
as it was said in former days that if they gave up India
they would leave behind them no monuments but empty
beer bottles. Education has been liberally promoted. Euro-
pean culture and science have been imparted. Laws and
the judiciary have been improved. Christianity has been
freely preached, and has perhaps been gaining some
ground in Hindostan, while it has been losing ground
among the educated classes at home. Efforts have been
made to teach regard for public health. Municipal gov-
ernment has been promoted. Natives have been admitted
to office both administrative and judicial as far as the
conditions of conquest would permit, and great freedom
has been allowed to a press sometimes childishly sedi-
tious. All, in short, that the most beneficent of con-
querors could do has been done. But the most beneficent
of conquerors, while he may make himself respected and
trusted as well as feared, cannot make himself beloved.
Nor can he fill the gulf of sentiment between himself and
the conquered. The estrangement sadly noted by Lord
Elgin has been rather increased than diminished since
steam and the overland passage have brought the Anglo-
Indian into closer communication with his own country
and prevented him from identifying himself with the
subjects of his rule so much as he did when it was a six
months' voyage between him and his home.

Once more, it is not for history to attempt to raise the
veil of the future.


Abbeville, i. 215.

Abbey of Reading, i. 67.

Abbot, George, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, i. 444, 451, 462, 475.

Abbots, reason of their sitting in par-
liament, i. 174; mitred, removed
from the House of Lords, 334.

Abercrombie, Sir Ralph, ii. 289.

Aberdeen, University of, focus of pres-
byterianism, i. 505.

Abhorrers, the, ii. 45.

Abjuration oath (13 Gul. III. c. 6),
ii. 127 ; renewed by Anne (1 Ann.

Absolution, the priestly, i. 346.

Accursi, Francesco, i. 181.

Acre, taken by Richard I., i. 112.

Act of Oblivion passed (1652), i. 590.

Adams, Samuel, ii. 206, 207, 212.

Addington, Henry, first Viscount Sid-
mouth, takes office, ii. 248 et sq.;
makes war on France, 302.

Adela, Countess of Blois, effects a
reconciliation between Henry I. and
Anselm, i. 65.

Adjutators, i. 559.

Adrian IV., Pope, grants the king of
England dominion of Ireland, i. 99.

Adventurers, how they were paid, i.

Ad Walton Moor, battle of, i. 541.

Affinity, degrees of, i. 318, 319, 320.

Aghrim, battle of, ii. 97.

Agincourt, battle of, i. 259, 280.

Agreement of the people, Ireton's, i.
574, 605.

Agriculture, change from, into sheep-
farming, effect of, 1. 352, 353.

Aidan, i. 7.

Aids, feudal {temp. William II.) i. 45.

Albemarle, George Monck, first Duke
of, his conduct compared with that

of the Marquis of Argyle, ii. 8 ; de-
feats the Dutch, 32 ; his vice-regency
in Scotland, 625; defeats Lambert,

Alberoni, Giulio, ii. 165.

Albigenses, extermination of, i. 442.

Albini, William d', i. 140, 141.

Alcuin i. 22.

Alderman, the, in Saxon times, i. 9.

Alen9on, Francis, Duke of, i. 383.

Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, i. 72.

Alexander III., Pope, i. 86.

Alexander II., king of Scotland, sides
with the barons, i. 141.

Alexander III., king of Scotland, i.

Alexander I. of Russia, ii. 311.

Alexander IV., Pope, wrings money
from English clergy, i. 155 ; releases
Henry IV. from the provisions of
Oxford, i. 159.

Alexander VI., Pope, i. 280, 287, 313.

Alexander, the mason, i. 126.

Alfred, King, i. 12.

Almains, i. 282.

Alphonso X. the wise, 1. 181.

Altar, changed to the communion
table, i. 346.

Althorp, John Charles Spencer, Vis-
count, and third Earl Spencer, ii.
341, 355.

Alva, Fernando Alvarez de Toledo,
Duke of, i. 377, 388.

America, war with (1812), ii.307 et sq.

American revolution, compared with
the civil war (1642-1649), i. 599.

Amiens, peace of, ii. 300.

Anabaptists, persecuted by Henry
VIII., i. 318, 348, 377, 395, 476, 545.

Andrewes, Lancelot, Bishop of Win-
chester, i. 439, 451.

Angles, emigration of, i. 3.

Anglesey, i. 189.





Anglicanism and puritanism com-
pared, i. 495 et sq.

Anglo-Saxon race, characteristics of,

Angouleme, Ademar, Count of, i. 119.

Angus, Archibald Douglas, fifth Earl
of. See Douglas.

Anne, Queen, of England, brought up
a Protestant, ii. 43; her character,
128, 12^) ; characteristics of her age,
ii. 128.

Anne of Bohemia, wife of Richard II.,
dies, i. 241.

Anne of Brittany, wife of Louis XII.
of France, i. 408.

Anne of Cleves, married to Henry
VIII., i. 338.

Anne of Denmark, wife of James I.
of England, secretly inclined to
Rome, i. 440.

Anne, wife of Prince George of Den-
mark, sides with "William III., ii. 77.

Annexation of Canada to the United
States mooted, ii. 401.

Annual Indemnity Act, the (Geo. II.
St. 2, c. 23),ii. 175.

Anselm, his character, i. 48 ; his birth
and early life, ib. ; enters the Abbey
of Bee, ib.; as theologian, ib.; as
educator, ib. ; as a spiritual director,
49; visits England, ib. ; is nominated
Archbishop of Canterbury, ib. ; con-
secrated and enthroned, 50; offers
the king £500, ib.; endeavours to
curb the effeminacy of the nobles,
61 ; prays the king for a restoration
of religion, ib. ; asks leave to go to
Rome, ib., 54; before the Grand
Council at Rockingham Castle, 52;
contributes £200 towards the loan to
Robert of Normandy, 54 ; before the
second Grand Council, 55; leaves
for Rome, ib.; is received by the
pope, ib. ; attends the Council of
Bari, ib. ; his attitude towards Will-
iam during his exile, 56 ; retires to
Lyons, ib. ; recalled by Henry I., 58 ;
sides with Henry against Robert, 61 ;
refuses to do homage to Henry, 61,
62 ; his quarrel with Henry referred
to the pope, 62; then to the great
council, 63; again to the pope, ib.;

refuses to consecrate Henry's ap-
pointees to bishoprics, 63; sets out
for Rome, 64 ; betakes himself again
to Lyons, 65; goes to Normandy,
ib. ; returns to England, 65; his tri-
umphant reception, ib. ; a compro-
mise effected, 66 ; devotes himself
to ruling his church, 66 ; his charac-
ter as painted by his biographer,
ib.; holds a reforming synod, ib.,

Anson, George, Lord Anson, ii. 184.

Anti-Catholic Association, ii. 230.

Anti-corn law league, the, ii. 371.

Antinomians, i. 545.

Anti-Sabbatarians, i. 545.

Anti-Scripturists, i. 545.

Anti-Trinitarians, i. 545.

Apostolical succession, i. 373.

Aquinas, St. Thomas, quoted by For-
tescue, i. 277, 279, 425.-

Arabella Stuart, Lady, i. 453.

" Areopagitica," the, makes an era,
i. 577.

Archbishop of Canterbury, represent-
ative of the papal power {temp.
William L ),i. 32.

Archbishops, struggles between, i. 86.

Archers, the British, i. 216.

Archery, British, i. 248.

Architecture, Scotch, i. 409; ecclesi-
astical, 287 ; Gothic, giving way to
Grecian, 279.

Argyle, Archibald Campbell, first
Marquis and eighth Earl of, leader
of Scottish rebellion against Charles
I., i. 499, 527 ; defeated by Montrose,
550 ; execution of , ii. 8 ; his conduct
defended, ib., 585.

Argyle families, the, i. 410.

Argyle, the Earl of (McCallum More),
ii. 93.

Aristocracy, the {temp. William I.)^
i. 28 ; a guardian of liberty, 38 ; in
the baronial '* army of God," char-
acter of, 131; {temp. George I.),
ii. 161.

Aristotle, quoted by Fortescue, i. 277.

Arkwright, Sir Richard, ii. 255.

Arlington, Henry Bennett, Lord, mem-
ber of the cabal, ii. 27, 30.

Armada, the, i. 377; sails, 386; im-



portance of its defeat, 390 ; its defeat
and flight, ib. ; share taken by the
Dutch allies, ib. ; a convoy for
Parma's army, ib., 415.

Armiuianism, i. 428 et sq. ; the Com-
mons denounce, 482, 500.

Armorial bearings, i. 29.

Army of God and Holy Church, i.
131 et sq.

Army, standing, absence of, under the
Tudors, i. 296, 297 ; reason of this,
297, 306; introduced, 356.

Army, the, in Saxon times, i. 10 ; the
Norman, how levied, 25; composi-
tion of {temp. Edward III.), 217, 218 ;
command of, restored to the king
(Charles II.) (13 Car. II. st. 1, c.
6),ii. 10, 11.

Army, the parliamentary {temp.
Charles I.), remodelled, i. 550. See
also New Model, the.

Arnold, Benedict, ii. 216.

Arnold, Matthew, i. 314.

Arran, James Hamilton, second Earl
of, and Duke of Chatelherault, i. 415.

Arran, James Hamilton, third Earl of,
i. 415.

Arran, James Stewart, Earl of, ii. 434.

Array, feudal, of barons, i. 176.

Art, ecclesiastical, at its height, i. 230;
transition in, 279.

Artevelde, Jacob van, i. 218, 219.

Arthur, King, i. 190 ; his crown, 191,

Arthur, Prince, son of Henry VII., i.
289, 318.

Arthur, son of Geoffrey, i. 118.

Articles, the thirty-nine, framed, i.
346 ; protestant in doctrine, 343, 371 ;
Charles I.'s manifesto on, 482.

Artillery, adds to the power of the
crown (temp. Richard II.), i. 248;
adverse to aristocracy, 259; comes
into use, 280; decides the day at
Blackheath (1497) , 283 ; in the hands
of the crown, 297, 306.

Arundel, Richard Fitz-Alan, Earl of,
i. 241.

Arundel, Thomas, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, 1. 241, 244, 248, 249.

Arundel, Thomas Howard, second
Earl of, i. 473, 479.

Ascham, Anthony, assassinated, i. 578.

Ashburnham, John, i. 564.

Ashley-Cooper, Anthony. See Shaftes-
bury, Earl of.

Aspern, campaign of, ii. 309

Assaye, battle of, ii. 421.

Assemblies, local, i. 175.

Assembly of divines (at Westminster)
frame a presbyterian ecclesiastical
polity, i. 543; and a confession of
faith, 543, 544.

Assiento, the, ii. 150.

Assize or edict of arms, i. 78 ; enforced
by Edward I., 176.

Assize of battle. See Wager of Battle.

Assize of Clarendon, i. 81, 82.

Association for economical reform,
the, ii. 227 et sq.

Associated Eastern counties. See
Eastern Counties' Association.

Astley, Sir Jacob, i. 552, 553.

Asylum, right of, restricted (3 Hen.
VII. c. 5, etc.), i. 286.

Atheling, Edgar. See Edgar Atheling.

Athelstan, i. 12.

Attainder, i. 338, 339, 356; act of (7
and 8 Gul. III. c. 3), ii. 125.

Atterbury, Fyancis, Bishop of Roches-
ter, ii. 166, 167.

Audley, James, Lord, i. 283.

Audley, Thomas, Baron Audley of
Walden, lord chancellor, i. 304, 321,

Augustan Age of Anne, its character-
istics, ii. 128.

Augustine, St., converts Ethelbert, i. 6.

Aurungzeb, ii. 233.

Austerlitz, battle of, ii. 304.

Australia, colonization of| ii. 222.

Australasia, ii. 406.

Avignon, return of the papacy from,
i. 219, 231, 312.

Aylesbury election case, the, ii. 130,

Aylmer, John, Bishop of London, i.
397, 399.


Babington conspiracy, i. 442.

Bacon, Francis, i. 281, 285, 287, 383,
401, 402, 40<), 417 ; his ideal of mon-
archy, i. 432; his large plans, 435;



his greatness and his weakness, ib.,
436, 456 ; his eminence, 459 ; his fall,

Bacon, Roger, i. 37.

Bacon, Sir Nicholas, i. 369.

Badby, Thomas, i. 253.

Bagot, Sir Charles, governor of Can-
ada, ii. 398.

Bagot, Sir William, minister of Rich-
ard IL, i. 239.

Balance of power, i. 307.

Baldwin, Robert, ii. 393.

Balfour, James, of Burleigh, slays
Archbishop Sharp, ii. 24.

Baliol, Edward, i. 211.

Baliol, John de, king of Scotland, i.
193, 195, 196.

Ball, John, i. 235.

Ballads, the Robin Hood, i. 135; pa-
triotic, 219.

Bancroft, Richard, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, i. 428.

Bangorian controversy, ii. 176.

Bank of England, statute originating
the (5 and 6 Gul. and Mar. c. 20), ii.

Bankruptcy law (temp. Henry VHL),
i. 336.

Bannockburn, battle of, i. 202, 206.

Bannow Bay, i. 102.

Baptists, first assert the principle of
liberty of conscience, i. 543; the
English, at Amsterdam, ib.

Bar, birth of a professional, i. 182, 183.

Bards, Welsh, i. 191, 192.

Barbarossa (Frederick I.) , i. 86.

Bardi, the, i. 222.

Barham Down, i. 127, 162.

Barillon, —, ii. 37.

Barnet, i. 268.

Baron, meaning of the word, i. 29.

Baronetcy, order of, instituted, i. 443.

Barons, the, power of (temp. William
I.), i. 29; rise against William II.,
43; revolt of the, a^jjainst Henry I.,
60 ; conspire against Henry IL, 103 ;
rebel against King John, 130; the
cause of quarrel, lb. ; refuse to fol-
low John to France, ib. ; Langton
sides with them, ib. ; gather at St.
Edmundsbury, ib. ; their demands,
ib. ; appeal to the pope, 130 ; ad-

vance to Brackley, 131 ; appear be-
fore Northampton, i. 132; occupy
London, ib.; the greater, 136; the
lesser, 136 ; made leaders of the
whole people by the great charter,
139 ; garrison Rochester castle, 140 ;
turn for aid to France, 142 ; protest
against Henry III.'s abuses, 157 ;
their quarrel with Henry III., 158,
159 ; the greater, how summoned to
parliament, 172 ; the lesser, how
summoned to parliament, i. ib. ; of
the exchequer, significance of the
title, 183; the Scotch, rise against
Baliol, 196 ; invade Cumberland, ib. ;
give place to groups of magnates,
203, 204 ; feudal, supplanted (temp,
Henry VIIL), 334.

Barons' war. See under Barons ; also
under Henry III. ; also under Mont-
fort, Simon de.

Barrow, Henry, i. 396.

Barry, Thomas, i. 311.

Bartholomew, convent of St., i. 153.

Basinghouse, stands three sieges, i.

Bastwick, John, is set free, i. 514.

Bastwick, Robert, is indicted, i. 503.

Bate, George, doctor, i. 612.

Bate, John, i. 446, 483, 484.

Bath, Earl of. See Pulteney.

Battlements, i. 280.

Baxter, Richard, quoted, 1. 611.

Bayonet, its iflfluence at Killiecran-
kie, ii. 94; improvements in, ib.

Beachy Head, naval defeat at, ii. 119.

Beaton, David, Cardinal, i. 412.

Beatrice, wife of Philip Mary, Duke of
Milan, i. 325.

Beaufort, Henry, Cardinal, i. 264.

Beauforts, the (see also Somerset), i.

Becket, Thomas a, a champion of
church privilege, i. 87; his biog-
raphies, 87 ; his parentage, ib. ; edu-
cation, ib. ; advancement, ib. ; sent
to Rome, ih. -; takes deacon's maces,
ib. ; invested with archdeaconcy of
Canterbury, etc., 87; made chan-
cellor, ib. ; his style of living, 88 ;
ambassador to Paris, ib. ; taxes the
clergy, ib. ; made Archbishop of



Canterbury, ih. ; the change in his
life and aiins, 89 ; comes into colli-
sion with the king, ih. ; an open
rupture ensues, 90; refuses to seal
the constitutions of Clarendon, 92;
attends the council at Northampton,
93 ; his threatening demeanour there,
ih. ; leaves England for France, 94;
surrenders his archbishopric to, and
receives it from, the pope, ih. ; sig-
nificance of his ecclesiastical princi-
ples, ih.; curses his enemies at
Vezelay, 95 ; his miracles, 95, 98 ; is
restored to his see, 96; returns to
England, ih.; excommunicates the
Archbishop of York and others, ih. ;
stirs up the people, ih. ; preaches a
minatory sermon, ih. ; is slain by
four of Henry's knights, 97; his
character, ih. ; his cause, ih. ; the
effects of his death on Europe, ih. ;
on his own famet98 ; his shrine, ih. ;
the esteem in which he was held,
ih.; its lapse at the reformation,
ih. ; its resuscitation in the nine-
teenth century, ih. ; his biography,
ih., 244, 247, 286, 313.

Bed-chamber plot, ii. 382.

Bede, the Venerable, i. 7, 22.

Bedford, opens its gates to the barons
(temp. John), i. 132.

Bedford, Francis Russell, fourth Earl
of, i. 479, 512, 520, 521.

Bedford, John, Duke of (regent of
France),i. 200, 201,261.

Bedford, John Russell, fourth Duke of,
ii. 200, 201.

Bedloe, William, his infamy and its
consequences, ii. 41.

Begums of Oude, the, ii. 416.

Bellesme, Robert de, i. 60.

Belhaven, Lord, ii. 137.

Benefit of clergy lingered long (abol-
ished, 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 28, and 4
and5 Vict. c. 22),i. 344.

Benevolences condemned by Richard
III. (IRich. III. c. 2), i. 374.

Bentham, Jeremy, ii. 318.

Bentinck, Lord William Cavendish, ii.

Beresford, John, ii. 286.

Bergami, ii. 329.

Berkeley, Sir John, i. 564.

Berkeley, Sir Robert, arrested, i. 514.

Bermingham, Sir John, defeats Ed-
ward Bruce, i. 203.

Bernard, St., i. 110.

Berwick, storming of, i. 196; parlia-
ment meets at, ih. ; annexed by Ed-
ward IlL, i. 211, 267.

Bible, translation of, i. 232, 233; pro-
scribed, 314; allowed to be read in
English (temp. Henry III.), 337; its
use restricted (34 Hen. VIII. c.
1), ih.; translation of, authorized
(temp. Henry VIII.), 339; its au-
thority, ih. ; the sheet anchor of
reformation, ih. ; an appeal to rea-
son, 349; withstood the Marian
storm, 362; puritanism its out-
growth, 393; authorized version of
James I., 438; as viewed by the
Puritan, 497, 498.

Biddle, John, the Socinian, i. 610.

Bigod, Roger, Earl of Norfolk, op-
poses the king, i. 186.

Bill of right, i. 133.

Bill of rights, the (1 Gul. and Mar. st.
2, c. 2) , its assertions and provisions,
ii. 81, 82; its effect on monarchy,

Birth, little regard for (temp. Edward
L),i. 173, 174.

Bishops, the, in Saxon times, i. 10;
cease to sit with the sheriff in the
shire court, 31 ; appointed by the
Norman kings under the form of
election, 32; reason of their sitting
in parliament, 174; made to take
out official patents (temp. Edward
VI.), 345; appointment of (temp.
Elizabeth) , 373 ; withdraw from the
House of Lords (temp. Charles I.)
(16Car. Lc. 27),528.

Bishops' war, the, i. 495.

Black death, i. 226, 231, 233.

Blackheath, Cornish miners defeated
at, i. 283.

Blacklow Hill, i. 206.

Blackstone, Sir William, i. 181.

Blake, Robert, i. 593.

Blanche (daughter of the Duke of Lan-
caster) , first wife of John of Gaunt,



Blanketeers, the, ii. 327.

Blenheim, hattle of, ii. 133, 134.

Blomfield, Charles James, Bishop of
London, ii. 364.

Blood, Thomas, Colonel, maltreats the
Duke of Ormonde, ii. 34; attempts
to carry off the regalia, ib. ; his sub-
sequent career, ib.

Blood-fine. See Were-gelt.

Bloody assize, the, ii. 61.

Bocher, Joan, fate of, i. 348.

Bohemia, Wyeliffism carried to, i.
313; religion of, 425; rebels against
Ferdinand of Austria, 461.

Bohun, Humphrey de. Earl of Here-
ford, opposes the king, i. 186.

Boleyn, Anne, i. 304; marries Henry
VIIL, 323; gives birth to Elizabeth,
ib.; arrested, 324; her trial, ib.;
340 ; makes a confession, 324.

Boleyn, Mary, i. 320.

Boleyn, Sir Thomas, i. 302.

Bolingbroke, Henry St. John, Vis-
count, his character, ii. 148; his
"patriot king," ib., 149; collapse
of his Jacobite plot, 152, 153; im-
peached, 165, 166; returns to Eng-
land, ii. 183.

Boniface, of Savoy, made Archbishop
of Canterbury, i. 153.

Boniface VIIL, Pope, i. 178; his bull
forbidding the clergy to pay taxes
to the lay power, 180; forbids Ed-
ward I. to attack Scotland, 188, 326.

Bonner, Edmund, Bishop of London,
imprisoned, i. 344; released from
prison, i. 360, 376.

Bonvilles, the, i. 269.

Book of Sports, James I.'s, republished,
i. 501 ; condemned (temp. Charles I.) ,

Books, statute for admission of {temp.
Richard III.), i. 274.

Borderers, Scotch, i. 408.

Borgia, Caesar, i. 281.

Borgia, Roderic. See Alexander VL,

Borgias, the, i. 270, 313, 320.

Born, Bertrand de, i. 104.

Borough franchise, the, ii. 156 et sq.

Boroughs, side with the crown {temp.
RichardL),i. 115, 116.

Boroughs, small, created by Elizabeth,

i. 400.
Borronieo, San Carlo, Cardinal, i. 424.
Boston (England), pillaged, i. 154.
Boston (Massachusetts), port of,

closed, ii. 212; massacre, ib.
Bosworth, battle of, i. 275, 281.
Both well, James Hepburn, fourth Earl

of, i. 417.
Bouvines, battle of, i. 129.
Boves, Hugh de, i. 140.
Boyd, house of, i. 405.
Boyne, battle of, the, ii. 97.
Bracton, Henry de, on monarchy, i.

Bradshaw, John, i. 597.
Bramhall, John, Archbishop of Ar-
magh, ii. 22.
Braose, William de, his wife and child

captured by John, i. 126.
Braxfield, Lord Justice, ii. 274.
Breakspear, Nicholas. See Adrian

IV., Pope.
Breaute, Fawkes de, i. 143, 150, 157.
Brehon law, i. 100, 310.
Brereton, William, i. 324.
Breteuil, De, i. 57.

Bribery, at elections, makes its appear-
ance, i. 400.
Bright, John, ii. 282.
Bristol, i. 38, 146, 294, 536, 541, 552.
Bristol, John Digby, first Earl of, i. 473,

British Columbia, ii. 402.
British North America Act (30 & 31

Vict. c. 3), ii. 401e^sg.
Brittany, i. 288.
Broad churchmen, precursors of the,

i. 499.
Brocs, the De, i. 96.
Broghil, Roger Boyle, Baron (first Earl

of Orrery), is warned concerning

Ormonde, i. 613; his administration

of Scotland, 625 et sq.
Brooke, Robert Greville, second Lord,

i. 512.
Brougham and Vaux, Henry, Lord,

his character and abilities, ii. 318,

358, 359.
Brownists, i. 395, 443.
Bruce, Edward, fills Ireland with

havoc, i. 202 ; is defeated, 202, 203.


Bruce, Nigel (grandson of the Com-
petitor), i. 200,201.

Bruce, Robert VI. (the Competitor),
Earl of Annandale, i. 193, 195, 200.

Bruce, Robert VII. (son of the Com-
petitor), i. 200.

Bruce, Robert de, VIII. (son of Robert
de Bruce VII., Earl of Carrick, and
grandson of Robert de Bruce VI. =
the Competitor), i. 200, 202.

Brunanburg, battle of, i. 12.

Bruno, Giordano, i. 35, 377.

Bucer, Martin, invited to England, i.

Buch, Captal de, i. 220.

Buck, Walter, i. 140.

Buckingham, Edward Stafford, Duke
of, i. 304, 306.

Buckingham, George Villiers, first
Duke of, i. 434; George Villiers,
second Duke of, i. 452, 465, 469, 471,
473, 479, 481.

Buckingham, Henry Stafford, Duke of,

Online LibraryGoldwin SmithThe United kingdom; a political history → online text (page 78 of 84)