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i. 275.

Buenos Ayres, expedition to, ii. 306.

Buller, Charles, ii. 395.

Buller, Sir John Yarde, ii. 382.

Bunyan, John, imprisonment of, ii. 19.

Burgesses. See Burghers.

Burgh, Hubert de, i. 144, 150, 152.

Burgher aristocracy, i. 292.

Burghers, first summoned to parlia-
ment, i. 162; sit in parliament, 170;
importance of, as representatives in
parliament, 171; how elected, 192,
298.

Burghley, William Cecil, Lord, i. 368,
396, 399.

Burgoyne, John, General, ii.

Burgundy, John sans peur, Duke of,
assassination of, i. 260; Philip the
Good, Duke of, i. 262.

Burke, Edmund, his definition of party,
ii. 106, 209 et sq.; his "Thoughts
on the Present Discontents," 226;
proposes economical reform, 228 ; his
capabilities and limitations, 2^^ ; his
conduct of the impeachment of Hast-
ings, 250 et sq.; his " Reflections on
the French Revolution," 262 et sq.,
416, 417, 418.

Burke, John, 1. 311.



Burley, Sir Simon, i. 239.

Burnell, Robert, i. 181.

Burnet, Alexander, i. 586.

Burton, Henry, i. 503, 514.

Bussy, Sir John, i. 239.

Bute, John Stuart, third Earl of, be-
comes head of the government, ii.
198; declares war on Spain, 199; re-
signs, 200.

Butler, Samuel, ** Hudibras," ii. 2.

Byng, Admiral, executed, ii. 190.

Byron, Lord, ii. 318.



Cabal, the, ii. 27.

Cabinet, the, foreshadowings of, i.
151, 250; replaces the council, i. 342.

Cabinet system, the, ii. 27, 171.

Cabots, the, i. 294.

Cabul, expedition to, ii. 426.

Cade's, Jack, rebellion, i. 266 ; its poli-
tical character, ib.; is crushed, 276.

Cadiz, i. 472.

Caedmon, i. 22.

Caesar's depicture of the Celtic race, i.
5.

Caister Castle, i. 262, 263.

Calais, Edward III. besieges, i. 212 ;
won and retained by the English
(temp. Edward III.) , i. 221, 262, 291 ; .
lost by England, i. 366.

Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de, ii.
260.

Calveley, Sir Hugh, i. 218, 220.

Calvin, Jean, i. 232, 313; his thorough-
going doctrine, 345 ; burns Servetus,
348, 394.

Calvinists and Calvinism, i. 426, 428
et sq., 462, 500.

Camarilla, i. 274.

Campeggio, Lorenzo, papal legate, i
321.

Camperdown, battle of, ii. 287.

Canada, conquered by Pitt, ii. 194,
206; retention of, by England, 220;
history of, 385 et sq.; Pitt's Act, set-
tling, 387; war of 1812, 388; rebel-
lion of 1837, 389 et sq.

Canadian Pacific railway, ii. 402.

Canning, George, ii. 281, 302, 306; his
character, 316, 317; takes Castle-



440



INDEX



reagh'^ place, 323, 328, 329, 330, 331,
341.

Canniug, Charles John, Earl aud Vis-
count, governor-general of India, ii.
429.

Cannon introduced (temp. Edward
III.), i. 217, 248.

Cannynge, i. 280.

Cannyuges, the, i. 291.

Canon law, development of, i. 86.

Cantelupe, Thomas de. Bishop of
Hereford, i. 160, 179, 180.

Cantelupe, Walter de, Bishop of
Worcester, i. 156, 160.

Canute, a Christian ruler, i. 13; makes
a pilgrimage to Rome, ib.; divides
the country into earldoms, i. 13, 14.

Capel, Arthur, Lord Capel of Haddam,
is banished, then condemned to
death, i. 566.

Capel, Sir Henry, Lord Capel of
Tewkesbury, ii. 36.

Carbisdale, battle of, i. 585.

Carew, Sir Peter, rebellion of, i. 359.

Carileph, William. See William Cari-
leph.

Carlisle, restored and fortified by
William n.,i. 44.

Carmarthen, Thomas Osborne, Earl of
Danby and Marquis of. See Danby.

Caroline, wife of George IV., i. 338.

Caroline, the, ii. 395.

Carrickfergus, massacre by the Scotch
garrison of, i. 579.

Carteret, John, Earl of Granville, ii.
186, 187.

Carthagena, the attack on, ii. 184.

Cartwright, Thomas, Bishop of Ches-
ter, ii. 65.

Cartwright, Thomas, i. 394, 432.

Carucage, replaces danegelt, i. 84, 115,
226.

Cashel, Archbishop of, i. 420,

Castile, princes of, i. 123.

Castles, multiplicity of (temp. Ste-
phen), i. 73; losing their strength
of defence, 151 ; give way to the
mansion, 280.

Castlereagh, Robert Stewart, second
Marquis of Londonderry and vis-
count, ii. 285, 306; his character,
315 ; dies, 323.



Caterage, i. 71.

Cateran, statute for the suppression
of, i. 410.

Cathedrals, building of, i. 145; form
of, makes for high church party,
428.

Catherine of Aragon, wife of Prince
Arthur, and of Henry VIII., i. 289;
the question of her divorce from
Henry VIII., 318, 319; her noble
conduct,. 319.

Catherine of Russia, ii. 267.

Catholic emancipation, germs of the
struggle for, i. 375; (Ireland), ii.
297 et sq., 329, 330, 335 et sq.

Catholic league, i. 382, 424, 402.

Catholics (peers), disabled from sitting
in the House of Lords (30 Car. II.
Stat. 2, c. 1) , ii. 36 ; suspected of
plots (temp. Charles II.), 40.

Catholicism (temp. Henry VIII.), i.
317; (temp. James I. et sq.), i. 440
etsq.; usually allied with despotism,
427 ; a rival to disunited protestant-
ism, 502, 503; a reaction towards,
ib. ; the religion of kings, ii. 25.

Cavalier, the, his religion and char-
acter, i. 496, 497; the name comes
into use, 528, 536; his morality, 539.

Cavalry, mailed, decline of, i. 259.

Cavendish, Sir William, i. 322.

Cavendish, fhomas, i. 382.

Cavendishes, the, origin and politics of ,
i. 334.

Caxton, introduces printing into Eng-
land, i. 279.

Cecil, Robert. See Salisbury, Earl of.

Cecils, the, origin and politics of, i.
334.

Celibacy of the clergy in Saxon times,
i. 18; enjoined after the Conquest,
32 ; Anselm tries to enforce, 66 ; en-
forcement of, withdrawn by act of
parliament (2 and 3 Edw. VI. c. 21),
343; abolished {temp. Edward VI.),
346.

Celts, the, i. 5, 100, 101, 189, 190, 193,
311,410; ii. 22.

Cerdic, line of, i. 14.

Chalices, discarded, i. 346.

Chalons, Count of, i. 168.

Chambers, Richard, i. 484.



INDEX



4^41



Chancel rail, morally removed, i. 346.

Chancellor, the, chief minister {temp.
Edward I.) , i. 183, 184.

Chancery, court of, claims decision of
disputed returns, i. 445 ; ii. 369, 370.

Chandos clause, the, ii. 350, 356.

Chandos, Sir John, i. 218, 220.

Channel, the. See English Channel.

Charles-Emmanuel II., Duke of Savoy.
See Savoy.

Charles L, of England, i. 106, 251, 455;
goes to Spain (when prince), 465;
compared with Louis XVI., 468; his
character, ib., 469; his ideas of
monarchy, 469; his motto, i&. ; his
weakness, ib. ; called to the throne,
lb.; his forced loans, 471; his war
against Spain, i6., 472; his political
struggle with parliament, 472 et sq. ;
his religion, 473, 474 ; levies tonnage
and poundage, 478 ; consents to the
petition of right, 479,480; revolts to
ship-money, 492 ; attempts to coerce
the Scotch covenanters, 506 et sq. ;
assents to the sweeping reforms
of the long parliament, 515; signs
Strafford's death-warrant, 521 ; goes
to Scotland, 524 ; attempts to arrest
the five members, 528, 529; leaves
Whitehall, 529; his final rupture
with parliament, ib. ; calls a parlia-
ment at Oxford, 534; sets up his
standard at Nottingham, 540 ; sends
commissioners to meet presbyterians
at Uxbridge, 549; his army sacks
Leicester, 551; his letters captured
and published, 551, 552; is given up
by the Scotch, 553 ; his journey from
Newcastle to Holmby, .557, 558 ; first
negotiations with parliament, 558;
in the hands of the independents,
562; sent to Hampton Court, 564;
flies to the Isle of Wight, ib. ; com-
municates wi*h the Duke of Hamil-
ton, 565 ; is taken from Carisbrooke
to Hurst Castle, thence to London,
568 ; his trial, 568 et sq. ; the mo-
tive and character of those who tried
him, 568.

Charles II., of England (as prince), i.
559; is invited to Scotland, 585; ac-
companies Leslie in his invasion of



England, 589 ; is defeated at Worces-
ter, ib. ; escapes to the continent,
ib.; is recalled, 648; his journey
from Dover to London, ib. ; his res-
toration, ii. 3; suited his epoch, ib. ;
his character, ib. ; his notion of
kingship, ib. ; compared with his
brother James, 3, 4; his revenue,
11 ; at heart a papist, 25 ; his secret
league with Louis XIV., 31; closes
the exchequer, 33, 34 ; his last par-
liament, 46 ; forfeits civic charters,
49; his death, 54; his character, ib.

Charles V., Emperor, i. 307, 308, 320,
321, 322, 331, 364.

Charles V., of France, i. 221.

Charles VIII., of France, i. 288.

Charles V., of Spain, i. 172.

Charles Martel, i. 107.

Charles Lewis, Elector Palatine, i. 559.

Charlotte, Princess (daughter of
George IV.), ii. 329.

Charter, Henry I.'s, provisions of, i.
57, 58.

Charter, the Great, i. 133; its pro-
visions, 134 et sq.; its political
clauses, 135, 136, 138 ; how it was to
be upheld, 139; republished by Pem-
broke, 149, 305.

Charter House, monks of the, put to
death, i. 330.

Chartism, ii. 352.

Chatham, William Pitt, Earl of. See
Pitt, William.

Chaucer, Geoffrey, i. 211, 219, 230.

Chertsey, i. 268.

Chester, Hugh Lupus, Earl of. See
Lupus, Hugh.

Chester, Randulph de Blundevill, Earl
of, heads the opposition to the king,
i. 157.

Chesterfield, Philip Dormer Stanhope,
fourth Earl of, ii. 182, 224.

Cheyt Sing, ii. 416.

Chichele, Henry, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, i. 257.

Chichester, Sir Arthur, i, 420.

Chief, the Saxon, i. 9.

Chiefs, tribal, of Ireland, their charac-
ter, i.419.

Child, Sir Josiah, ii. 414.

Chillingworth, William, i. 499.



442



INDEX



Chinon, castle of, i. 104.

Chivalry, i. 29; height of, 145; died
with the Templars, i. 211 ; character
of, in the reign of Edward III., ib.,
280, 381 et sq.

Christendom, disintegration of, i. 323.

Christian IV., king of Denmark, de-
feated by Tilly, i. 495.

Christianity, Britons converted to, i.
4 ; unifying influence of, 6 ; spreads
over the Heptarchy, ib. ; its influ-
ence on early England, 7 ; the rally-
ing cry against the Danes, i. 11.

Christ's Hospital, founded, i. 349.

Chronicles, give place to histories, i.
281.

Church, the, in Saxon times, i. 10, 11 ;
character of, 18 {temp. William I.),
34 et sq. ; abuses in, 36, 37 ; a
guardian of liberty, 38 ; an organ of
moral restraint, 41 ; under William
II., 47; under Stephen, 75 {temp.
Henry II.), 85 ; salutary influence of,
{temp. John), 120 ; occupies the first
place in the Great Charter, 134 ; cor-
ruption of {temp. Henry III.), 145;
nationalization of {temp. Edward I.) ,
177; decadence of {temp. Richard
II.), 230; its exactions {temp. Henry
v.), 257; its power {temp. Henry
Vn.), 287 ; its influence impaired by
litigation, 290; its corruption and
abuses as causes leading to the Re-
formation, 312 e« sq. ; attachment of
the mass of the people to {temp.
Henry VHI.), 314; its character
{temp. Henry VIII.), 340, 341;
stamped as a state establishment,
374; temp. Charles II., ii. 15 et sq.;
its condition {temp, the Restora-
tion), ii. 21 ; its political tendencies,
60; {temp. William III.), 68 et sq.;
{temp. Anne), 151; {temp. George
I.), 161 etsq.

Church, the Irish, i. 99 et sq., 310, 419
et sq.; secularization of the funds
of, ii. 364.

Church, the Scottish, i. 409, 411 et sq.

Churches, building of, i. 145, 287.

Cicero, i. 279.

Cifford, John, Lord, i. 269.

Cinque ports, the, i. Ill ; their duties



and privileges, 218; thrive under
Henry III., 146; side with De Mont^
fort, 160, 261, 269, 291.

Circumspecte agatis, statute of, i. 179.

Cistercian order comes to England, i.
67.

Cities. See also Towns.

Cities, growth of, under Henry II., i.
84 ; liberties of, secured by the Great
Charter, 134, 135; modern, 291; ad-
ministration of, ii. 361.

Citizen, the duties of {tem,p. Henry
Vn.),i.291.

Civil war, the (1642-1649), its prevail-
ing character religious, i. 495; char-
acteristics of the contestants, i6.;
how waged, 532; political map of
England, in time of, 5, 35 ; division
of classes in, 536; the opposing
armies compared, 537 et sq.; turn-
ing point in, 541, 542; weariness of,
554; compared with the French
Revolution, 566 ; compared with the
American Revolution, 599.

Clans, Irish. See under Celts.

Clare, John Fitzgibbon, Earl of, ii. 285.

Clare, Richard de. Earl of Pembroke,
i. 101, 163, 164.

Clare, Richard de, eighth Earl of
Clare, sixth Earl of Hertford,
seventh Earl of Gloucester. See
Gloucester, Earl of.

Clarence, George, Duke of, put to
death, i. 272.

Clarence, Lionel, Duke of, i. 266, 309.

Clarendon, constitutions of, provisions
of, i. 90, 91.

Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of, i.
491, 492, 510, 520; Charles II.'s chief
minister, ii. 4; his history, ib.; his
ecclesiastical policy, 13 et sq.; the
marriage of his daughter, 25 ; op-
poses the declaration of indulgence,
25 et sq. ; his fall, t&.

Classical education, approach of, i. 230.

Classics, the Greek and Roman, i. 279.

Clement HI., Pope, i. 47.

Clement V., Pope, lays Flanders under
an interdict, i. 219.

Clement VII., Pope, and the divorce
of Catherine of Aragon, i. 318 ; Henry
VIII. breaks away from, 327.



INDEX



443



Clergy, how represented in parliament
{temp. Edward I.), i. 174; preferred
for high ofiices, 175 ; claim to be be-
yond the domain of secular govern-
ment {temp. Edward I.), 180; be-
coming worldly {temp. Richard III.) ,
230; lose their hold on the people
{temp. Richard II.) , 234, 235 ; crimi-
nal immunities of {temp. Henry
IV.), 247 ; restriction of impunity of
{temp. Henry VII.), 286; hated by
inhabitants of cities {temp. Henry
VIII.), 316 ; corruption of {temp.
Henry VIII.), ib.; permitted to
marry {temp. Edward VI.), 346; lose
their power and influence {temp.
Edward VI.), 347; the inferior con-
form {temp. Elizabeth), 375; char-
acter of {temp. George I.), ii. 163,
{temp. William IV.), 362 et sq.

Clergy reserves, the, ii. 392 et sq. ;
act respecting (3 and 4 Vict. c. 79),
399.

Clerical encroachments thwarted by
statutes {temp. Edward I.), i. 179.

Clerical immunity, i. 316.

Clerical privilege, i. 86, 90, 92, 97.

Clifford, Sir Thomas, a member of the
Cabal, ii. 27, 29.

Clinton, Sir Henry, General, ii. 217.

Clive, Robert, ii. 233 et sq., 249, 413,
414, 415, 421.

Clonmacnoise, i. 101.

Cloth, England exports, i. 292.

Coal in Great Britain, i. 2; taxed, to
build churches in London (9 Ann. c.
17), ii. 151.

Coalition of Fox and North, ii. 231,
232.

Coats of arms, i. 174.

Cobbett, William, ii. 318.

Cobham, Lord. See Oldcastle, Sir
John.

Cochrane, Thomas, tenth Earl of Dun-
donald, ii. 325.

Coffee and coffee-houses, introduction
of, ii. 12.

Coin, debasement of. See Currency.

Coinage {temp. Henry II.), i. 84; re-
form of {temp. Elizabeth), 375.

Coke, Sir Edward, i. 181, 227, 452, 4^,
456,457.



Coke, Sir John, leader for the crown
in the Commons, i. 473, 479.

Colborne, Sir John, ii. 393.

Cole, Sir W., i. 579.

Coleman, Edward, ii. 40.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, ii. 272.

Colet, John, i. 314.

Collar, order of the, i. 211.

College, Stephen, ii. 47.

Colleges, foundation of, i. 279; Ox-
ford, sequestrated, i. 335.

Cologne, merchants of, i. 84.

Colonies, government of, by the com-
monwealth, i. 591 ; the American,
their origin and character, ii. 203
et sq. ; commercial restrictions in,
204, 205; taxation of, 206 et sq. ;
revolt of, 213 et sq. ; are freed, 220;
the self-governing, 385 et sq., 406
et sq.

Colony, meaning of the word, ii. 385.

Columbus, Christopher, i. 280.

Combat, the judicial, i. 82.

Commendation, practice of, i. 15.

Commerce {temp. Henry 11.),^ i. 84;
awakening of, 146; fostered *by Ed-
ward I., 182; extension of, under
Edward III., 224; activity of {tejnp.
Henry VII.), i. 280, 292.

Commercial interests, growth of
{temp. Edward I.), i. 182.

Commissioners, royal, sent over the
realm {temp. Henry I.) , i, 69 ; trans-
formed by Henry II. into justices in
eyre, 80.

Commissions of array, sent by Charles
I., i. 539.

Committee of both kingdoms, i. 574.

Committee of safety, i. 574.

Common law, i. 183, 296, 457.

Commons, house of, creation of, i. 173 ;
gains authority {temp. Edward II.),
209 ; representation in, 225, 226, 250 ;
its right to originate money bills,
276; not democratic {temp. Richard
III.), 278; its character under the
Tudors, 2i)8; its character {temp.
Elizabeth), 392, 397 et sq., 401; a
seat in an object of ambition, 400;
its struggle with the crown {temp.
Elizabeth) , 430 et sq. ; {temp. James
I.), 445 et sq. ; its usurpation of ju-



444



INDEX



risdiction, 461 et sq., 464; {temp.
Charles I.) , 472 et sq. ; its petition of
right, 479; temper of {temp. Anne),
483.

Common pleas, court of, i. 137.

Common Prayer, book of, i. 343; Ed-
ward VI. 's supplants the breviary,
371 ; its abolition demanded, 523.

Common recovery, process of, i . 287.

Commonwealth, the, the first national
republic, i. 573; how regarded by
European governments, 592, 593;
the virtues of its rulers, 595.

Commune, French, i. 233.

Communion cup given to the laity, i.
346.

Comprehension, ii. 14, 86.

Compton, Sir Spencer (created Lord
Wilmington), ii. 186.

Compton, Henry, Bishop of London, ii.
71.

Compurgation, i. 10, 348. •

Comyn, John, Earl of Badenoch, i. 193,
199, 200.

Conan,,the rebel of Rouen, i. 59.

Concubinage, common, i. 85.

Condottieri, i. 280.

Confederation of Canada, ii. 401 et sq.

Confiscations, the, of William I., i.
21.

Congregationalism, i. 548.

Connaught, great part of, confiscated
by Strafford, i. 488 ; catholic land-
owners transported to, 583.

Conquest, the Norman, i. 16, 17, 18, 19,
20; its double character, 17, 18;
character of, 21 et sq.; effects of,
ib., 31 et sq.

Constantine, donation of, i. 99.

Constitution, the, development of, the
chief line along which it moved, i.
;^J, 31 ; the rudiments of, 37, 38; the
earliest, 133 ; completed by the stat-
ute de tallagio non concedendo,
187 ; development of, under Edward
VI., ;«5, 356; the British, ii. 157,
1%; the CanadiaL, 401 et sq.

Contarini, Gasparo, Cardinal, i. 313,
314, 425.

Conventicles Act (.'i5 Eliz. c. 1), i. 391,
396; (16Car. II. c. 4),ii. 17, 87.

Convention, the, of 1688, settles the



crown on William and Mary, ii.

78, 79, 80.

Convocation, the clerical, origin of, i.
174; brought under royal control,
327; subserviency of {temp. Henry
VIII.), 327, 328; declares Henry
VIII. 's marriage with Anne of
Cleves void, 338; its doctrine of
monarchy {temp. James I.), 438,
439; loses its power, 347; protests
against the religious revolution
{temp. Elizabeth), 374, 482; up-
holds divine right, 508; practically
suppressed (1641), 522; ceases to
exercise political authority, ii. 21;
practically ceases to exist, 176.

Cony, protests against customs du-
ties, i. 611.

Coote, Eyre, ii. 413, 421.

Copyhold, i. 295.

Copyright, i. 237, 297.

Corn laws, the, ii. 371.

Cornwall, Richard, Earl of, king of the
Romans (second son of King John) ,
i. 157.

Cornwallis, Charles, first Marquis and
second Earl, surrenders at York-
town, ii. 219, 220, 290; governor-
general of India, 418 et sq. ; his
"permanent settlement," 419.

Corporation Act, the (13 Car. II. stat.
2, c. l),ii. 17,322.

Corresponding society, ii. 272.

Corruption, common {temp. Edward
I.), i. 182; parliamentary, ii. 113;
{temp. George III-), 245.

Cottington, Francis, Lord, i. 484, 514.

Cotton, Sir Robert, i. 447.

Council, the Great {magnum concil-
ium, regis et regni), i. 27; a continu-
ation of the witan, 30; meeting of,
at Clarendon, 90, 91 ; at Northamp-
ton, 93; its composition, 136; ac-
quires stability, 151 ; its importance
in Henry III.'s minority, ib. ; super-
seded by a true parliament, 170;
{temp. Edward I.), 176; {temp.
Henry IV.), 251, 342, 508.

Council, the privy, germs of, i. 151,
176, 296, 306; members of, in the
House of Commons, 400; enlarges
its jurisdiction, 491 ; begins to give



INDEX



445



way to cabinet {temp. Charles II.) ,
ii. 27.

Council of Kilkenny, its composition,
i.580.

Council of the north abolished (16
Car. I.e. 10), i. 515.

Council of state elected (1649), i. 574;
its composition, ib. ; resolves to in-
vade Scotland, 587; makes war on
Holland, 593.

Court of common pleas, i. 183.

Court of exchequer, i. 183.

Court of king's bench, i. 183.

Court of star chamber. See Star
Chamber.

Courtenay, Peter, Bishop of Exeter
and Winchester, i. 229, 230.

Courts, character of {temp. Henry
VIII.), i. 306; struggle between the
ecclesiastical and lay {temp. James
I.), 456.

Courts, ecclesiastical, i. 179, 315, 316.

County court, i. 81.

County, the, i. 30.

Covenanters, ii. 24, 92.

Coventry, parliament meets at, i.
267.

Coventry, Sir John, ii. 36.

Cowell, John, i. 438, 439.

Cranfield, Lionel, Earl of Middlesex,
i. 452.

Cranmer, Thomas, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, i. 323, 336; guides the re-
ligious revolution, 344, 348; sides
with Lady Jane Grey, 358; at-
tainted, 360; condones persecution,
363, 365.

Crecy, battle of, description of, i. 43
et sq., 215, 216, 220, 233, 238, 246,
259, 280.

Cressingham, Hugh, i. 197.

Crests, i. 174.

Crevant, i. 261.

Crewe, Nathaniel, third Baron Crewe
of Stene, Bishop of Durham, ii. 65.

Crichton, house of, i. 405.

Crime, how repressed by Henry II., i.
82, 84 ; clerical, impunity of, 85 ; rife
in Ireland in sixteenth century, 310,
311.

Criminal code {temp. George I.), ii.
159, 160.



Criminal law, i. 81 ; reform of, 11. 330 ;
amendment of, 3f)9.

Criticism, revolt against {temp. Ed-
ward III.), i. 220.

Croker, John Wilson, ii. 345, 353.

Crompton, Samuel, ii. 255.

Cromwell, Oliver, his lineage, i. 511,
545; as a military commander, 546;
his attitude towards liberty of con-
science, 548 ; re-appointed after the
self-denying ordinance, 550; leads
the independents, 556 ; his religious
patriotism, 557 ; his attitude tow-
ards the army, ib. ; his political
ideal, lb. ; subdues Welsh insur-
rection, 566; defeats Hamilton at
Preston, ib. ; decides to bring the
king to justice, 568 ; takes an
army into Ireland, 581 ; takes the
field against the Scotch, 584; in-
vades Scotland, 587; encounters
David Leslie, ib. ; defeats him at
Dunbar, 588; defeats Leslie at
Worcester, 589 ; his treatment of
the defeated Scotch, 588, 589;
manoeuvres against Leslie's new
army, 589; his administration of
Scotland, 591; calls for dissolu-
tion of parliament, 596; goes to
the House and drives out its mem-
bers, ib. ; supreme power in his
hands, 598; his aims, ib.; com-
pared with Washington, 599; is
master of the situation, 590; de-
clared Protector, 608; his first
parliament, 609, 610; his advan-
tages and obstacles, 601 ; calls a
convention of Puritan notables, 602;
his law reforms, 603; dismisses
Barebones Parliament, 604; re-
sorts to personal government, 610,
611 ; appoints major-generals, 613 ;
calls a second parliament, 614; is
offered the crown, 616 et sq. ; is in-
augurated as Lord Protector, 618;
dissolves parliament (1658), 620;
his speeches, 620, 621 ; his adminis-
tration as protector, 621 et sq.; his
ecclesiastical policy, 622 et sq. ;
his Irish policy, 627 et sq. ; his law
reforms, 630 ; fosters commerce, 630,
631; his colonial policy, 631; his



446



INDEX



foreign policy, 632; his court and
state, 639 et sq. ; his death, 641.

Cromwell, Richard, succeeds, i. 645,
retires, 64(5.

Cromwell, Thomas, i. 304; his early
life and character, 326 ; brings about
a severance from the papacy, 327;
his political aim, 331; his cruelty,
332, 337 ; his fall, 338.

Croulle, M. de, quoted, i. 595.

Crucifixes discarded, i. 346.

Crusades, the, influence of, 1. 86, 87;
what they really were, 107, 145, 164,
203, 280.

Culloden, battle of, ii. 188.

Culpepper, Sir John, i. 510.

Cumberland wrested from Scotland
{temp. William II.), i. 44; the Duke
of, ii. 188, 328.

Cup, the sacramental, given to the
laity by statute (1 Edw. VI. c. 1) , i.
343.

Curia Regis, the, i. 27 ; establishment
and composition of the, 69.

Curia, the Roman, i. 145, 155, 315.

Currency, debasement of (^emp. Henry
VIII.), i. 335,336; debasement of,
aggravates vagrancy, 352, 356 ; con-
dition of (temp. Elizabeth) , 379.

Custom, the merging of, into law, i.
82,83.

Customs duties, 1. 227.

Cyprus, ii. 410.



D

Dacre, Thomas Fiennes, Lord, of the
south, i. 340.

Dalhousie, James Andrew Brown,
tenth Earl, and first Marquis of,
governor-general of India, ii. 427.

Daly, Sir Dominick, ii. 399.

Danby, Thomas Osborne, Earl of
(afterwards Duke of Leeds), his
policy, ii. 34 et sq. ; impeached, 36,
71 ; dies, 118.

Danes, the, character of, i. 11 ; inva-
sion of England by the, ib.; de-
feated by Edmund the Elder, 12;
the English kingdom passes into
the hands of, 13 ; become Christian
ib.; renew their attacks after Ed-



gar's death ib.; influence of, on
England, 15.

Danegelt, i. 25.

Danelagh, i. 12.

Danish dynasty, end of the, in Eng-



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