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320; sides with the Puritans {temp.
Charles I.), 512; its council shares
legislative power {temp. Charles I.),
534 ; the core of the Puritan cause



{temp. Charles I.), 535, 536; threat-
ened by Charles I., 540, 541; sides
with the Presbyterian party after
the civil war, 556 ; its charter for-
feited {temp. Charles II.), ii. 49.

Londonderry, defence of, ii. 96.

Longbeard. See Fitzosbert, William.

Longbow, the, i. 198 ; compared with
the firearm, 216, 248, 259, 407.

Longchamp, William of. See William.

Longsword, William, Earl of Salis-
bury, captures a French fleet, i. 129 ;
death and burial of, 146.

Lords, House of, hereditary right to a
seat in, i. 173 ; its constitution trace-
able to Edward I., ib.; composition
of {temp. Henry VII.), 298; as a
tribunal {temp. Henry VIII.), 306;
diminution of spiritual element, 334 ;
settles down into a conservative
house, 401 ; its character and com-
position {temp. James I.), 444, 445;
dwindles into an appendage to the
Commons {temp. Charles I.), 534;
fall of {temp. Commonwealth), 572;
(iemj*. William III.), ii. 111.

Lords of articles, the, i. 407 ; ii. 23.

Lords of the congregation, i. 413.

Loretto, house of, i. 334.

Lorraine, Charles III., Duke of, i. 637,
552.

Lostwithiel, capitulation of, i. 549.

Lougborough, Alexander Wedderbum,
Lord (afterwards first Earl of Ross-
lyn), betrays Pitt, ii. 297, 298.

Louis VII., of France, countenances
Becket, i. 96.

Louis VIII., of France, lands in Eng-
land, i. 143; enters London, ib. ; de-
nounces John, ib. ; many declare for
him, 143; defeated at the fair of
Lincoln, 150; retires from England,
ib. ; annuls the provisions of Oxford,
160.

Louis IX., St., of France, i. 181, 263.

Louis XL, of France, i. 281, 284, 408.

Louis XIV., of France, i. 272; hii
despotism, 302; expels the Hugue-
nots, 583; his secret alliance with
Charles II., ii. 31 ; his paramount
object as regards England, 37; his
intrigues, ii. 40, 258.



4G2



INDEX



Louis XVI. of France, compared with
Charles L, i. 468 ; his trial compared
with that of Charles I., i. 568; ii.
260, mi.

Louis Philippe, ii. 340.

Lovel, Francis, Viscount, i. 282.

Lowe, Robert, ii. 282.

Lowlands of Scotland, 1. 410.

Loyalists of America, ii. 215, 216, 221.

Loyalty loan, the, ii. 279.

Loyalty, personal, in Saxon times, i.
9; birthday of, i. 297.

Loyola, Ignatius, i. 425.

Lucas, Sir Charles, condemned to be
shot, i. 566.

Lucy, Richard de, i. 96, 103.

Ludlow, Edmund, Colonel, i. 556; ii.
91.

Lumley, Richard, first Earl of Scar-
borough, ii. 71.

Lunsford, Thomas, appointed gov-
ernor of the Tower, i. 528.

Lupus, Hugh, Earl of Chester, i. 49.

Luther, Martin, i. 232, 313, 328, 394.

Lutheranism {temp. James I.), i. 462.

Lutherans, i. 329, 426.

Lutter, battle of, i. 495.

Liitzen, battlefield of, i. 194.

Luxury, repression of, i. 226.

Lydgate, John, i. 219.

Lyme, fury of the women of, i. 532.

Lyndhurst, John Singleton Copley, jr.,
Lord, ii. 348.

Lyons, Richard, Edward III.'s finan-
cial agent, i. 229.



M

Macclesfield, Lord Chancellor, ii. 160.
Macaulay, Thomas Babington, Lord,

ii. 344, 424.
Macdonald, eJohn A., ii. 401.
Machiavelli, Niccolo, i. 270, 280, 326.
Machiavellism, i. 254.
Mackay, General, defeats Claverhouse,

ii. 93, 94.
Mackenzie, William Lyon, ii. 393, 394,

399.
Macloughlin, Turlough Oge, i. 311.
Magdalen College, i. 274.
Magna carta. See Charter, the Great.
Maguinness, Donald, i. 311.



Maguinness, Hugh, 1. 311.

Mahrattas, the, ii. 413, 420, 421.

Maidstone, John, quoted, i. 643.

Maitland, William, of Lethington, i.
416.

Major-generals appointed, i. 613.

Malcolm III. of Scots, called Canmore,
i. 60, 16().

Malet, Robert, i. 60.

Maletolt, i. 223.

Malignants, the, i. 533.

Malplaquet, battle of, ii. 144.

Malta, ii. 410.

"Malvoisin," i. 144.

Manchester, Edward Montague, sec-
ond Earl of, his conduct at the
second battle of Newbury, i. 550;
refuses to sit in Cromwell's upper
House, 619.

Manny, Sir Walter, i. 218, 220.

Manor, the (temp. William I.), i. 31.

Manor court, the, i. 81.

Manor, lord of the, how curbed, i. 170,
177.

Manorial system, requisites of, i. 234 ;
finally replaced by land-ownership
and hired labour, 350; the new
(temp. Elizabeth), 380, 381.

Mansell, John, i. 153.

Mansfeld, Ernst von, i. 462; loses the
Protestant cause, 472.

Manufactures, advance and spread of
{temp. Henry VII.), i. 292.

Manwaring, Roger, quoted, i. 474, 475,
482.

March, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of, i.
243, 245.

March, Roger Mortimer, Earl of. See
Mortimer, Roger.

Marche, Count de la. See La Marche.

Marengo, battle of, ii. 300.

Margaret, daughter of Alexander III.,
King of Scotland, i. 19.

Margaret, daughter of Eric of Nor-
way, i. 411.

Margaret (daughter of Henry VI.),
marries James IV. of Scotland, i.
289.

Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, i.
282.

Margaret, of Anjou, wife of Henry
VI., i. 264, 266, 267, 268, 269, 271.



INDEX



463



Margaret, wife of Malcolm Canmore,
i. 166.

Maria Theresa, attacked by Frederick
the Great, ii. 193.

Marie Antoinette (wife of Louis
XVI.), compared with Henrietta
Maria, i. 468, 471.

Marisco, Adam de, i. 158.

Maritime enterprise, awakening of, i.
146.

Marborough, parliament of, i. 164.

Marlborough, John Churchill, first
Duke of, his importance in the revo-
lution of 1688, ii. 76; his character,
76, 77 ; completes the victory in Ire-
land, 97; his perfidy, 103; his
ascendancy, 129 et sq. ; his politics,
131; his army, 132, 133; compared
with Hannibal and Napoleon, 134;
dismissed and disgraced, 149.

Marlowe, Christopher, i. 209, 377.

Marriage, indissoluble in church of
Rome, 1. 318, 319.

Marshall, Richard, third Earl of Pem-
broke and Striguil, takes arms
against the king, 1. 157; is slain, ib.

Marshall, William, first Earl of Pem-
broke and Striguil, sides with the
king, i. 132; acts as mediator, 133,
146; crowns Henry III., 149; is
regent, 150.

Marston Moor, battle of, 1. 546, 547.

Marten, Henry, i. 511, 555.

Martial law proclaimed {temp.
Charles I.), i. 472.

Martin Marprelate, i. 397.

Martinitz, Jaroslas von, i. 461.

Martyr, Peter, invited to England, i.
345.

Martyr, Catherine (Peter Martyr's
wife), i. 360.

Marvell, Andrew, quoted, i. 602; his
incorruptibility, ii. 35, 36.

Mary (sister of Henry VIII., daughter
of Henry VII., wife of (1) Louis XII.
(2) Charles Brandon, Duke of
Suffolk), i. 358.

Mary, Queen of England, i. 319; the
lawful heiress, 358; naturally an
enemy of the Reformation, 359; not
naturally cruel, ib. ; the motive of
her persecutions, ib., 363; her char-



acter and appearance^ ib.; her diffi-
culties, 359; marries Philip II. of
Spain, 362 ; her chagrin at her bar-
renness, 3(33; her attitude in the
counter-reformation, 363; the sig-
nificance of the epithet "bloody"
applied to her, 366.

Mary Stuart (daughter of James V.,
of Scotland), Queen of Scots, i. 343,
368, 370; the legitimate heir, 386;
assumes the royal arms, ib. ; her
Catholicism, 387 ; her pitiful plight
in Scotland, ib. ; takes refuge in
England, ib. ; her conviction and
trial, ib., 388, 411, 414; the question
of her marriage, 416; her attach-
ment to Catholicism, ib.; marries
Darnley, ib. ; marries Both well, 417 ;
is imprisoned, ib. ; resigns, ib. ; is
defeated, ib. ; and beheaded, ib.

Mary of Guise (wife of James V. of
Scotland), i. 412, 414.

Mary, Princess, daughter of Charles I.,
i.524.

Mary, of Modena, ii. 43.

Mary (daughter of James II. of Eng-
land, afterwards queen), marries
William, Prince of Orange (after-
wards William III.),ii.35; brought
up a protestant, 43 ; her influence in
the Revolution of 1688, 79; ascends
the throne, 82 ; dies, 120 ; her char-
acter and influei^ce, ib.

Massachusetts, founders of, i. 649;
rebels, ii. 207, 212.

Massey, John, ii. 65.

Massinger, Philip, i. 459, 496.

Matilda, married to Henry I., i. 59;
rejoices at Anselm's reinstatement,
65 ; set aside for Stephen, 71 ; mar-
ried to Fulk, Count of Anjou, ib.;
lands in England, 73 ; enters London,
74 ; is expelled, ib.

Matthew Paris. See Paris, Matthew.

Maud. See Matilda.

Mauleon, Savary de, i. 140.

Maximilian, Duke and first Elector
of Bavaria, i. 462.

Mayflower, the, ii. 385.

Maynard, John, i. 510, 556, 563.

Mayor, Dorothy and Richard, i. 590.

Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal, i. 435, 537;



464



INDEX



his envoy to the Commonwealth,
595.

McMahon, i. 311.

Medmenham Abbey, ii. 164.

Melbourne, William Lamb, second
Viscount, ii. 355 et sq. ; his minis-
try, 358 et sq., 381.

Mellent, Robert de, i. 55 ; excommuni-
cated, 65.

Melrose Abbey, i. 409.

Melville, Andrew, i. 436, 506.

Mercenaries come to the aid of John,
1.140.

Merchants, foreign, protected by the
Great Charter, i. 135; statute of
(11 Edw. I.), 183; rival the aris-
tocracy (teinp. Henry VII.), 280.

Merchant adventurers, i. 292, 293.

Mercia, i. 6; resists Christianity, 7.

Merton, Walter de, i. 148.

Mercury, newspaper, i. 539.

Metcalfe, Charles Theophilus, Baron,
governor of Canada, ii. 398.

Methodism, influence of, ii. 163, 195,
196.

Mexico, effects of the discovery of
silver in, i. 336.

Middle ages, end of, i. 230 ; end of the
Catholic, 279.

Middleton, John Middleton, first Earl
of, his administration of Scotland,
ii. 53.

Militia, national (see also Fyrd) , re-
organized by Henry II., i. 78, 79,
176, 217.

Millenarians, i. 545.

Millenary petition, the, i. 437, 438.

Milton, John, combines Puritanism
and culture, i. 497, 540, 541 ; among
the moral anarchists, 545; on lib-
erty of conscience, 648, 549; replies
to the "Eikon Basilike," 576; is
made Latin Secretary, ib.; becomes
the state pamphleteer, ib. ; his con-
troversy with Salmasius, ib.; his
*' Areopagitica," 577; his advice to
the long parliament, 595 ; his sonnet
to Cromwell, 599; his fidelity to
Cromwell, 612 ; his advice to the
rump parliament, 647; escapes the
fate of the regicides, 8.

Minerals, of Great Britain, i. 2.



Mines, act forbidding women and
girls working in (586 Vict. c. 99),
ii. 373.

Ministers, responsibility of, to parlia-
ment {temp. Charles I.), i. 473.

Ministry of all the talents, the, ii.
305.

Minority, parliament empowers can-
cellation of laws passed during
{temp. Henry VIII. ; 28 Hen. VIII.
c. 17),i. 303.

Minstrelsy, Welsh, i. 191, 192.

Mirabeau, Count de, ii. 261.

Miracles performed by Becket, i. 95.

Mise of Lewes. See Lewes.

Missionaries, Irish, enterprise of, i.
100.

Mitton, battle of, i. 206.

Moats, disappear, i. 280.

Mogul empire, ii. 233, 411, 413.

Moleyne, Adam, Bishop of Chichester,
i. 265.

Mompesson, Sir Giles, i. 459.

Monacute. See Montague.

Monarchy, the Norman, in England,
character of, i. 24 ; functions of, 25 ;
a new element added to the right to,
60 ; the scope and functions of, in
the reign of Henry I., 67, 68 ; growth
of, its stability and power under
Henry II., 106; evidences of its
strength under Richard I., 114;
strong under John, 120; elective
system of, 147; Bracton on, 149;
Matthew Paris on, 148, 149; consti-
tutional, principles of {temp. Henry
III.), 148; De Montfort puts it in
abeyance, 162, 163; restored after
De Montfort's defeat, ib. ; the ruling
power {temp. Edward I.), 169, 175;
element of chance in, 203; constitu-
tional, vital principle of, 256; be-
comes partially despotic after the
War of the Roses, 281; the Tudor,
rested on the middle classes, 289 ;
placed on a firm and enduring basis
by Henry VII., 296; the five chief
checks on, ib. ; other checks, ib. ;
deprived of the support of Catholi-
cism {temp. Henry VIII.), 327; gov-
ernment deemed to be in the crown
{temp. Elizabeth) , 399 ; parliament-



INDEX



465



ary and Protestant {temp. James I.),
429 et sq. ; begins to cast the burden
of government on a vizier, 435 ; con-
vocation formulates the absolutist
creed, 438,439; modern idea of, 558;
effect of the Bill of Rights and the
Mutiny Act upon, ii. 85.

Monasteries, founded by Henry I., i.
67; their influence on civilization
and leai'ning (temp. Henry I.), ib. ;
their chronicles, ih. ; their influence
on church art and music, ih.; sup-
pression of (lesser 27 Hen. VIH.
c. 28, and greater 31 Hen. VIH. c.
13), 329 et sq.; Cromwell recom-

• mends dissolution of, 331 ; commis-
sioners want, 332; their use and
abuse, 331, 332; give place to uni-
versities and schools, 332; their

X value in the north, ib.; expendi-
ture of the fund derived from, 334 ;
usefulness of, 335; dissolution of,
increases vagrancy, 352 ; dissolution
of, lands derived from, 361, 362; dis-
solution of, give rise to the landed
gentry and yeomanry, 392,

Monasticism, extension of, in England
{temp. Henry I.), i. 67; flourishes
under Stephen, 75 ; beyond resusci-
tation {temp. Mary), 362.

Monck, George, first Duke of Alber-
marle. See Albermarle.

Money bills, origination of, i. 276, 401.

Money-power in politics {temp. Will-
iam HI.), ii. 318.

Monks, effect of the dissolution of the
monasteries upon, i. 336.

Monmouth, James Fitzroy {alias Scott,
alias Crofts), Duke of , invades Hol-
land, ii. 33, 44.

Monopolies, i. 398; declared illegal
{temp. James I., 21 Jac. I. c. 3),
459; abolished by the long parlia-
ment, 514.

Monroe Doctrine, the, ii. 325.

Montagu, Charles, Earl of Halifax,
one of the junto, ii. 109; his charac-
ter, ib. ; improves the coinage (7 &
8 Gul. III. c. 1), 116; funds the debt,
ib.

Montague, Edward. See Sandwich,
Earl of.

VOL. II — 30



Montague, Henry Pole, Lord, executed
for treason, i. 329, 331.

Montague, Richard, Bishop of Chi-
chester, i. 474, 482, 502.

Montereau, i. 260.

Montesquieu, Baron de la Bride et de,
i. 458

Montford, Eleanor de, i. 191.

Montfort, Robert de, i. 82.

Montfort, Simon de, i. 123, 158; an
adventurer, ib. ; highly religious,
ib. ; sent as governor to Gascony,
ib. ; leads the opponents of the king,
ib. ; calls a parliament, 162 ; is slain,
163; hymn to, ib. ; the fate of his
sons, 164, 207.

Montrose, James Graham, fifth Earl,
and first Marquis of, i. 198, 524; his
brilliant victories over Argyle, 550 ;
defeated at Philiphaugh, 552; is de-
feated at Carbisdale, 585; is exe-
cuted, ib. ; his career, ib. ; his death,
586.

Moore, Sir John, ii. 307.

Morcar, Earl, i. 20.

More, Barry, i. 311.

More, Sir Thomas, i. 281, 305, 314; his
crime, 328, 329 ; his character, 328 ;
made chancellor, 329; ^resigns, i(*. ;
is executed, ib., 330; quoted, 351.

Mortalists, 545.

Mortimer, Edmund. See March, Earl
of.

Mortimer, Roger, i. 208, 209, 210.

Mortmain, statute of (Edw. I. c. 2),
i. 179; attempts to elude, ib., 315.

Morton, John, Archbishop, i. 300, 369.

Moscow, burning of, ii. 309.

Mountjoy, Charles Blount, Earl of
Devonshire, and eighth Lord, Laud
panders to, i. 490.

Muggletonians, i. 545.

Muir, Thomas, ii. 274.

Municipal life, awakening of, i. 147.

Municipal Reform Act (5 & 6 Gul. IV.
c. 76), ii. 359 et sq.

Munster, i. 351.

Miinzer, Thomas, rising of Anabap-
tists under, 1. 348, 545.

Murphy, Father, ii. 290.

Murray, James Stuart, second Earl
of, and of Mar^ i. 415.



466



INDEX



Mutiny Act, the (1 Gul. and Mar.
c. 5), passed, ii. 84; its importance
ib. ; its effects on monarchy, 85.

Mutiny, the Indian, ii. 427 et sq.

Mysore, ii. 419, 420, 421.



N

Nadir, Shah, ii. 411 ct sq.

Nag's head, story of the consecration
at the, i. 376.

Namur, taken by William III., ii. 119.

Nana Sahib, ii. 428.

Napier, Sir Charles, ii. 414.

Napoleon Bonaparte, compared with
Cromwell, i. 642; ii. 300 et sq., 304;
his Berlin decrees, ii. 307; his
career, 308 et sq. ; falls, 309; his
influence, ib.

Naseby, battle of, i. 551 ; its decisive-
ness, ib.

National Assembly (French), the, i.
172.

National debt (temp. George III.), ii.
239 et sq. ; evils of, 240.

Nationality, i. 7; the grand aim of
Edward I., 169; becomes conscious,
171; growth of {temp. Edward III.),
219; rebels against the papacy
{tem,p. Richard II.), 231; {temp, the
Tudors),297.

Navarre (Sancho VII.), the king of,
cursed by Innocent III., i. 123.

Navigation Acts of Henry VII. (1 Hen.
VII. c. 8; 4 Hen. VII. c. 10), i. 293,
593.

Navy (see also Fleet), how manned
(<ewp. Richard I.), i. Ill; imprison-
ment of, under Edward I., 176; at-
tention paid to, by Edward III., 217 ;
mercantile, growth of {temp. Henry
VII.), 292, 306; its influence on
English liberty, 382.

Naylor, James, i. 619.

Neile, Richard, Bishop of Durham
(afterwards Archbishop of York), i.
439, 451.

Negro, the, ii. 408.

Nelson, Ho ratio, Viscount, death of, ii.
304.

Nelson, Wolfred, ii. 391, 393.

Neo-Catholicism, i. 428.



Netherlands, persecution in the, i. 35;
struggles of Protestantism in, 388;
persecution in, 442 ; almost a mon-
archy, 573.

Neuilly, Fulk de, i. 123.

Nevers, the Earl of, i. 144.

Nevill's Cross, battle of, i. 221, 407.

Neville's, the, i. 2(J9.

Neville, Sir Henry, i. 452.

New Brunswick, ii. 399, 402.

New College, i. 228.

New England, emigrants to, i. 649.

New model, the, how formed and
commanded, i. 551 ; supports the
independents, 556 ; its character,
557 ; becomes a political organiza-
tion, 559; enters London, 563; re-
fuses to disband, ib. ; marches to
Uxbridge, ib. ; denounces eleven
Presbyterian members of parlia-
ment, ib.; demands that the king
shall be brought to justice, 567.

New Orleans, British repulsed at, ii.
308.

Newark, castle of, i. 108, 144.

Newbury, battle of, i. 542; second
battle of, 550.

Newcastle (the town), commissioners
from the long parliament meet
Charles I. at, i. 553.

Newcastle, Tliomas Pelham-Holles,
Duke of, ii. 188, 189, 191, 198.

Newcastle, William Cavendish, first
Marquis (and afterwards Duke)
of, holds York for Charles I., i.
546.

Newfoundland, i. 294.

Newspapers, duty on reduced (6 & 7
Gul. IV. C.76), ii. 375.

Newton Butler, battle of, ii. 96.

Nigel, Bishop of Ely, i. 69, 72; his
views on monarchy, 106.

Nithing, meaning of, i. 10.

" No addresses," vote of, i. 565.

Nobility, a new order of, on the merg-
ing of chief into king, i. 9; {temp.
William I.) , 28, 29 ; predominance of
{te^np. Richard II.), 239 ; the old, the
part played by {temp. Henry VIII.),
304; character of, ii. 71.

Noblesse, the French, i. 172.

Nogaret, William of, i. 326.



INDEX



407



Nonconformity, political, birth of,
ii. 17.

Nonjurors, the, 11. 89-90.

Non-resistance, oath of, imposed by
statute (13 Car. II. stat. 2, c. 1), ii.
11 ; the Lords pass a bill imposing
an oath of, 37, 38.

Norfolk, Henry Charles Howard, thir-
teenth Duke of, is converted to Pro-
testantism, ii. 278.

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, second
Duke of, and Earl of Surrey (victor
of Flodden), i. 407.

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, third Duke
of, i. 324, 337.

Norfolk, Thomas (lU.) Howard, fourth
Duke of, i. 376.

Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, Duke of,
banished by Richard II., i. 242.

Norman Conquest. See Conquest, the
Norman.

Norman, pious and papal character of
the, i. 18 ; and the Saxon, compared,
22.

Normandy, the Duke of, origin of, i.
16; compared with England, 22;
falls into anarchy under Robert, 70 ;
a focus of feudal mutiny, 119; much
of the time of English kings spent
in, lb., 120; its severance from Eng-
land essential, 120.

Norris, Henry, i. 324.

Norsemen, i. 193.

North Briton, the, ii. 201.

North, Francis. See Guilford, Lord.

North, Frederick, Lord, second Earl
of Guilford, head of the government,
ii. 214; his character, ib.; coerces
the American colonies, 218, 231,
232.

Northampton, the Great Council meets
at, i. 93.

Northmen, the, in Normandy, i. 16.

Northumberland, earldom of, sold by
Richard I., i. 108.

Northumberland, John Dudley, Duke
of, his conspiracy, i. 354, 355.

Northumberland, Thomas Percy, sev-
enth Earl of, i. 376.

Northumbria, Christianity in, i. 7.

Northwest territories of Canada, the,
u. 402.



Norwich, George Lorlng, Earl of, is

banished, i. 566.
Norwich, Rett's insurrection at, i.351,

352.
Nottingham burned, i. 73 ; Charles I.

sets up his standard at, 540.
Nottingham, Daniel Finch, second

Earl of Nottingham, and sixth Earl

of Winchilsea, supports the Whigs,

ii. 105, 106, 130.
Nova Scotia, ii. 399, 4()2.
Nunneries, usefulness of, i. 332.
Nye, Philip, i. 535, 546.



Oates, Titus, his infamy and its conse-
quences, ii. 41.

Occasional Conformity Act, the, ii.
130, 151; repealed (5 Geo I. c. 4),
166.

O'Connell, Daniel, his appearance and
character, ii. 333 et sq., 346, 378.

October Club, the, ii. 145.

Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, i. 40, 44, 91.

O'Dogherty, rebellion of, i. 422.

O'Kane, Donald, i. 311.

Old Sarum, ii. 320.

Oldcastle, Sir John, i. 256, 257.

O'Leary, Arthur, ii. 299.

Olivarez, Gasparo de Guzman, Count
of, i. 435.

O'Neill, Owen Roe, i. 580.

Ontario, ii. 387, 401, 403.

Opposition, a parliamentary, regularly
organized (temp. Charles II.), ii. 36.

O'Quillan, i. 311.

Orangeism, ii. 334; introduced into
Canada, 400.

Oratory, parliamentary (temp. Eliza-
beth), i. 398; begins to be a power
in politics, i. 520.

Ordeal in trials, i. 10 ; its use restricted,
81, 82; in Henry II. 's legislation,
119.

Orders of Knighthood, i. 211.

Ordinances, imposed upon Edward II.
by a committee of lords and pre-
lates, i. 205: their provisos, ib.,
206; are overthrown, 207,208; the
concessions demanded by them prac-
tically confirmed, 208.



468



INDEX



Orford, Edward Russell, Earl of. See
Russell, Edward.

Orford, Robert Walpole, Earl of. See
Walpole, Robert.

Orkney, Elizabeth Villiers, Countess
of, laud grants to, ii. 123.

Orleans, the Regent, succeeds Louis
XIV., ii. 174.

Orlton, Adam, Bishop of Hereford, i.
209.

Ormonde, James Butler, twelfth Earl,
first Marquis, and first Duke of,
deputy in Ireland, i. 579, 580; re-
turns to London, 613; ii. 4, 34; im-
peached, 165, 166.

Orombelli, Michael, i. 325.

Orrery, Roger Boyle, first Earl of.
See Broghill, Baron.

Otho IV., of Brunswick, i. 123.

Otho, papal legate, i. 156.

Oude, annexation of, ii. 427.

Oudenarde, battle of, ii. 143.

Overbury, Sir Thomas, i. 457 et sq.

Overbury trial, the, i. 436, 451 etsg.

Oxford, John de Vere, Earl of, i. 285.

Oxford, Robert Harley, Earl of. See
Harley.

Oxford (town), the base of Charles I.'s
operations, i. 536; surrenders, 552.

Oxford, University of, birth of, i. 58,
147 ; students of, assault of the, 156 ;
side with De Montfort, 160.



Paget, Sir William, quoted, re Somer-
set's policy, i. 354.
Paget, William, first Baron Paget of

Beaudesert, Secretary of State, i.

302, 304, 360, 361.
Paine, Tom, ii. 272.
Palatinate, the recovery of (temp.

Charles I.), i. 470, 471, 478 et sq.,

494.
Pale, the Anglo-Norman, in Ireland, i.

309 et sq. ; atrocities of, 418.
Palmerston, Henry John Temple, third

Viscount, ii. 317.
Pamphlets {temp. Elizabeth), i. 397;

shoals of {temp. Charles I.), 539;

{temp. William III.) ii. 115.
Pandulph, papal legate, i. 127, 131, 133,

142.



Panzani, Gregorio, papal envoy, i.502.

Papacy, the {temp. William I.), i. 34
et sq. ; morality of the, ib. et sq. ; has
always been Italian, 35; its en-
croachments in. England {temp.
Henry I.), 67; its resort to force,
97; always despotic, 131; practises
extortion on English clergy {temp.
Henry III.), 155; the zenith of its
usurpation, 156, 157; unpopularity
of {temp. Henry III.), 177; its pre-
tensions {temp. Edward I.), 178;
strives to dominate England, ih. ;
subjection to, being shaken off, 219,
220; transferred to Avignon, 219;
its rapid advancement between the
reigns of Henry II. and John, 122;
causes contributing to this, ib. ; its
claims {temp. John), ib.; becomes
the tool of France, 231 ; degradation
of, ib. ; schism in the, 248; corrup-
tion of, 312; schisms in, 313; always
foreign to England, 361.

Papineau, Louis Jean, ii. 391, 393.

Papists, disabled from sitting in parlia-
ment (30 Car. IL stat. 2, c. 1), ii. 36.

Paris, Matthew, i. 118; on the elective
system of monarchy, 148, 149.

Parish system, i. 11.

Parker, Matthew, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, i. 376.

Parker, Samuel, Bishop of Oxford, ii.
65.

Parliament, germs of, in the Great
Charter, i. 136; birth of, 145; the
name given to the assembly of barons
and prelates, 154 ; knights summoned
to, 161 ; representation of the people
in {temp. Henry III.), 162 ; De Mont-
fort's (Jan. 28, 1865), character of,
165 ; representation in {temp. Ed-
ward I.), 170 et sq.; our modern,
traceable to Edward I., 173 ; its pri-
mal function of, under Edward I.,
175; how this was developed, ib.,
176 ; demands redress of grievances



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