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383, 3f^, 461.
Shales, Henry, Commissary-General,

his roguery, ii. 102.



Sharp, John, Archbishop of York,
murdered, ii. 24.

Shaxton, Nicholas, Bishop of Salis-
bury, driven from his see, i. 338.

Sheep farms, increase and profits of,
i. 350.

Shelburne, William Petty, Earl of, and
first Marquis of Lansdowne, his
character, ii. 231.

Sheldon, Gilbert, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, a leader ii. 20.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, ii. 318.

Sheriff, the, in Saxon times, i. 10, 30.

Sheriffmuir, battle of, ii. 164.

Shilling, value of {temp. Henry VIII.),
i. 336.

Ship-money, origin of, i. 492; re-im-
posed by Charles I., ib. ; abolished
by the long parliament, 514.

Shire, the, i. 30.

Shire-reeve. See Sheriff.

Shires, division of the country into,
i. 9.

Shrewsbury, Anna Maria, Countess of,
seduced by the Duke of Buckingham,
ii. 29.

Shrewsbury, Francis Talbot, eleventh
Earl of, killed in a duel, ii. 29.

Shrewsbury, Charles Talbot, twelfth
Earl, and Duke of, ii. 71.

Shrievalties, the, i. 82.

Sibthorp, Robert, i. 475.

Sidmouth, Lord. See Addington.

Sidney, Algernon, i. 556, 612; ii.36,48.

Sidney, Henry, ii. 70.

Sidney, Sir Philip, i. 368, 381.

Sidneys, the origin and politics of, 1.
SM.

Siete Partidas, i. 181.

Signories, the French, in Canada, ii.
390, 399.

Sikhs, the, ii. 413, 425.

Simeon trustees, the, i. 501.

Simnel, Lambert, i. 248, 282.

Sinking fund, eflticacy of, ii. 240.

Six Acts, the, ii. 328.

Six Articles, statute of (35 Hen. VIII.
c. 5), i. 337 ; repealed (1 Edw. VI. c.
12), 341.

Skippon, Philip, i. 541.

Slave trade, in Saxon times, i. 15 ; Pitt
and the, ii. 246 et sq.



INDEX



477



Slavery, abolition of (3 and 4 Gul. IV.
c. 73), ii. 370, 371; in Jamaica, 407
et sq.

Slawata, William von, i. 461.

Slingsby, Sir Henry, his plot, i. 612.

Sluys, battle of, i. 212, 217.

Smeaton, Mark, i. 324, 325.

Smerwick, battle of, i. 418.

Smith, Sir Thomas, i. 286.

Society, demoralized by the French
wars, i. 231 ; character of (temp.
Henry VI.), 262, 263, 270.

Soldier, the British (temp. George III.) ,
ii. 270 et sq.

Solemn league and covenant, the, i.
505 et sq.

Somers, John, Lord, his character, ii.
109, 121, 130.

Somerset, Countess of. See Howard,
Frances.

Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, second
Duke of, i. 265.

Somerset, Edward Seymour, first Earl
of Hertford, and Duke of (the Pro-
tector), i. 343 et sq.; sympathizes
with the Commons, 353; his fall and
rise, 355; his execution, ib. ; results
of his death, 357, 411.

Somerset house, i. 344.

Somerset, Robert Carr, Earl of, i. 434,
451 et sq.

Soul-sleepers, i. 545.

South Africa, ii. 406.

South Sea Bubble, the, ii. 169, 170.

Southampton (town), i. 536.

Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley,
fourth Earl of. Clarendon's col-
league, his character, ii. 4.

Southampton, Thomas Wriothesley,
fifth Earl of, i. 570.

Southey, Robert, ii. 272.

Spain, decrepitude of (temp. James I.),
i. 426; quarrel with (temp. George
II.), ii. 183 etsq.

Spanish marriage (Prince Charles's
projected), the, Commons protest
against, i. 464 et sq. ; is relin-
quished, 469.

Spanish succession, the (temp. William
III.), ii. 125 etsq.

Speaker, the, of the House of Com-
mons, i. 225.



Spenser, Edmund, i. 368, 382.

Sprat, Bishop, ii. 65, 69.

Squire, the, i. 379; (temp. George I.),

ii. 160, 161.
Stafford, William Howard, Viscount,

executed, ii. 41.
Stamford Bridge, battle of, i. 19, 140.
Stamp duty, imposed on pamphlets and

newspapers (10 Ann. c. 19), ii. 152.
Stamp tax, Grenville's, ii. 207; re-
pealed, 209, 210.
Stanhope, James, first Earl Stanhope,

leader of the government, ii. 168

et sq.
Stanley, Sir William, i. 283.
Stapleton, Sir Philip, i. 510, 556, 563.
Star Chamber, court of, instituted

(3 Hen. VIII. c. 1), i. 285 et sq., 296,

401; enlarges its jurisdiction, 491;

abolished (16 Car. I. c. 10), 515.
States General, the, i. 172.
Statesmen (temp. Elizabeth), i. 369

et sq.
Steele, Richard, expelled from the

House of Commons, ii. 152.
Steinkirk, battle of, ii. 119.
Stephen, takes the throne, i. 71 ; his

character, 71, 72; his reign divided

into three periods, 72 ; defeated and

taken prisoner, 74 ; gets free, ib.
Stigand, Archbishop, i. 14, 18, 31.
Stirling, i. 197.
Stoke, battle of, i. 282.
Strachan, J., Bishop of Toronto, ii.

392.
Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl

of, i. 486 ; Lord Deputy of Ireland,

487 et sq.; his "thorough" policy,

488 et sq., 494 ; recalled from Ireland,
507; impeached, 513, 616 et sq.;
executed, 521.

Stratford, Robert, Bishop of Chiches-
ter, i. 223.

Striguil, Richard de Clare, second Earl
of Pembroke and ("Strongbow")f
i. 101, 102.

Strode, William, i. 510.

Strongbow. See Striguil.

Strype, John, i. 380, 395, 397.

Stuart, Lady Arabella, i. 403.

Stuarts, the, i. 302.

Stubbe, John, i. 397.



478



INDEX



Suarez, Francisco, i. 425.

Subinfeudation, i. 177.

Subsidies, 1. 227.

Succession to the throne, parliamen-
tary settlement of, i. 243; regulated
(temp. Henry VIII.) (26 Hen. VIII.
c. 2; 28 Hen. VIII. c. 7; 35 Hen.
VIII. c. 1), 317, 320, 327, 329;
{temp. Anne) (6 Ann. c. 7 and 8 Ann.
c. 15), ii. 139; right of parliament
to deal with, 43.

Sudbury, Simon of. Archbishop of
Canterbury, i. 236.

Suffolk, Edmund de la Pole, Earl of,
i. 284; beheaded, 302, 303.

Suffolk, house of, i. 403.

Suffolk, William de la Pole, fourth
Earl, and first Duke of, i. 264, 280.

Summons, to attend the Council, forms
of, i. 136.

Sunderland, Robert Spencer, second
Earl of, succeeds Danby, ii. 39; sup-
ports the exclusion bill, 43.

Superiorities, ii. 321, 342.

Supplies, granting of, far-reaching in-
fluence of, i. 175.

Supremacy, act of (1 Eliz. c. 1), i. 329,
374.

Surajah Dowlah, ii. 414.

Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of, i.
305,340.

Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of.
See Norfolk.

Sussex, weald of, i. 294.

Suttee, ii. 424.

Sutton, Archbishop, ii. 363.

Swinford, Catherine, i. 265.

Switzerland, renounces the papal
faith, i. 313; Protestantism and
Catholicism in, 423, 425 ; the cantons
of, a mere league, 573.

Synods, i. 10.



Tallage, i. 25 ; renunciation of, 133, 186,

187.
Talleyrand-P^rigord, ii. 28.
Tantallon Castle, i. 4a5.
Tasso, Torquato, i. 382.
Tax, poll. See Poll Tax.
Taxation {temp. Henry II.), i. 84;

constitutional resistance to, 114, 116 ;



{temp. John), 125; change in mode
of, 226 et sq. ; {temp. Charles II.), ii.
9; {temp. George I.), 158, 159.

Taylor, Jeremy, Bishop of Down and
Connor, i. 470.

Templars, the, i. 92; dissolution of,
203, 332.

Temple, George Nugent-Temple-Gren-
ville, second Earl (afterwards Mar-
quis of Buckingham), ii. 235.

Temple, Sir William, brings about the
Triple Alliance {temp. Charles II.),
ii. 33.

Tenants-in-chief, i. 29, 138, 173, 177.

Tennyson, Alfred, 1. 192.

Tenure, military, i. 30.; abuses of, 134;
villain, 295, 297.

Test Act (25 Car. II. c. 2) , ii. 31 ; re-
pealed (9 Geo. IV. c. 17), 332.

Teutonic spirit, the, i. 41.

Tewkesbury, battle of, i. 268.

Thane, i. 9.

Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury,
i. 75, 87.

Theodore, of Tarsus, organizes the
church, i. 11.

Theresa, St., 1. 424.

Thistle, Order of the, i. 211.

Thomas Aquinas. See Aquinas.

Thomas a Becket. See Becket.

Thomson, Edward Charles Poulett,
Baron Sydenham, governor of Can-
ada, ii. 398.

Thuggee, ii. 425.

Thurlow, Edward, first Baron, ii. 253.

Tiers Mat, i. 172.

Tilbury, i. 391.

Tilly, Count von, i. 271, 462, 472, 495.

Times, the London, ii. 368.

Tinchebrai, battle of, 1. 70.

Tippoo, ii. 420.

Tiptoft. See Worcester, John Tiptoft,
Earl of.

Tithe, payment of, in Saxon times, i.
11; embezzled (iemp. Henry VIII.),
335; commutation of (6 and 7 Gul.
IV. c. 71),ii. 364.

Tithing, the, i. :iO.

Toleration Act {temp. William III.),
(1 Gul. and Mar. c. 18), ii. 87.

Tomline, Sir George Pretyman, Bishop
of Winchester, ii. 363.



INDEX



479



Tone, Wolfe, ii. 285.

Tonnage and poundage, i. 478, 492.

Tooke, John Home, ii. 27(5, 319.

Torgau, battle of, ii. 194.

Torture, judicial, renunciation of, i.
137; introduced under Henry VI.,
296; sanctioned in Scotland, 407.

Tory democracy, ii. 1(37, 1()8.

Tory, first use and origin of the name,
ii. 45.

Tostig, i. 19.

Tournaments, forbidden by Edward
n., i. 205.

Tours, battle of the plain of, i. 107.

Towns {temp. William I.), i. 38; fre-
quent sacking of {temp. Stephen),
73, 74; advance of {temp. Richard
I.), 115; attain corporate existence,
147; side with De Montfort, 160;
{temp. Henry VII.), 290 et sq.;
Scotch, growth of, retarded, 408,
409.

Townshend, Charles, leader of the
government, ii. 1(58 et sq. ; taxes tea
in the colonies, 211, 212.

Towton, battle of, i. 267, 269, 271.

Tractarian movement, 11. 365, 366.

Trade, extension of, under Henry II.,
i. 84 ; secured by the Great Charter,
135; its chief seat {temp. Henry
VII.), 294; obstacles to {temp.
Henry VIII.), 336; condition of
{temp. Elizabeth), 379; {temp.
Charles II.), ii. 51.

Trafalgar, battle of, i. 390; ii. 304.

Trailbaston, writ of, 1. 184.

Treason, defined (25 Edw. III. stat. 5,
c. 2),i.225.

Treason laws {temp. Henry VIII.) (26
Hen. VIII. c. 13), i. 202, 303; re-
pealed (1 Edw. VI. c. 12), 352; new
added (5 and 6 Edw. VI. c. 11), ib.,
355 et sq.; repealed (1 Mar. c. 1),
359 ; severity of, increased (13 Car.
II. Stat. 1, c. 1), 11; improved, 82,
83; amended (7 Ann. c. 21), 130.

Treasonable Practices Act, the (36
Geo. III. c. 7), ii. 273.

Treaties, commercial {temp. Henry
VII.), i. 293.

Trent, council of, i. 426.

Treves, holy coat of, i. 334.



Trevor, Sir John, made speaker, ii.

113; 165.
Trial by battle, i. 28 ; by ordeal, ib.
Trial by jury, germ of, i. 80, 81.
Trials, form of {temp. Henry II.), i.

80 et sq. ; by one's peers, 174.
Tribalism, Irish, i. 101.
Tribuqals, ecclesiastical and secular,

their respective spheres {temp.

Henry II.), i. 86.
Tridentine faith, i. 425.
Triennial Act, repealed (16 Car. II. c.

1), ii. 10; {temp. William III.), (6

and 7 Gul. and Mar. c. 2), ii. 110.
Triple Alliance, the {temp. Charles

II.), ii. 33.
Tromp, Martin Harperszoon van, i.

593.
Tucker, Josiah, Dean of Gloucester,

quoted, ii. 208.
Tunstall, Cuthbert, Bishop of London,

i. 365, 366.
Turgot, A.-R.-J., ii. 259.
Twenge, Sir Robert, i. 156, 177.
Twiss, William, i. 534.
Tyler, Wat, occupies London, i. 236,

351.
Tyrconnel, Richard Talbot, Earl of, i.

420; ii. 62; calls a parliament at

Dublin, 94; which passes an Act of

Attainder, 95.
Tyrone, Hugh O'Neil, Earl of, i. 420.
Tyrrell, Walter, i. 56.



U

Ulster, lands in, forfeited, i. 422.
Uniformity acts (2 and 3 Edw. VI. c.

1; 5and6Edw.VLc.l),i. 343,346;

(1 Eliz. c. 2), 374; (14 Car. II. c. 4),

ii. 15, 87.
United Empire Loyalists, the, ii. 387,

392.
United Irishmen, the, ii. 284.
Universities, growth of, i. 147.
Universities, Scotch, i. 409.
University of London, ii. 366.
Urban II., Pope, i. 47.
Usher, James, Archbishop of Armagh,

i. 500: ii. 14.
Usury law (^ernp. Henry VIII.), i. 336.
" Utopia," Sir Thomas More's, i. 328.



480



INDEX



Utraquism, i. 425.
Utrecht, treaty of, ii. 150.



Vagabondage, i. 336, 352, 353.

Vagrancy, laws respecting, i. 237;
{temp. Henry VI.-Richard III.) , 278 ;
necessity of, 336; {temp. Edward
VI.), 349, 350; cruelty of, 353.

Valence, William de, i. 153.

Van Dyck, Sir Anthony, i. 469.

Vane, Sir Henry (the elder), his notes
at Strafford's impeachment, i. 517,
518.

Vane, Sir Henry (the younger) , 1. 510 ;
a member of the council of state, 574,
575, 578; execution of, ii. 8.

Vaughan, Sir Thomas, i. 273.

Vellore, massacre at, ii. 427.

Venner, Thomas, heads an insurrec-
tion, ii. 19.

Vere, Robert de, Earl of Oxford, Mar-
quis of Dublin, and Duke of Ireland,
1. 239.

Verneuil, i. 261.

Vestry, the, i. 11.

Vezelay, i. 95.

Victoria, Queen, ascends the throne,
ii. 381.

Villain, the, his condition (temp. Will-
iam I.), i. 38, 39; what the Great
Charter did for him, 138.

Villanage {temp. William I.), i. 38, 39;
gradually disappears, 237.

Villani, Giovanni, i. 217.

Villeneuve, Admiral, ii. 305.

Vinegar Hill, camp at, ii. 290.

Vineis, Peter de, i. 126, 181.

Viscount, origin of the title, i. 30.

Viterbo, i. lf>4.

Vowel, Peter, his plot, i. 612.

Voyages of discovery, i. 294.



W

Wager of battle lingered long (abol-
ished, 59 Geo. III. c. 46), i. 348.

Wages, increased after tlie black
death, i. 233; regulated, 237, 278.

Wagram, campaign of, ii. 309.

Wakefield, battle of, i. 267.



Wakefield, Edward Gibbon, ii. 395.

Wakefield, E.,ii. 291.

Walcheren expedition, ii. 306.

Waldenses, persecution of. See Savoy.

Wales, the Norman Conquest advances
towards, i. 189 et sq.; its bards,
191, 192; though annexed, not in-
corporated, 192; incorporated with
England (27 Hen. VIII. c. 26), 306,
308.

Walker, Obadiah, ii. 65.

Wallace, William, defeats Cressing-
ham at Stirling, i. 197 ; invades Eng-
land, ib.; is given up, i. 198 ; executed,
ib.; his deserts, ib.

Wallenstein, i. 271, 472, 495.

Waller, Edmund, conspires for Charles,
i. 541.

Waller, Sir, William, his army de-
stroyed, i. 541.

Wallington, Nehemiah, a typical Puri-
tan, i. 499.

Walloons, the Catholicism among, 1.
425.

Walpole, Robert, rising to power, ii.
168 etsq.; the first prime minister,
170, 171; his birth and character,
172 et sq. ; his policy, 173 et sq., 176
et sq. ; financial legislation, 178 et
sq. ; declares war on Spain, 184; his
declining influence, 184, 185, 186.

Walsingham, Sir Francis, i. 368, 378,
383, 391.

Walter, Cardinal, Bishop of Albano,
i. 53.

Walter, Hubert, Archbishop of Can-
terbury, i. 114.

Walter, John, ii. 368.

Walters, Lucy, ii. 44.

Waltheof, i. 28; put to death, 39.

War of the Roses, i. 268 et sq.

Warbeck, Perkin, i. 275, 282, 284,
408.

Wardship, i. 45, 445 et sq.

Warfare, changes in mode of, i. 217,
218.

War-hawks, the, ii. 308.

War power, political element in, 1.
210, 217.

Warrenne, Earl, i. 177.

Warwick, Edward, Earl of, executed,
i. 284.



INDEX



4dl



Warwick, Richard Beauchamp, Earl
of, i. 263.

Warwick, Richard Neville, Earl of,
and of Salisbury (the " King-
maker"), i. 267; his extravagance,
269; his influence, 270.

Warwick, Sir Philip, i. 511.

Warwick, Thomas Beauchamp, Earl
of, 241.

Washington, George, ii. 216 et sq.

Washington (town), taken by the
British, ii. 308.

Watch and ward, i. 184.

Waterloo, battle of, i. 390.

Watt, James, ii. 255.

Wayneflete, William, Bishop of Win-
chester, i. 274.

Wedderburn, Alexander. See Lough-
borough, Lord.

Wedge wood, ii. 255.

Wellesley, Arthur. See Wellington,
Duke of.

Wellesley, Marquis, Governor-General
of India, ii. 420 et sq.

Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, first
Duke of, ii. 307 ; his political char-
acter, 315 et sq. ; former minister,
331, 421.

Welsh disestablishment, i. 5.

Welsh language, the, preserved, i.
308.

Wentworth, Peter, i. 398.

Went worth, Thomas. See Strafford,
Earl of.

Were-gelt, i. 10.

Weshington, Walter de, i. 160.

Wesley, John, ii. 163, 232.

Wessex, the germ of the United King-
dom, i. 6.

West Indian colonies, ii. 406.

Westminster Abbey, i. 152.

Westminster, a royal seat, i. 26.

Westminster Assembly of Divines,
i. 534.

Westmoreland, Charles Neville, sixth
Earl of, i. 376.

Weston, Richard, first Earl of Part-
land, his ministry, i. 484.

Weston, Sir Francis, i. 324.

Wetherell, Sir Charles, ii. 345.

Wexford, slaughter at, i. 581 ; rebellion
at, ii. 290.

VOL. II — 31



Wharton, Thomas, Earl of, his char-
acter, ii. 108, 109, 130.

Whig, first use and origin of the name,
ii. 45.

Whigs, the, in power (temp. George I.
and II.), ii. 165 et sq. ; split into sec-
tions, 188 et sq.

Whitby, synod of, i. 7.

White Hart, badge of the, i. 246.

Whitecoats, the, i. 547.

Whitelock, Bulstrode, i. 510,594; his
description of Cromwell's inaugura-
tion, 618; sent as ambassador to
Sweden, i. 632.

Whitgift, John, Archbishop of Canter-
bury, i. 397, 428.

Whiting, Richard, Abbot of Glaston,
i. 333.

Whittingtons, the, i. 291.

Wicklow, rebellion at, ii. 290.

Wilberforce, William, ii. 237; and the
slave trade, 247 etsq., 268, 280, 370.

Wildman, John, i. 556.

Wilfrid tries to introduce high church
principles, i. 10.

Wilkes, John, "his character, ii. 201;
assails Bute, ib.; expelled from the
House, 202, 227.

William I. (the Conqueror), his birth,
i. 16; his ambition, 18; defeats
Harold, 19, 20; is crowned, ib. ; in-
troduces the feudal system into Eng-
land, 23 ; makes a survey of the
kingdom , 27, 28 ; his mode of dealing
with local institutions, 30 ; declines
to do homage for his kingdom, 32 ; a
strong and good ruler, 39; his end,
40.

William II., i. 42 et sq. ; abuses his
prerogatives, 46; falls sick, 47; re-
covers, 50 ; sets out for Normandy,
51 ; recognizes Urban, 53; sends en-
voys to Rome, ib.; is killed in the
New Forest, 56.

William III. (as Prince of Orange),
i. 243, 26<), 544; marries, ii. 35; in-
vited to England, 70, 71 ; his char-
acter, ib., 100 et sq.; ascends the
throne, 82; (as king) wins the
battle of tlie Boyne, 97.

William IV., ascends the throne, ii.
340 ; dies, 381.



482



INDEX



William (son of Henry I.), drowned,
i. 71.

William, Bishop-Elect of Winchester,
1.63.

William, Earl Marshal. See Pem-
broke, William Marshall, Earl of.

William of Carileph, Bishop of Dur-
ham, i. 44, 52.

William of Longchamp, Bishop of
Ely, i. Ill, 115.

William of Nogaret. See Nogaret.

William of Warelwast, i. 53, 64'.

William of Wykeham, Bishop of Win-
chester, i. 228, 230.

William the Lion, king of Scotland,
invades England, i. 103; is taken
prisoner, ib. ; does homage for his
kingdom, 104.

Williams, John, Archbishop of York,
i. 486, 500.

Williams, Roger, i. 548.

Wilmington, Spencer Compton, Lord.
See Compton.

Wiltshire, William le Scrope, first
Earl of, 1. 239.

Winchelsey, Robert, Archbishop of
Canterbury, i. 180, 186, 188.

Winchester, a royal seat, i. 26, 38.

Winchester, John Paulet, fifth Mar-
quis of, i. 538.

Winchester School, i. 228.

Winchester, statute of, i. 176.

Windebank, Sir Francis, i. 514.

Windham, William, ii. 275, 280, 286.

Windsor Castle, i. 228.

Winwood, Sir Ralph, i. 452.

Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, i. 200.

Wishart, George, i. 412.

Witan, the, i. 8, 18, 30.

Witchcraft, in Scotland, i. 414.

Witt, Jan de, ii. 33.

Wolseley, Sir Charles, i. 611.

Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal, i. 303
et aq., 316 et sq. ; his fall, 321 et sq.,
329, 332, 369.

Women, chivalric regard for, 1. 211;



their demeanour (temp. Edward

111.), ib.
Woodville, Elizabeth, i. 267, 272.
Wool, exported from England, i. 146,

218 ; imports laid on, 222.
Wooton. See Wotton.
Worcester, battle of, i. 589.
Worcester, John Tiptoft, Earl of, i.

270.
Wordsworth, William, ii. 272.
Workhouses, ii. 368. i

Wotton, Nicholas, i. 452.
Wottou, Sir Henry, quoted, i. 307.
Wriothesly, Thomas. See Southamp-
ton.
Writs, legal, lasting form given to, i.

182.
Wyatt, Sir Thomas, rebellion of, i.

359, 363.
Wycliife, John, i. 219, 225, 228, 231 et

sq., 251 et sq., 313 et sq.
Wyndham, Sir William, ii. 165, 168.



Yelverton, Sir Christopher, i. 398.

Yeomanry, growth of, i. 294, 295,
392.

Yeomen of the guard, i. 297, 306.

York (city), i. 38; outrage upon Jews
in, 110, 274, 546.

York, Edward, Duke of (afterwards
Edward IV.) (q. v.), his victories, i.
267 €tsq.,2Tl.

York, James Stuart, Duke of (after-
wards James II.) (g. v.).

York, Richard, Duke of, i. 266, 267,
274 et sq., 281.

York, the line of, i. 269.

Ypres, taken by Philip II., i. 129.



Ziska, John, i. 425.
Zutphen, battle of, i. 381.
Zwingli, Ulrich, i. 313, 394.



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