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GILDERSLEEVES



LATIN GRAMMAR



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED



B. L. GILDERSI^EEVE

PROFB88OR OF GREEK IN THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
AND

GONZALEZ LODGE



UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY

NEW YORK BOSTON NEW ORLEANS

AND LONDON



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THE MEW YORK
PUBLIC LIBRARY

890391A

ASTOR, LENOX AND
11LDEN FOUNDATIONS .
H 1937 *- \



Copyright, 1894, by
UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING CO.



Entered at Stationers 1 Hall
#** 1746



• • ••



Press of J. J. Little & Co.
Astor Place, New York



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PREFACE.



In the preparation of this third edition of Gilder-
sleeve's Latin Grammar, the office of the senior collabo-
rator has been chiefly advisory, except in the Syntax. In
the Syntax, Professor Lodge is responsible for nearly every-
thing that pertains to the history of usage, but for all
deviations from the theory of the old grammar we bear a
joint responsibility. During the progress of the work we
have been cheered and aided by the encouragement and
advice of distinguished scholars and experienced teachers,
and whereas the Preface of the old grammar mentioned
but two faithful helpers, Professor Thomas R. Price and
Professor William E. Peters, the present work has had
the advantage of liberal cooperation.

Especial acknowledgment must be made of the attention
paid to every detail by W. Gordon McCabe, Esq., Head-
master of the University School, Richmond, Va., himself a
Latinist of exact and penetrating scholarship, and by his
accomplished assistant, Mr. 0. W. Bain. Professor Minton
Warren, of the Johns Hopkins University, has lent us
the aid of his wide and accurate knowledge of the history
of the Latin language, and Professor Chapman Maupin,
to one of the revisers of Gildersleeve's Latin Primer,






has given us the benefit of his practical experience and
^ his acute observation. Professor E. M. Pease, of Leland
J^ Stanford Junior University, whose removal to the distant
West interrupted a collaboration which promised valuable
results, has, in spite of his arduous labors as teacher and
editor, put at our service his notes on the Grammar of 1872.
Among the scholars who have read the book in proof
or advance sheets, and who have suggested improvements



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IV PREFACE.

here and corrections there, we would gratefully mention
Principal Bancroft, of Phillips Andover Academy, Presi-
dent Jesse, of the University of Missouri, Professor M. W.
Humphreys, of the University of Virginia, K. W. Tun-
stall, M.A., of Norfolk, Va., Professor Wm. C. Lawton,
of Philadelphia, Professor W. P. Mustard, of Haverford
College, Professor J. E. Goodrich, of the University of
Vermont, Professor Jas. H. Dillard, of Tulane University,
and Professor J. W. Kedway, of New York. Finally we
desire to express our joint thanks to Dr. C. W. E. Miller,
Associate of the Johns Hopkins University, who has laid us
both under especial obligations by his careful studies in the
difficult chapter of Versification.

As in the Preface to the old grammar, so in the Preface
to the new, it is considered out of place to enlarge on the
excellence of the methods followed ; but as the new gram-
mar embraces a multitude of details that were not taken up
in the old grammar, it has been thought fit that Professor
Lodge should indicate the sources of the notes with which
he has enriched a manual that has held its modest place for
more than a quarter of a century.

B. L. Gildersleeve,
, « <onJ Gonzalez Lodge.

August 1, 1894.



The following supplementary note may serve to embody a partial
bibliography of the more important works used in this revision, and
some necessary explanations of the method :

Fairly complete bibliographies of works on Latin Etymology
and Syntax may be found in Reisig's Vorlesungen fiber lateinische
Sprachwi88en8chaft (new edition, by Hagen, Schmalz, and Landgraf,
1881-1888), and in the Lateinische Grammatik of Stolz and Schmalz
(in Muller's Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft; 2d
edition, 1890). Important also are the Grammars of KUhner (1877,
1878)* and Roby (1881, 1882) ; though many statements in both, but
especially in the former, must be corrected in the light of more recent
study. Some indications of more modern theories may be found in

* Anew Historical Grammar, by Stolz, Schmalz, Landgraf, and Wageneb, was
announced by Tsubner in 1891.



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PREFACE. V

the Erlduterungen zur lateinischen Grammatik of Dekcke (1803).
Many matters of importance both in Etymology and Syntax are
treated in the Arehiv f&r lateinische Lexikographie, and the construc-
tions with individual words are often well discussed in Krebs' Anti-
barbarus der lateinischen Sprache (6th edition, by Schmalz, 1886).

For the accentuation and pronunciation of Latin we have also
Corssen's Aussprache, Vocalismus und Betonung der lateinischen
Sprache (1868, 1870), and Seelmann's Die Aussprache des Latein (1885).

For the Etymology we must refer to Bucheler's Grundriss der
lateinischen Declination (2d edition, by Windekilde, 1879) and to
Schweizer-Sidler's Lateinische Grammatik (1888) ; also to many
articles in various journals, most of which are given by Stolz. Indis-
pensable is Neue's Formenlehre der lateinischen Sprache, of which the
second volume of the third edition has already appeared (1892) and the
first parts of the third volume (1894), under the careful revision of
Wagener; also Georges' Lexikon der lateinischen Wortformen (1890).

For the Formation of Words and the relation of Latin forms to those
of the related languages we have Henry's Precis de Grammaire Com-
parte and Brugmann's Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik, both
now accessible in translations. On these, in connection with Schweizer-
SidLer, the chapter on the Formation of Words has been based.

In the historical treatment of the Syntax we must still rely in large
measure on Draeger's Historische Syntax der lateinischen Sprache
(2d edition, 1878, 1881), faulty and inaccurate though it often is :
many of the false statements have been corrected on the basis of more
recent individual studies by Schmalz ; but even Schmalz is not always
correct, and many statements of his treatise have been silently emended
in the present book. For the theoretical study of some problems of
Latin Syntax Haase's Vorlesungen fiber lateinische Sprachmssenschaft
(1880) should not be overlooked. Since the appearance of the second
edition of Schmalz, in 1890, considerable progress has been made in
the various journals and other publications, as may be seen from
Deecke's summary in Bursian's Jahresbericht for 1893, Every effort
has been made to incorporate in this grammar the main results of
these studies as far as practicable. We may also draw attention to
the following important articles, among others, some of which are
mentioned in the books above referred to :

Wolfflin's numerous articles in the Arehiv ; Thielmann's articles
in the Arehiv on habere with Perfect Participle Passive, and on the
Reciprocal Relation ; Landgraf's articles on the Figura Etymologica,
in the second volume of the Acta Seminarii Erlangensis, and on the
Future Participle and the Final Dative, in the Arehiv; Hale's treatise
on The Cum Constructions, attacking the theories of Hoffmann (Latein-
ische Zeitpartikeln, 1874) and LUbbert (Die Syntax von Quom, 1869);

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VI PREFACE.

Hoffmann's reply to Hale (1891), and Wetzel's Der Streit zwischen
Hoffmann und Hale (1892); Dahl's Die lateinische Partikel at (1882),
with Gutjahr-Probst's Der Gebrauch von ut bei Terenz (1888) ; Zim-
mermann's article on quod und quia im dlteren Latein (1880); Scherer's
article on quando, in Studemund's Studien ; Morris's articles on the
Sentence Question in Ptautus and Terence in the A.J. P. (vols. x. and
xi.) ; Hale's articles on the Sequence of Tenses in the A. J. P. (vols. viii.
and ix.), containing a discussion of the earlier Literature ; Elmer's
articles on the Latin Prohibitive in A.J. P. (vol. xv.)

A bibliography of the treatises on Prosody and Versification may
be found in Gleditsch's treatise in the second volume of Muller's
Handbuch ; this, with Plessis' Metrique Orecque et Latine (1889), has
been made the basis of the chapter on Prosody ; but in the treatment
of early metres, regard has been had to Klotz (Altrdmische Metrik,
1890), and to Lindsay's recent papers on the Saturnian in the A. J. P.
(vol. xiv.). In the matter of the order of words we have followed
Weil's treatise on the Order of Words, translated by Super (1887).

The question of the correct measurement of hidden quantities is
still an unsettled one in Latin ; for the sake of consistency the usage
of Marx, Hulfsbuchlein fur die Aussprache der lateinischen Vokale
in positionslangen Silben (2d edition, 1889) has been followed.

The quotations have been made throughout from the Teubner Text
editions except as follows : Plautus is cited from the Triumvirate
edition of Ritschl ; Vergil from the Editio Maior of Ribbeck ; Ovid
and Terence from the Tauchnitz Texts ; Horace from the Editio Minor
of Keller and Holder ; Lucretius from the edition of Munro ;
Ennius and Lucilius from the editions of L. Muller ; fragmentary
Scenic Poets from the edition of Ribbeck. Special care has been
taken to make the quotations exact both in spelling and wording ; and
any variation in the spelling of individual words is therefore due to
the texts from which the examples are drawn.

Where it has been necessary to modify the quotations in order to
make them suitable for citation, we have enclosed within square
brackets words* occurring in different form in the text, and in paren-
theses words that have been inserted ; where the passage would not
yield to such treatment, Cf. has been inserted before the reference.
We have not thought it necessary to add the references in the Prosody
except in the case of some of the citations from early Latin.

In the spelling of Latin words used out of quotation, as a rule u
and v have been followed by o rather than by u ; but here the require-
ments of clearness and the period of the language have often been
allowed to weigh. Otherwise we have followed in the main B ram-
bach's Hulfsbuchlein f&r lateinische Rechtschreibung (translation by
McCabe, 1877). G. L.



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Vi



CONTENTS.

ETYMOLOGY.

SECTION

Letters and Syllables 1-15

Alphabet, 1; Vowels, 2, 3; Diphthongs, 4; Conso-
nants, 6, 7 ; Phonetic Variations, 8, 9; Syllables, 10,
11 ; Quantity, 12-14 ; Accentuation, 15.

Parts of Speech 16

Inflection of the Substantive 17-71

Definitions, 18 ; Gender, 19-21 ; Number, 22 ;
Cases, 23-25 ; Declensions, 26 ; Endings, 27 ; First
Declension, 29, 30 ; Second Declension, 31-34 ; Third
Declension, 35-60 ; Fourth Declension, 61, 62 ; Fifth
Declension, 63, 64 ; Greek Substantives, 65, 66 ; Ir-
regular Substantives, 67-71.

Inflection of the Adjective 72-90

Definition, 72 ; First and Second Declension, 73-
76; Pronominal Adjectives, 76; Third Declension,
77-83 ; Irregular Adjectives, 84, 85 ; Comparison of
Adjectives, 86-90.

Adverbs 91-93

* Formation of Adverbs, 91, 92 ; Comparison, 93.

Numerals 94-98

Cardinals, 94 ; Ordinals, 94 ; Distributives, 97 ;
Adverbs, 98.

Pronouns * . 99-111

Personal, 100-102 ; Determinative, 103 ; Demon-
strative, 104 ; Relative, 105 ; Interrogative, 106 ; In-
definites, 107; Adjectives, 108; Correlative, 109-111.

Inflection of the Verb 112-175

Definitions, 112, 113; Endings, 114, 115; Inflection
of etse, 116, 117; of prOdesse, 118; of poise, 119. Reg-
ular Verbs, 120-167; Division, 120; Rules for forming
Tenses, 121. First Conjugation, 122; Second Conju-
gation, 123, 124; Third Conjugation, 125,126; Fourth .

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Vlll C0NTENT8.

ifectiott
Conjugation, 127 ; Deponents, 128 ; Periphrastic,
129; Notes, 130, 181. Formation of the Stems, 132-
185; Change in Conjugation, 136; List of Verbs,
137-167. Irregular Verbs, 168-174; Ire, 169, 2; quire,
nequlre, 170; ferre, 171; edere, 172; fieri, 173; velle,
nOlle, mille, 174; Defective Verbs, 175.

Formation of Words 176-200

Simple Words, 179-192; Substantives, 180, 181;
Adjectives, 182; Substantives without Suffixes, 183;
Suffixes, 184-189; Verbs, 190-192 ; Compound Words,
193-200; Substantives, 194r-198; Verbs, 199,200.

SYNTAX.

Simple Sentence 202-471

Subject, 203, 204; Predicate, 205-209; Concord,
210, 211; Voices, 212-221. Tenses, 222-252; Present,
227-230; Imperfect, 231-234; Perfect, 235-240; Plu-
perfect, 241; Future, 242, 243; Future Perfect, 244,
245; Periphrastic, 246-251; Tenses in Letters, 252.
Moods, 253-283; Indicative, 254; Subjunctive, 255-
265 ; Imperative, 266-275 ; Tenses in Moods and Verbal
Substantives, 276-283.

Simple Sentence Expanded 284-471

Multiplication of the Subject 285-287

Qualification of the Subject 288-325

Adjectives, 289-303; Numerals, 292-295; Compara-
tives and Superlatives, 296-303; Pronouns, 304-319;
Personal, 304; Demonstrative, 305-307; Determina-
tive and Reflexive, 308-311 ; Possessive, 312 ; Indefi-
nite, 313-319; Apposition, 320-325; Predicative Attri-
bution and Apposition, 325.

Multiplication of Predicate 326

Qualification of Predicate 327-449

The Cases 328-418

Accusative, 328-343; Dative, 344-359; Genitive,
360-383; Ablative, 884-410; Locative, 411; Preposi-
tions, 412-418; with Accusative, 416; with Ablative,
417; with Accusative and Ablative, 418.

Infinitive 419-424

Subject, 422; Object, 423; Predicate, 424.



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CONTENTS. IX

SKOTIOW

Gerund and Gerundive 425-433

Genitive, 428; Datives 429; Accusative, 430; Abla-
tive, 431; with Prepositions, 432, 433.

Supine 434-436

Accusative, 435; Ablative, 436.

Participles 437,488

Adverbs 439-449

Negatives, 441-449.

Incomplete (Interrogative) Sentence 450-471

Direct Simple Questions, 453-457; Direct Disjunc-
tive Questions, 458, 459 ; Indirect Questions, 460;
Moods in Direct, 462-466; Moods in Indirect, 467.

Compound Sentence 472-670

Coordinate Sentence 473-503

Copulative, 474-482; Adversative, 483-491 ; Dis-
junctive, 492-497; Causal and Illative, 498-503.

Subordinate Sentences 504-670

Moods in, 508; Sequence of Tenses, 509-519; Re-
flexive in, 520-522.

Object Sentences 523-537

Introduced by quod, 524, 525 ; in Accusative and
Infinitive, 526, 527, 532-535; in Nominative and
Infinitive, 528; in Participle, 536, 537.

Causal Sentences 538-542

Introduced by quod, quia, etc., 539-541 ; by quod,
with verbs of Emotion, 542.
Sentences of Design and Tendency • . . . 543-558
Final, 544-550; Pure Final, 545; Complementary
Final, 546-549; After verbs of Fear, 550.

Consecutive, 551; Pure Consecutive, 552; Comple-
mentary Consecutive, 553-557; Exclamatory Ques-
tions, 558.

Temporal Sentences 559-588

Antecedent Action, 561-567; Iterative Action, 566,
567; Contemporaneous Action, 568-573; Subsequent
Action, 574-577; Sentences with cum, 578-588.

Conditional Sentences 589-602

Logical, 595; Ideal, 596; Unreal, 597; Incomplete,
59&-601; Of Comparison, 602.
Concessive Sentences 603-609



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. 603-009



X C0NTENT8.

SECTION

Relative Sentences 610-637

Concord, 614-621 ; Tenses,.622, 623 ; Moods, 624-
637.

Comparative Sentences 638-644

Correlative, 642; with atque or fie, 643; with quam,
644.

The Abridged Sentence 645-663

Historical Infinitive, 647; Gratia Obllqua, 648;
Moods in, 650-652; Tenses in, 653-655; Conditional
Sentences in, 656-659 ; Pronouns, 660 ; Partial Ob-
liquity, 662, 663.

Participial Sentences 664-670

Arrangement of Words and Clauses .... 671-687

Figures of Syntax and Rhetoric 688-700

Principal Rules of Syntax . . .Pp. 437-444

PROSODY.

Quantity 702-717

General Rules, 702-706 ; of Final Syllables, 707-
713; of Stem Syllables, 714 ; of Compounds, 715 ; in
Early Latin, 716, 717.

Figures of Prosody 718-738

Versification 729-827

Definition, 729-754; Versus Italicus, 755; Saturnian
Verse, 756; Iambic Rhythms, 757-767; Trochaic
Rhythms, 768-776 ; Anapaestic Rhythms, 777-782;
Dactylic Rhythms, 783-789 ; Logaoedic Rhythms,
790-805; Cretic and Bacchic Rhythms, 806-814;
Ionic Rhythms, 815-819 ; Compound Verses, 820-
823 ; Cantica, 824, 825 ; Metres of Horace, 826, 827.



PACFBS

Appendix 491-493

Roman Calendar, Roman Weights and Measures,
Roman Money, Roman Names.

Index of Verbs 494-502

General Index 503-546



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LATIN GRAMMAR.






ETYMOLOGY.

Alphabet.

1. The Latin alphabet has twenty-three letters :

ABCDEFGHI KLM NOPQRSTVXYZ

Remarks. — i. The sounds represented by C and K were originally
distinct, C having the sound of G, but they gradually approximated
each other, until C supplanted K except in a few words, such as
Kalendae, KaesO, which were usually abbreviated, Kal., K, The orig-
inal force of is retained only in C. (for Gains) and Cn. (for Gnaeui).

2. J, the consonantal form of I, dates from the middle ages. V repre-
sented also the vowel u in the Latin alphabet ; and its resolution into
two letters — V for the consonant, and U for the vowel — also dates from
the middle ages. For convenience, V and U are still distinguished in
this grammar.

3. Y and Z were introduced in the time of Cicero to transliterate
Greek v and J. In early Latin v was represented by u (occasionally
by i or oi), and I by ss or 8. Z had occurred in the earliest times, but
had been lost, and its place in the alphabet taken by G, which was
introduced after C acquired the sound of K.

Note.— The Latin Dames for the letters were : a, be, ce, de, e, ef, ge, ha, i, ka, el,
em, en, o, pe, qu (= CU), er, es, te, u, ex (ix), to be pronounced according to the
rules given in 3, 7. For Y the sound was used, for Z the Greek name (zgta).

Vowels.
2. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u, (y) ; and are divided :

1. According to their quality (i, e., the position of the organs used
in pronunciation), into

guttural (or back), a, o, u ; palatal (or front), e, i, (y).

2. According to their quantity or prolongation (i. e., the time
required for pronunciation), into

long, (— ); short, (~).

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2 VOWELS — DIPHTHONGS — CONSONANTS.

Remark. — Vowels whose quantity shifts in poetry are called com*
mon (see 13), and are distinguished thus :

w, by preference short ; ^, by preference long.

3 # Sounds of the Vowels.

ft = a in father. = o in bone.

B = e in prey. u = oo in moon.

I = i in caprice. y = u in sur (French), German tL

Remark. — The short sounds are only less prolonged in pronuncia-
tion than the long sounds, and have no exact English equivalents.

Diphthongs.

4. There are but few diphthongs or double sounds in Latin. The
theory of the diphthong requires that both elements be heard in a slur.
The tendency in Latin was to reduce diphthongs to simple sounds ;
for example, in the last century of the republic ae was gliding into a,
which took its place completely in the third century A. D. Hence
arose frequent variations in spelling : as glaeba and glfiba, sod; so
oboedlre and obedlre, obey ; faenum (foenum) and ftnum, hay.

ae = aye (ah-eh). ei = ei in feint (drawled).

oe = oy in boy. eu = en in Spanish dewda (Sh-oo).

au = on in owr. (ui = we, almost).

Note.— Before the time of the Gracchi we find ai and oi instead of ae and oe.

5. The sign •• (Diwresis — Greek = separation) over the second vowel
shows that each sound is to be pronounced separately : fir, air ;
Oenomatls, alofi.

Consonants.

6, Consonants are divided :

i. According to the principal organs by which they are pronounced,
into

Labials (lip-sounds): b, p, (ph), f, v, m.

Dentals (tooth-sounds): d, t, (th), 1, n, r, s.

Gutturals (throat-sounds) : g, c, k, qu, (ch), h, n (see 7).
Note.— Instead of dental and guttural, the terms lingual and palatal are often used.

2. According to their prolongation, into
A. Semi-vowels : of which

1, m, n, r, are liquids (m and n being nasals),

h is a breathing.

• is a sibilant.



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CONSONANTS — PHONETIC VARIATIONS. 3

B. Mutes: to which belong

P-mutes, p, b, (ph), f, labials.

T-mutes, t, d, (th), dentals.

K-mutes, k, e, qu, g, (ch), gutturals.

Those on the same line are said to be of the same organ.
Mutes are further divided into

Tenufe (thin, smooth): p, t, k, c, qn, hard (surd).
Mediae (middle): b, d, g, soft (sonant).

[Asplrfitae (aspirate, rough): ph, th, ch,] aspirate.

Those on the same line are said to be of the same order.

The aspirates were introduced in the latter part of the second cen-
tury B. C. in the transliteration of Greek words, and thence extended to
some pure Latin words ; as, pulcher, Gracchus.

3. Double consonants are : t = ds in adze ; x = ca (kf), gt ; i and u
between two vowels are double sounds, half vowel, half consonant.

Sounds of the Consonants.

7, The consonants are sounded as in English, with the following
exceptions :

C is hard throughout = k.

Ch is not a genuine Latin combination (6, 2). In Latin words it is a
k ; in Greek words a kh, commonly pronounced as oh in German.

is hard throughout, as in get, give.

H at the beginning of a word is but slightly pronounced ; in the
middle of a word it is almost imperceptible.

1 consonant (J) has the sound of a broad y ; nearly like y in yule.

H has a guttural nasal sound before c, g, q, as in anchor, anguish.

(fen = kw (nearly) ; before 0, qu = c. In early Latin qu was not fol-



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