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In one sad day beheld the Stygian shades;
These by Apollo's silver bow were slain,
Those Cynthia's arrows stretched upon the plain."
- _Pope, Il._, xxiv, 760.

"Memory and forecast just returns engage,
This pointing back to youth, that on to age."
- See _Key_.


UNDER NOTE XIII. - EITHER AND NEITHER.

"These make the three great subjects of discussion among mankind; truth,
duty, and interest. But the arguments directed towards either of them are
generically distinct." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 318. "A thousand other
deviations may be made, and still either of them may be correct in
principle. For these divisions and their technical terms, are all
arbitrary." - _R. W. Green's Inductive Gram._, p. vi. "Thus it appears, that
our alphabet is deficient, as it has but seven vowels to represent thirteen
different sounds; and has no letter to represent either of five simple
consonant sounds." - _Churchill's Gram._, p. 19. "Then neither of these
[five] verbs can be neuter." - _Oliver B. Peirce's Gram._, p. 343. "And the
_asserter_ is in neither of the four already mentioned." - _Ib._, p. 356.
"As it is not in either of these four." - _Ib._, p. 356. "See whether or not
the word comes within the definition of either of the other three simple
cases." - _Ib._, p. 51. "Neither of the ten was there." - _Frazee's Gram._,
p. 108. "Here are ten oranges, take either of them." - _Ib._, p. 102. "There
are three modes, by either of which recollection will generally be
supplied; inclination, practice, and association." - _Rippingham's Art of
Speaking_, p. xxix. "Words not reducible to either of the three preceding
heads." - _Fowler's E. Gram._, 8vo, 1850, pp. 335 and 340. "Now a sentence
may be analyzed in reference to either of these [four] classes." - _Ib._, p.
577.


UNDER NOTE XIV. - WHOLE, LESS, MORE, AND MOST.

"Does not all proceed from the law, which regulates the whole departments
of the state?" - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 278. "A messenger relates to Theseus
the whole particulars." - _Kames. El. of Crit._, Vol. ii, p. 313. "There are
no less than twenty dipthhongs [sic - KTH] in the English language." - _Dr.
Ash's Gram._, p. xii. "The Redcross Knight runs through the whole steps of
the Christian life." - _Spectator_ No. 540. "There were not less than fifty
or sixty persons present." - _Teachers' Report._ "Greater experience, and
more cultivated society, abate the warmth of imagination, and chasten the
manner of expression." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 152; _Murray's Gram._, i, 351.
"By which means knowledge, much more than oratory, is become the principal
requisite." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 254. "No less than seven illustrious
cities disputed the right of having given birth to the greatest of
poets." - _Lemp. Dict., n. Homer._ "Temperance, more than medicines, is the
proper means of curing many diseases." - _Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 222. "I do
not suppose, that we Britons want genius, more than our
neighbours." - _Ib._, p. 215. "In which he saith, he has found no less than
twelve untruths." - _Barclay's Works_, i, 460. "The several places of
rendezvous were concerted, and the whole operations fixed." - HUME: see
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 190. "In these rigid opinions the whole sectaries
concurred." - _Id., ib._ "Out of whose modifications have been made most
complex modes." - LOCKE: _Sanborn's Gram._, p. 148. "The Chinese vary each
of their words on no less than five different tones." - _Blair's Rhet._, p.
58. "These people, though they possess more shining qualities, are not so
proud as he is, nor so vain as she." - _Murray's Key_, 8vo, p. 211. "'Tis
certain, we believe ourselves more, after we have made a thorough Inquiry
into the Thing." - _Brightland's Gram._, p. 244. "As well as the whole
Course and Reasons of the Operation." - _Ib._ "Those rules and principles
which are of most practical advantage." - _Newman's Rhet._, p. 4. "And there
shall be no more curse." - _Rev._, xxii, 3. "And there shall be no more
death." - _Rev._, xxi, 4. "But in recompense, we have more pleasing pictures
of ancient manners." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 436. "Our language has suffered
more injurious changes in America, since the British army landed on our
shores, than it had suffered before, in the period of three
centuries." - _Webster's Essays_, Ed. of 1790, p. 96. "The whole
conveniences of life are derived from mutual aid and support in
society." - _Kames, El. of Crit._, Vol. i, p. 166.


UNDER NOTE XV. - PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES.

"To such as think the nature of it deserving their attention." - _Butler's
Analogy_, p. 84. "In all points, more deserving the approbation of their
readers." - _Keepsake_, 1830. "But to give way to childish sensations was
unbecoming our nature." - _Lempriere's Dict., n. Zeno._ "The following
extracts are deserving the serious perusal of all." - _The Friend_, Vol. v,
p. 135. "No inquiry into wisdom, however superficial, is undeserving
attention." - _Bulwer's Disowned_, ii, 95. "The opinions of illustrious men
are deserving great consideration." - _Porter's Family Journal_, p. 3. "And
resolutely keeps its laws, Uncaring consequences." - _Burns's Works_, ii,
43. "This is an item that is deserving more attention." - _Goodell's
Lectures._

"Leave then thy joys, unsuiting such an age, To a fresh comer, and resign
the stage." - _Dryden._


UNDER NOTE XVI. - FIGURE OF ADJECTIVES.

"The tall dark mountains and the deep toned seas." - _Sanborn's Gram._, p.
278. "O! learn from him To station quick eyed Prudence at the
helm." - ANON.: _Frost's El. of Gram._, p. 104. "He went in a one horse
chaise." - _Blair's Gram._, p. 113. "It ought to be, 'in a one horse
chaise.'" - _Dr. Crombie's Treatise_, p. 334. "These are marked with the
above mentioned letters." - _Folker's Gram._, p. 4. "A many headed
faction." - _Ware's Gram._, p. 18. "Lest there should be no authority in any
popular grammar for the perhaps heaven inspired effort." - _Fowle's True
English Gram._, Part 2d, p. 25. "Common metre stanzas consist of four
Iambic lines; one of eight, and the next of six syllables. They were
formerly written in two fourteen syllable lines." - _Goodenow's Gram._, p.
69. "Short metre stanzas consist of four Iambic lines; the third of eight,
and the rest of six syllables." - _Ibid._ "Particular metre stanzas consist
of six Iambic lines; the third and sixth of six syllables, the rest of
eight." - _Ibid._ "Hallelujah metre stanzas consist of six Iambic lines; the
last two of eight syllables, and the rest of six." - _Ibid._ "Long metre
stanzas are merely the union of four Iambic lines, of ten syllables
each." - _Ibid._ "A majesty more commanding than is to be found among the
rest of the Old Testament poets." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 418.

"You sulphurous and thought executed fires, Vaunt couriers to oak cleaving
thunderbolts, Singe my white head! And thou, all shaking thunder Strike
flat the thick rotundity o' the world!" - _Beauties of Shak._, p. 264.




CHAPTER V. - PRONOUNS.

The rules for the agreement of Pronouns with their antecedents are four;
hence this chapter extends from the tenth rule to the thirteenth,
inclusively. The _cases_ of Pronouns are embraced with those of nouns, in
the seven rules of the third chapter.


RULE X. - PRONOUNS.

A Pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun which it
represents, in person, number, and gender:[379] as, "This is the friend _of
whom I spoke_; he has just arrived." - "This is the book _which I_ bought;
it is an excellent work." - "_Ye_, therefore, _who_ love mercy, teach _your_
sons to love _it_ too." - _Cowper._

"Speak _thou, whose_ thoughts at humble peace repine,
Shall Wolsey's wealth with Wolsey's end be _thine_?" - _Dr. Johnson_.


EXCEPTION FIRST.

When a pronoun stands for some person or thing _indefinite_, or _unknown to
the speaker_, this rule is not _strictly_ applicable; because the person,
number, and gender, are rather assumed in the pronoun, than regulated by an
antecedent: as, "I do not care _who_ knows it." - _Steele_. "_Who_ touched
me? Tell me _who_ it was." - "We have no knowledge how, or by _whom_, it is
inhabited." - ABBOT: _Joh. Dict._

EXCEPTION SECOND.

The neuter pronoun _it_ may be applied to a young child, or to other
creatures masculine or feminine by nature, when they are not obviously
distinguishable with regard to sex; as, "Which is the real friend to the
_child_, the person who gives _it_ the sweetmeats, or the person who,
considering only _its_ health, resists _its_ importunities?" - _Opis._ "He
loads the _animal_ he is showing me, with so many trappings and collars,
that I cannot distinctly view _it_" - _Murray's Gram._, p. 301. "The
_nightingale_ sings most sweetly when _it_ sings in the night." - _Bucke's
Gram._, p. 52.

EXCEPTION THIRD.

The pronoun _it_ is often used without a definite reference to any
antecedent, and is sometimes a mere expletive, and sometimes the
representative of an action expressed afterwards by a verb; as, "Whether
she grapple _it_ with the pride of philosophy." - _Chalmers._ "Seeking to
lord _it_ over God's heritage." - _The Friend_, vii, 253. "_It_ is not for
kings, O Lemuel, _it_ is not for kings _to drink_ wine, nor for princes
strong drink." - _Prov._, xxxi, 4. "Having no temptation to _it_, God cannot
_act unjustly_ without defiling his nature." - _Brown's Divinity_, p. 11.

"Come, and trip _it_ as you go, On the light fantastic toe." - _Milton._

EXCEPTION FOURTH.

A singular antecedent with the adjective _many_, sometimes admits a plural
pronoun, but never in the same clause; as, "Hard has been the fate of
_many_ a great _genius_, that while _they_ have conferred immortality on
others, _they_ have wanted themselves some friend to embalm their names to
posterity." - _Welwood's Pref. to Rowe's Lucan._

"In Hawick twinkled _many a light_,
Behind him soon _they_ set in night." - _W. Scott._

EXCEPTION FIFTH.

When a plural pronoun is put by enallagè for the singular, it does not
agree with its noun in number, because it still requires a plural verb; as,
"_We_ [Lindley Murray] _have followed_ those authors, who appear to have
given them the most natural and intelligible distribution." - _Murray's
Gram._, 8vo, p. 29. "_We shall close our_ remarks on this subject, by
introducing the sentiments of Dr. Johnson respecting it." - _Ib._ "My lord,
_you know_ I love _you_" - _Shakspeare._

EXCEPTION SIXTH.

The pronoun sometimes disagrees with its antecedent in one sense, because
it takes it in an other; as, "I have perused Mr. Johnson's _Grammatical
Commentaries_, and find _it_[380] a very laborious, learned, and useful
Work." - _Tho. Knipe_, D. D. "_Lamps_ is of the plural number, because _it_
means more than one." - _Smith's New Gram._, p. 8. "_Man_ is of the
masculine gender, because _it_ is the name of a male." - _Ib._ "The _Utica
Sentinel_ says _it_ has not heard whether the wounds are
dangerous." - _Evening Post_. (Better: "The _editor_ of the Utica Sentinel
says, _he_ has not heard," &c.) "There is little _Benjamin_ with _their_
ruler." - _Psalms_, lxviii, 27.

"_Her_ end when _emulation_ misses,
_She_ turns to envy, stings, and hisses." - _Swift's Poems_, p. 415.


OBSERVATIONS ON RULE X.

OBS. 1. - Respecting a pronoun, the main thing is, that the reader perceive
clearly _for what it stands_; and next, that he do not misapprehend _its
relation of case_. For the sake of completeness and uniformity in parsing,
it is, I think, expedient to apply the foregoing rule not only to those
pronouns which have obvious antecedents expressed, but also to such as are
not accompanied by the nouns for which they stand. Even those which are put
for persons or things unknown or indefinite, may be said to agree with
whatever is meant by them; that is, with such nouns as their own properties
indicate. For the reader will naturally understand something by every
pronoun, unless it be a mere expletive, and without any antecedent. For
example: "It would depend upon _who_ the forty were." - _Trial at
Steubenville_, p. 50. Here _who_ is an indefinite relative, equivalent to
_what persons_; of the third person, plural, masculine; and is in the
nominative case after were, by Rule 6th. For the full construction seems to
be this: "It would depend upon _the persons who_ the forty were." So
_which_, for _which person_, or _which thing_, (if we call it a pronoun
rather than an adjective,) may be said to have the properties of the noun
_person_ or _thing_ understood; as,

"His notions fitted things so well,
That _which_ was _which_ he could not tell." - _Hudibras_.

OBS. 2. - The pronoun _we_ is used by the speaker or writer to represent
himself and others, and is therefore plural. But it is sometimes used, by a
sort of fiction, in stead of the singular, to intimate that the speaker or
writer is not alone in his opinions; or, perhaps more frequently, to evade
the charge of egotism; for this modest assumption of plurality seems most
common with those who have something else to assume: as, "And so lately as
1809, Pope Pius VII, in excommunicating his 'own dear son,' Napoleon, whom
he crowned and blessed, says: '_We_, unworthy as _we_ are, represent the
God of peace.'" - _Dr. Brownlee_. "The coat fits _us_ as well as if _we_ had
been melted and poured into it." - _Prentice_. Monarchs sometimes prefer
_we_ to _I_, in immediate connexion with a singular noun; as, "_We
Alexander_, Autocrat of all the Russias." - "_We the Emperor_ of China,"
&c. - _Economy of Human Life_, p. vi. They also employ the anomalous
compound _ourself_, which is not often used by other people; as, "Witness
_ourself_ at Westminster, 28 day of April, in the tenth year of _our_
reign. CHARLES."

"_Cæs._ What touches _us ourself_, shall be last serv'd."
- _Shak., J. C._, Act iii, Sc. 1.

"_Ourself_ to hoary Nestor will repair."
- _Pope, Iliad_, B. x, l. 65.

OBS. 3. - The pronoun _you_, though originally and properly plural, is now
generally applied alike to one person or to more. Several observations upon
this fashionable substitution of the plural number for the singular, will
be found in the fifth and sixth chapters of Etymology. This usage, however
it may seem to involve a solecism, is established by that authority against
which the mere grammarian has scarcely a right to remonstrate. Alexander
Murray, the schoolmaster, observes, "When language was plain and simple,
the English always said _thou_, when speaking to a single person. But when
an affected politeness, and a fondness for continental manners and customs
began to take place, persons of rank and fashion said _you_ in stead of
_thou_. The innovation gained ground, and custom gave sanction to the
change, and stamped it with the authority of law." - _English Gram._, Third
Edition, 1793, p. 107. This respectable grammarian acknowledged both _thou_
and _you_ to be of the second person singular. I do not, however, think it
necessary or advisable to do this, or to encumber the conjugations, as some
have done, by introducing the latter pronoun, and the corresponding form of
the verb, as singular.[381] It is manifestly better to say, that the plural
is used _for the singular_, by the figure _Enallagè_. For if _you_ has
literally become singular by virtue of this substitution, _we_ also is
singular for the same reason, as often as it is substituted for _I_; else
the authority of innumerable authors, editors, compilers, and crowned,
heads, is insufficient to make it so. And again, if _you_ and the
corresponding form of the verb are _literally of the second person
singular_, (as Wells contends, with an array of more than sixty names of
English grammarians to prove it,) then, by their own rule of concord, since
_thou_ and its verb are still generally retained in the same place by these
grammarians, a verb that agrees with one of these nominatives, must also
agree with the other; so that _you hast_ and _thou have, you seest_ and
_thou see_, may be, so far as appears from _their_ instructions, as good a
concord as can be made of these words!

OBS. 4. - The putting of you for thou has introduced the anomalous compound
_yourself_, which is now very generally used in stead of _thyself_. In this
instance, as in the less frequent adoption of _ourself_ for _myself_,
Fashion so tramples upon the laws of grammar, that it is scarcely possible
to frame an intelligible exception in her favour. These pronouns are
essentially singular, both in form and meaning; and yet they cannot be used
with _I_ or _thou_, with _me_ or _thee_, or with any verb that is literally
singular; as, "_I ourself am._" but, on the contrary, they must be
connected only with such plural terms as are put for the singular; as, "_We
ourself are_ king." - "Undoubtedly _you yourself become_ an innovator." - _L.
Murray's Gram._, p. 364; _Campbell's Rhet._, 167.

"Try touch, or sight, or smell; try what you will,
_You_ strangely _find_ nought but _yourself_ alone."
- _Pollok, C. of T._, B. i, l. 162.

OBS. 5. - Such terms of address, as _your Majesty, your Highness, your
Lordship, your Honour_, are sometimes followed by verbs and pronouns of the
second person plural, substituted for the singular; and sometimes by words
literally singular, and of the third person, with no other figure than a
substitution of _who_ for _which_: as, "Wherein _your Lordship, who shines_
with so much distinction in the noblest assembly in the world, peculiarly
_excels_" - _Dedication of Sale's Koran_. "We have good cause to give _your
Highness_ the first place; _who_, by a continued series of favours _have
obliged_ us, not only while _you moved_ in a lower orb, but since the Lord
hath called _your Highness_ to supreme authority." - _Massachusetts to
Cromwell_, in 1654.

OBS. 6. - The general usage of the French is like that of the English, _you_
for _thou_; but Spanish, Portuguese, or German politeness requires that the
third person be substituted for the second. And when they would be very
courteous, the Germans use also the plural for the singular, as _they_ for
_thou_. Thus they have a fourfold method of addressing a person: as,
_they_, denoting the highest degree of respect; _he_, a less degree; _you_,
a degree still less; and _thou_, none at all, or absolute reproach. Yet,
even among them, the last is used as a term of endearment to children, and
of veneration to God! _Thou_, in English, still retains its place firmly,
and without dispute, in all addresses to the Supreme Being; but in respect
to the _first person_, an observant clergyman has suggested the following
dilemma: "Some men will be pained, if a minister says _we_ in the pulpit;
and others will quarrel with him, if he says _I_." - _Abbott's Young
Christian_, p. 268.

OBS. 7. - Any extensive perversion of the common words of a language from
their original and proper use, is doubtless a matter of considerable
moment. These changes in the use of the pronouns, being some of them
evidently a sort of complimentary fictions, some religious people have made
it a matter of conscience to abstain from them, and have published their
reasons for so doing. But the _moral objections_ which may lie against such
or any other applications of words, do not come within the grammarian's
province. Let every one consider for himself the moral bearing of what he
utters: not forgetting the text, "But I say unto you, that _every idle
word_ that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of
judgement: for _by thy words_ thou shalt be justified, and _by thy words_
thou shalt be condemned." - _Matt._, xii, 36 and 37. What scruples this
declaration _ought to_ raise, it is not my business to define. But if such
be God's law, what shall be the reckoning of those who make no conscience
of uttering continually, or when they will, not idle words only, but
expressions the most absurd, insignificant, false, exaggerated, vulgar,
indecent, injurious, wicked, sophistical, unprincipled, ungentle, and
perhaps blasphemous, or profane?

OBS. 8. - The agreement of pronouns with their antecedents, it is necessary
to observe, is liable to be controlled or affected by several of the
figures of rhetoric. A noun used figuratively often suggests two different
senses, the one literal, and the other tropical; and the agreement of the
pronoun must be sometimes with this, and sometimes with that, according to
the nature of the trope. If the reader be unacquainted with tropes and
figures, he should turn to the explanation of them in Part Fourth of this
work; but almost every one knows something about them, and such as must
here be named, will perhaps be made sufficiently intelligible by the
examples. There seems to be no occasion to introduce under this head more
than four; namely, personification, metaphor, metonymy, and synecdoche.

OBS. 9. - When a pronoun represents the name of an inanimate object
_personified_, it agrees with its antecedent in the figurative, and not in
the literal sense; as, "There were others whose crime it was rather to
neglect _Reason_ than to disobey _her_." - _Dr. Johnson_. "_Penance_ dreams
her life away." - _Rogers_. "Grim _Darkness_ furls _his_ leaden
shroud." - _Id._ Here if the pronoun were made neuter, the personification
would be destroyed; as, "By the progress which _England_ had already made
in navigation and commerce, _it_ was now prepared for advancing
farther." - _Robertson's America_, Vol. ii, p. 341. If the pronoun _it_ was
here intended to represent England, the feminine _she_ would have been much
better; and, if such was not the author's meaning, the sentence has some
worse fault than the agreement of a pronoun with its noun in a wrong sense.

OBS. 10. - When the antecedent is applied _metaphorically_, the pronoun
usually agrees with it in its literal, and not in its figurative sense; as,
"Pitt was the _pillar which_ upheld the state." - "The _monarch_ of
mountains rears _his_ snowy head." - "The _stone which_ the builders
rejected." - _Matt._, xxi, 42. According to this rule, _which_ would be
better than _whom_, in the following text: "I considered the horns, and,
behold, there came up among them an other _little horn_, before _whom_
there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots." - _Daniel_,
vii, 8. In _Rom._, ix, 33, there is something similar: "Behold, I lay in
Sion a _stumbling-stone_ and _rock_ of offence: and whosoever believeth _on
him_ shall not be ashamed." Here the _stone_ or _rock_ is a metaphor for
_Christ_, and the pronoun _him_ may be referred to the sixth exception
above; but the construction is not agreeable, because it is not regular: it
would be more grammatical, to change _on him_ to _thereon_. In the
following example, the noun "_wolves_," which literally requires _which_,
and not _who_, is used metaphorically for _selfish priests_; and, in the
relative, the figurative or personal sense is allowed to prevail:

"_Wolves_ shall succeed for teachers, grievous _wolves_,
_Who_ all the sacred mysteries of Heaven
To their own vile advantages shall turn."
- _Milton, P. L._, B. xii, l. 508.

This seems to me somewhat forced and catachrestical. So too, and worse, the
following; which makes a _star_ rise and _speak_:

"So _spake_ our _Morning Star_ then in _his rise_,
And _looking_ round on every side _beheld_
A pathless desert, dusk with horrid shades."
- _Id., P. R._, B. i, l. 294.

OBS. 11. - When the antecedent is put by _metonymy_ for a noun of different
properties, the pronoun sometimes agrees with it in the figurative, and
sometimes in the literal sense; as, "When _Israel_ was a child, then I
loved _him_, and called my son out of Egypt. As they called _them_, so
_they_ went from them: [i. e., When Moses and the prophets called the
_Israelites_, they often refused to hear:] _they_ sacrificed unto Baalim,
and burnt incense to graven images. I taught _Ephraim_ also to go, taking
_them_ by _their_ arms; but _they_ knew not that I healed
_them_." - _Hosea_, xi, 1, 2, 3. The mixture and obscurity which are here,
ought not to be imitated. The name of a man, put for the nation or tribe of
his descendants, may have a pronoun of either number, and a nation may be
figuratively represented as feminine; but a mingling of different genders
or numbers ought to be avoided: as, "_Moab_ is spoiled, and gone up out of
_her_ cities, and _his_ chosen young men are gone down to the
slaughter." - _Jeremiah_, xlviii, 15.

"The wolf, who [say _that_] from the nightly fold,
Fierce drags the bleating _prey_, ne'er drunk _her_ milk,
Nor wore _her_ warming fleece." - _Thomson's Seasons_.

"That each may fill the circle mark'd by _Heaven_,



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