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be found." - _Campbell's Rhet._, p. 422. "The Greeks were the _greatest_
reasoners _that_ ever appeared in the world." - BEATTIE: _Murray's Gram._,
p. 127. (2.) After the adjective _same_, when the relative clause is
restrictive; as, "He is the _same_ man _that_ you saw before." -
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 101; _Murray's_, 156; _Campbell's Rhet._, 422. (3.)
After the antecedent _who_; as, "Who that is a sincere friend to it, can
look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the
fabric?" - _Washington._ (4.) After two or more antecedents that demand a
relative adapted both to persons and to things; as, "He spoke largely of
the _men and things that_ he had seen." - "When some particular _person_ or
_thing_ is spoken of, _that_ ought to be more distinctly marked." -
_Murray's Gram._, p. 51. (5.) After an unlimited antecedent which the
relative clause is designed to restrict; as, "_Thoughts that_ breathe, and
_words that_ burn." - _Gray_. "Music _that accords_ with the present tone of
mind, is, on that account, doubly agreeable." - _Kames, El. of Crit._, ii,
311. "For Theocritus descends sometimes into _ideas that_ are gross and
mean." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 393. (6.) After any antecedent introduced by
the expletive _it_; as, "_It_ is _you that_ suffer." - "It was I, and not
he, _that_ did it." - _Churchill's Gram._, p. 142. "It was not he[384]
_that_ they were so angry with." - _Murray's Exercises_, R. 17. "_It_ was
not _Gavius_ alone _that_ Verres meant to insult." - _Blair's Rhet._, p.
325. (7.) And, in general, wherever the propriety of _who_ or _which_ is
doubtful; as, "The little _child that_ was placed in the midst."

NOTE VII. - When two or more relative clauses connected by a conjunction
have a similar dependence in respect to the antecedent, the same pronoun
must be employed in each; as, "O thou, _who_ art, and _who_ wast, and _who_
art to come!" - "And they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon,
and all the host of heaven, _whom_ they have loved, and _whom_ they have
served, and after _whom_ they have walked, and _whom_ they have sought, and
_whom_ they have worshiped." - _Jer._, viii, 2. NOTE VIII. - The relative,
and the preposition governing it, should not be omitted, when they are
necessary to the sense intended, or to a proper connexion of the parts of
the sentence; as, "He is still in the situation you saw him." Better thus:
"He is still in the situation in _which_ you saw him."

NOTE IX. - After certain nouns, of time, place, manner, or cause, the
conjunctive adverbs _when, where, whither, whence, how_, and _why_, are a
sort of special relatives; but no such adverb should be used where a
preposition and a relative pronoun would better express the relation of the
terms: as, "A cause _where_ justice is so much concerned." Say, "A cause
_in which_." See Etymology, Obs. 6th, 7th, and 8th, on the Classes of

NOTE X. - Where a pronoun or a pronominal adjective will not express the
meaning clearly, the noun must be repeated, or inserted in stead of it: as,
"We see the beautiful variety of colour in the rainbow, and are led to
consider the cause of _it_." Say, - "the cause of _that variety_;" because
the _it_ may mean _the variety, the colour_, or _the rainbow_.

NOTE XI. - To prevent ambiguity or obscurity, the relative should, in
general, be placed as near as possible to the antecedent. The following
sentence is therefore faulty: "He is like a beast of prey, that is void of
compassion." Better thus: "He that is void of compassion, is like a beast
of prey."

NOTE XII. - The pronoun _what_ should never be used in stead of the
conjunction _that_; as, "Think no man so perfect but _what_ he may err."
This is a vulgar fault. Say, - "but _that_ he may err."

NOTE XIII. - A pronoun should never be used to represent an
_adjective_, - except the pronominal adjectives, and others taken
substantively; because a pronoun can neither express a concrete quality as
such, nor convert it properly into an abstract: as, "Be _attentive_;
without _which_ you will learn nothing." Better thus: "Be attentive; _for
without attention_ you will learn nothing."

NOTE XIV. - Though the relative which may in some instances stand for a
phrase or a sentence, it is seldom, if ever, a fit representative of an
indicative assertion; as, "The man opposed me, _which_ was anticipated." -
_Nixon's Parser_, p. 127. Say, - "_but his opposition_ was anticipated."
Or: "The man opposed me, _as_ was anticipated." Or: - "_as I expected he
would_." Again: "The captain disobeys orders, _which_ is punished." - _Ib._,
p. 128. This is an other factitious sentence, formed after the same model,
and too erroneous for correction: none but a conceited grammatist could
ever have framed such a construction.

NOTE XV. - The possessive pronouns, _my, thy, his, her, its_, &c., should be
inserted or repeated as often as the sense or construction of the sentence
requires them; their omission, like that of the articles, can scarcely in
any instance constitute a proper ellipsis: as, "Of Princeton and
vicinity." - Say, "Of Princeton and _its_ vicinity." "The man and
wife." - Say, "The man and _his_ wife." "Many verbs vary both their
signification and construction." - _Adam's Gram._, p. 170; _Gould's_, 171.
Say, - "and _their_ construction."

NOTE XVI. - In the correcting of any discord between the antecedent and its
pronoun, if the latter for any sufficient reason is most proper as it
stands, the former must be changed to accord with it: as, "Let us discuss
what relates to _each particular_ in _their_ order: - _its_ order." -
_Priestley's Gram._, p. 193. Better thus: "Let us discuss what relates to
_the several particulars_, in _their_ order." For the order of things
implies plurality.



"The subject is to be joined with his predicate." - BP. WILKINS: _Lowth's
Gram._, p. 42.

[FORMULE. - Not proper, because the pronoun _his_ is of the masculine
gender, and does not correctly represent its antecedent noun _subject_,
which is of the third person, singular, _neuter_. But, according to Rule
10th, "A pronoun must agree with its antecedent, or the noun or pronoun
which it represents, in person, number, and gender." Therefore, _his_
should be _its_; thus, "The subject is to be joined with _its_ predicate."]

"Every one must judge of their own feelings." - _Byron's Letters_. "Every
one in the family should know their duty." - _Wm. Penn_. "To introduce its
possessor into 'that way in which it should go.'" - _Infant School Gram._,
p. v. "Do not they say, every true believer has the Spirit of God in
them?" - _Barclay's Works_, iii, 388. "There is none in their natural state
righteous, no not one." - _Wood's Dict. of Bible_, ii, 129. "If ye were of
the world, the world would love his own." - _John_, xv, 19. "His form had
not yet lost all her original brightness." - _Milton_. "No one will answer
as if I were their friend or companion." - _Steele_, Spect., No. 534. "But
in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves." -
_Philippians_, ii, 3. "And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts
against his neighbour." - _Zechariah_, viii, 17. "For every tree is known by
his own fruit." - _Luke_, vi, 44. "But she fell to laughing, like one out of
their right mind." - _Castle Rackrent_, p. 51. "Now these systems, so far
from having any tendency to make men better, have a manifest tendency to
make him worse." - _Wayland's Moral Science_, p. 128. "And nobody else would
make that city their refuge any more." - _Josephus's Life_, p. 158. "What is
quantity, as it respects syllables or words? It is that time which is
occupied in pronouncing it." - _Bradley's Gram._, p. 108. "In such
expressions the adjective so much resembles an adverb in its meaning, that
they are usually parsed as such." - _Bullions, E. Gram._, p. 103. "The
tongue is like a race-horse; which runs the faster the less weight it
carries." - ADDISON: _Joh. Dict.; Murray's Key_, Rule 8. "As two thoughtless
boys were trying to see which could lift the greatest weight with their
jaws, one of them had several of his firm-set teeth wrenched from their
sockets." - _Newspaper_. "Everybody nowadays publishes memoirs; everybody
has recollections which they think worthy of recording." - _Duchess
D'Abrantes_, p. 25. "Every body trembled for themselves or their
friends." - _Goldsmith's Greece_, i, 171.

"A steed comes at morning: no rider is there;
But its bridle is red with the sign of despair." - _Campbell_.


"Charles loves to study; but John, alas! he is very idle." - _Merchant's
School Gram._, p. 22. "Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask
bread, will he give him a stone?" - _Matt._, vii, 9. "Who, in stead of going
about doing good, they are perpetually intent upon doing mischief." -
_Tillotson_. "Whom ye delivered up, and denied him in the presence of
Pontius Pilate." - _Acts_, iii, 13. "Whom, when they had washed, they laid
her in an upper chamber." - _Acts_, ix, 37. "Then Manasseh knew that the
Lord he was God." - _2 Chron._, xxxiii, 13. "Whatever a man conceives
clearly, he may, if he will be at the trouble, put it into distinct
propositions, and express it clearly to others." - _Murray's Gram._, 8vo, p.
293. "But to that point of time which he has chosen, the painter being
entirely confined, he cannot exhibit various stages of the same
action." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 52. "It is without any proof at all what he
subjoins." - _Barclay's Works_, i, 301. "George Fox his Testimony concerning
Robert Barclay." - _Ib._, i, 111. "According to the author of the Postscript
his advice." - _Ib._, iii, 263. "These things seem as ugly to the Eye of
their Meditations, as those Æthiopians pictur'd in Nemesis her
Pitcher." - _Bacon's Wisdom of the Ancients_, p. 49. "Moreover, there is
always a twofold Condition propounded with Sphynx her Ænigma's." - _Ib._, p.
73. "Whoever believeth not therein, they shall perish." - _Sale's Koran_, p.
20. "When, at Sestius his entreaty, I had been at his house." - _Walker's
Particles_, p. 59.

"There high on Sipylus his shaggy brow,
She stands, her own sad monument of woe."
- _Pope's Homer_, B. xxiv, l. 777.


"So will I send upon you famine, and evil beasts, and they shall bereave
thee." - _Ezekiel_, v, 17. "Why do you plead so much for it? why do ye
preach it up?" - _Barclay's Works_, i, 180. "Since thou hast decreed that I
shall bear man, your darling." - _Edward's First Lesson in Gram._, p. 106.
"You have my book and I have thine; i.e. thy book." - _Chandler's Gram._,
1821, p. 22. "Neither art thou such a one as to be ignorant of what you
are." - _Bullions, Lat. Gram._, p. 70. "Return, thou backsliding Israel,
saith the Lord, and I will not cause mine anger to fall upon
you." - _Jeremiah_, iii, 12. "The Almighty, unwilling to cut thee off in the
fullness of iniquity, has sent me to give you warning." - _Art of Thinking_,
p. 278. "Wert thou born only for pleasure? were you never to do any
thing?" - _Collier's Antoninus_, p. 63. "Thou shalt be required to go to
God, to die, and give up your account." - BARNES'S NOTES: _on Luke_, xii,
20. "And canst thou expect to behold the resplendent glory of the Creator?
would not such a sight annihilate you?" - _Milton_. "If the prophet had
commanded thee to do some great thing, would you have refused?" - _Common
School Journal_, i, 80. "Art thou a penitent? Evince your sincerity by
bringing forth fruits meet for repentance." - _Christian's Vade-Mecum_, p.
117. "I will call thee my dear son: I remember all your tenderness." -
_Classic Tales_, p. 8. "So do thou, my son: open your ears, and your
eyes." - _Wright's Athens_, p. 33. "I promise you, this was enough to
discourage thee." - _Pilgrim's Progress_, p. 446. "Ere you remark an other's
sin, Bid thy own conscience look within." - _Gay_. "Permit that I share in
thy woe, The privilege can you refuse?" - _Perfect's Poems_, p. 6. "Ah!
Strephon, how can you despise Her who without thy pity dies?" - _Swift's
Poems_, p. 340.

"Thy verses, friend, are Kidderminster stuff,
And I must own, you've measur'd out enough." - _Shenstone._

"This day, dear Bee, is thy nativity;
Had Fate a luckier one, she'd give it ye." - _Swift._


"Exactly like so many puppets, who are moved by wires." - _Blair's Rhet._,
p. 462. "They are my servants, which I brought forth out of the land of
Egypt." - _Leviticus_, xxv, 42. "Behold I and the children which God hath
given me." - _Heb._, ii, 13; _Webster's Bible, and others._ "And he sent
Eliakim which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe." - _2 Kings_,
xix, 2. "In a short time the streets were cleared of the corpses who filled
them." - _M'Ilvaine's Led._, p. 411. "They are not of those which teach
things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake." - _Barclay's Works_,
i, 435. "As a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among
the flocks of sheep; who, if he go through, both treadeth down and teareth
in pieces." - _Micah_, v, 8. "Frequented by every fowl whom nature has
taught to dip the wing in water." - _Rasselas_, p. 10. "He had two sons, one
of which was adopted by the family of Maximus." - _Lempriere, w. Æmytius_.
"And the ants, who are collected by the smell, are burned by fire." - _The
Friend_, xii, 49. "They being the agents, to which this thing was
trusted." - _Nixon's Parser_, p. 139. "A packhorse who is driven constantly
forwards and backwards to market." - LOCKE: _Joh. Dict._ "By instructing
children, the affection of which will be increased." - _Nixon's Parser_, p.
136. "He had a comely young woman which travelled with him." - _Hutchinson's
Hist._, i, 29. "A butterfly, which thought himself an accomplished
traveller, happened to light upon a beehive." - _Inst._, p. 143. "It is an
enormous elephant of stone, who disgorges from his uplifted trunk a vast
but graceful shower." - _Zenobia_, i, 150. "He was met by a dolphin, who
sometimes swam before him, and sometimes behind him." - _Edward's First
Lessons in Gram._, p. 34.

"That Cæsar's horse, who, as fame goes,
Had corns upon his feet and toes,
Was not by half so tender-hooft,
Nor trod upon the ground so soft." - _Hudibras_, p. 6.


"He instructed and fed the crowds who surrounded him." - _Murray's
Exercises_, p. 52. "The court, who gives currency to manners, ought to be
exemplary." - _Ibid._ "Nor does he describe classes of sinners who do not
exist." - _Anti-Slavery Magazine_, i, 27. "Because the nations among whom
they took their rise, were not savage." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 113. "Among
nations who are in the first and rude periods of society." - _Blair's
Rhet._, p. 60. "The martial spirit of those nations, among whom the feudal
government prevailed." - _Ib._, p. 374. "France who was in alliance with
Sweden." - _Smollett's Voltaire_, vi, 187. "That faction in England who most
powerfully opposed his arbitrary pretensions." - _Mrs. Macaulay's Hist._,
iii, 21. "We may say, the crowd, _who_ was going up the
street.'" - _Cobbett's Gram._, ¶ 204. "Such members of the Convention who
formed this Lyceum, as have subscribed this Constitution." - _New-York


"The possessor shall take a particular form to show its case." - _Kirkham's
Gram._, p. 53. "Of which reasons the principal one is, that no Noun,
properly so called, implies its own Presence." - _Harris's Hermes_, p. 76.
"Boston is a proper noun, which distinguishes it from other
cities." - _Sanborn's Gram._, p. 22. "Conjunction means union, or joining
together. It is used to join or unite either words or sentences." - _Ib._,
p. 20. "The word _interjection_ means _thrown among_. It is interspersed
among other words to express sudden or strong emotion." - _Ib._, p. 21. "_In
deed_, or in very deed, may better be written separately, as they formerly
were." - _Cardell's Gram._, 12mo, p. 89. "_Alexander_, on the contrary, is a
particular name, and is restricted to distinguish him alone." - _Jamieson's
Rhet._, p. 25. "As an indication that nature itself had changed her
course." - _Hist. of America_, p. 9. "Of removing from the United States and
her territories the free people of colour." - _Jenifer_. "So that _gh_ may
be said not to have their proper sound." - _Webster's El. Spelling-Book_, p.
10. "Are we to welcome the loathsome harlot, and introduce it to our
children?" - _Maturin's Sermons_, p. 167. "The first question is this, 'Is
reputable, national, and present use, which, for brevity's sake, I shall
hereafter simply denominate good use, always uniform in her
decisions?" - _Campbell's Rhet._, p. 171. "Time is always masculine, on
account of its mighty efficacy. Virtue is feminine from its beauty, and its
being the object of love." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 37; _Blair's_, 125;
_Sanborn's_, 189; _Emmons's_, 13; _Putnam's_, 25; _Fisk's_, 57;
_Ingersoll's_, 26; _Greenleaf's_, 21. See also _Blair's Rhet._, p. 76.
"When you speak to a person or thing, it is in the second
person." - _Bartlett's Manual_, Part ii, p. 27. "You now know the noun, for
it means name." - _Ibid._ "_T_. What do you see? _P_. A book. _T_. Spell
it." - _R. W. Green's Gram._, p. 12. "_T_. What do you see now? _P_. Two
books. _T_. Spell them." - _Ibid._ "If the United States lose her rights as
a nation." - _Liberator_, Vol. ix, p. 24. "When a person or thing is
addressed or spoken to, it is in the second person." - _Frost's El. of
Gram._, p. 7. "When a person or thing is spoken of, it is in the third
person." - _Ibid._ "The ox, that ploughs the ground, has the same plural
termination also, _oxen_." - _Bucke's Classical Gram._, p. 40.

"Hail, happy States! thine is the blissful seat,
Where nature's gifts and art's improvements meet."
EVERETT: _Columbian Orator_, p. 239.


(1.) "This is the most useful art which men possess." - _Murray's Key_, 8vo,
p. 275. "The earliest accounts which history gives us concerning all
nations, bear testimony to these facts." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 379;
_Jamieson's_, 300. "Mr. Addison was the first who attempted a regular
inquiry" [into the pleasures of taste.] - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 28. "One of
the first who introduced it was Montesquieu." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 125.
"Massillon is perhaps the most eloquent writer of sermons which modern
times have produced." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 289. "The greatest barber who
ever lived, is our guiding star and prototype." - _Hart's Figaro_, No. 6.

(2.) "When prepositions are subjoined to nouns, they are generally the same
which are subjoined to the verbs, from which the nouns are
derived." - _Priestley's Gram._, p. 157. "The same proportions which are
agreeable in a model, are not agreeable in a large building." - _Kames, EL
of Crit._, ii, 343. "The same ornaments, which we admire in a private
apartment, are unseemly in a temple." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 128. "The same
whom John saw also in the sun." - _Milton. P. L._, B. iii, l. 623.

(3.) "Who can ever be easy, who is reproached with his own ill
conduct?" - _Thomas à Kempis_, p. 72. "Who is she who comes clothed in a
robe of green?" - _Inst._, p. 143. "Who who has either sense or civility,
does not perceive the vileness of profanity?"

(4.) "The second person denotes the person or thing which is spoken
to." - _Compendium in Kirkham's Gram._ "The third person denotes the person
or thing which is spoken of." - _Ibid._ "A passive verb denotes action
received or endured by the person or thing which is its
nominative." - _Ibid, and Gram._, p. 157. "The princes and states who had
neglected or favoured the growth of this power." - _Bolingbroke, on
History_, p. 222. "The nominative expresses the name of the person, or
thing which acts, or which is the subject of discourse." - _Hiley's Gram._,
p. 19. (5.) "Authors who deal in long sentences, are very apt to be
faulty." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 108. "Writers who deal in long sentences, are
very apt to be faulty." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 313. "The neuter gender
denotes objects which are neither male nor female." - _Merchant's Gram._, p.
26. "The neuter gender denotes things which have no sex." - _Kirkham's
Compendium_. "Nouns which denote objects neither male nor female, are of
the neuter gender." - _Wells's Gram._, 1st Ed., p. 49. "Objects and ideas
which have been long familiar, make too faint an impression to give an
agreeable exercise to our faculties." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 50. "Cases which
custom has left dubious, are certainly within the grammarian's
province." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 164. "Substantives which end in _ery_,
signify action or habit." - _Ib._, p. 132. "After all which can be done to
render the definitions and rules of grammar accurate," &c. - _Ib._, p. 36.
"Possibly, all which I have said, is known and taught." - _A. B. Johnson's
Plan of a Dict._, p. 15.

(6.) "It is a strong and manly style which should chiefly be
studied." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 261. "It is this which chiefly makes a
division appear neat and elegant." - _Ib._, p. 313. "I hope it is not I with
whom he is displeased." - _Murray's Key_, R. 17. "When it is this alone
which renders the sentence obscure." - _Campbell's Rhet._, p. 242. "This
sort of full and ample assertion, _'it is this which_,' is fit to be used
when a proposition of importance is laid down." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 197.
"She is the person whom I understood it to have been." _See Murray's
Gram._, p. 181. "Was it thou, or the wind, who shut the door?" - _Inst._, p.
143. "It was not I who shut it." - _Ib._

(7.) "He is not the person who it seemed he was." - _Murray's Gram._, p.
181; _Ingersoll's_, p. 147. "He is really the person who he appeared to
be." - _Same_. "She is not now the woman whom they represented her to have
been." - _Same_. "An only child, is one who has neither brother nor sister;
a child alone, is one who is left by itself" - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 98;
_Jamieson's_, 71; _Murray's Gram._ 303.


(1.) "A Substantive, or Noun, is the name of a thing; of whatever we
conceive in any way to subsist, or of which we have any notion." - _Lowth's
Gram._, p. 14. (2.) "A Substantive or noun is the name of any thing that
exists, or of which we have any notion." - _L. Murray's Gram._, p. 27;
_Alger's_, 15; _Bacon's_, 9; _E. Dean's_, 8; _A. Flint's_, 10; _Folker's_,
5; _Hamlin's_, 9; _Ingersoll's_, 14; _Merchant's_, 25; _Pond's_, 15; _S.
Putnam's_, 10; _Rand's_, 9; _Russell's_, 9; _T. Smith's_, 12; and others.
(3.) "A substantive or noun is the name of any person, place, or thing that
exists, or of which we can have an idea." - _Frost's El. of E. Gram._, p. 6.
(4.) "A noun is the name of anything that exists, or of which we form an
idea." - _Hallock's Gram._, p. 37. (5.) "A Noun is the name of any person,
place, object, or thing, that exists, or which we may conceive to
exist." - _D. C. Allen's Grammatic Guide_, p. 19. (6.) "The name of every
thing that exists, or of which we can form any notion, is a noun." - _Fisk's
Murray's Gram._, p. 56. (7.) "An allegory is the representation of some one
thing by an other that resembles it, and which is made to stand for
it." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 341. (8.) "Had he exhibited such sentences as
contained ideas inapplicable to young minds, or which were of a trivial or
injurious nature." - _Murray's Gram._, Vol. ii, p. v. (9.) "Man would have
others obey him, even his own kind; but he will not obey God, that is so
much above him, and who made him." - _Penn's Maxims_. (10.) "But what we may
consider here, and which few Persons have taken Notice of, is,"
&c. - _Brightland's Gram._, p. 117. (11.) "The Compiler has not inserted
such verbs as are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and
which are improperly terminated by _t_, instead of _ed_." - _Murray's
Gram._, p. 107; _Fisk's_, 81; _Hart's_, 68; _Ingersoll's_, 104;
_Merchant's_, 63. (12.) "The remaining parts of speech, which are called
the indeclinable parts, or that admit of no variations, will not detain us
long." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 84.


"In the temper of mind he was then." - _Addison, Spect._, No. 54. "To bring
them into the condition I am at present." - _Spect._, No. 520. "In the
posture I lay." - _Swift's Gulliver_. "In the sense it is sometimes
taken." - _Barclay's Works_, i, 527. "Tools and utensils are said to be
_right_, when they serve for the uses they were made." - _Collier's
Antoninus_, p. 99. "If, in the extreme danger I now am, I do not imitate
the behaviour of those," &c. - _Goldsmith's Greece_, i, 193. "News was

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