Goold Brown.

The Grammar of English Grammars online

. (page 182 of 254)
Online LibraryGoold BrownThe Grammar of English Grammars → online text (page 182 of 254)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

expressive of the eagerness and fickleness of the passion of love." - _Ib._,
p. 90. These pretended metrical characteristics seem scarcely more worthy
of reliance, than astrological predictions, or the oracular guessings of
our modern craniologists.

OBS. 3. - Dr. Campbell repeats a suggestion of the older critics, that
gayety belongs naturally to all trochaics, as such, and gravity or
grandeur, as naturally, to iambics; and he attempts to find a reason for
the fact; while, perhaps, even here - more plausible though the supposition
is - the fact may be at least half imaginary. "The iambus," says he, "is
expressive of dignity and grandeur; the trochee, on the contrary, according
to Aristotle, (Rhet. Lib. Ill,) is frolicsome and gay. It were difficult to
assign a reason of this difference that would be satisfactory; but of the
thing itself, I imagine, most people will be sensible on comparing the two
kinds together. I know not whether it will be admitted as a sufficient
reason, that the distinction into metrical feet hath a much greater
influence in poetry on the rise and fall of the voice, than the distinction
into words; and if so, when the cadences happen mostly after the long
syllables, the verse will naturally have an air of greater gravity than
when they happen mostly after the short." - _Campbell's Philosophy of
Rhetoric_, p. 354.


_Example I. - Youth and Age Contrasted_.

"Crabbed | age and | youth
Cannot | live to | -gether;
Youth is | full of | pleasance,
Age is | full of | care:
Youth, like | summer | morn,
Age, like | winter | weather;
Youth, like | summer, | brave;
Age, like | winter, | bare.
Youth is | full of | sport,
Age's | breath is | short,
Youth is | nimble, | age is | lame;
Youth is | hot and | bold,
Age is | weak and | cold;
Youth is | wild, and | age is | tame."
_The Passionate Pilgrim_; SINGER'S SHAKSPEARE, Vol. ii p. 594.

_Example II - Common Sense and Genius_.


"While I | touch the | string,
Wreathe my | brows with | laurel;
For the | tale I | sing,
Has, for | once, a | moral!


Common | Sense went | on,
Many | wise things | saying;
While the | light that | shone,
Soon set | Genius | straying.


One his eye ne'er | rais'd
From the | path be | -fore him;
T' other | idly | gaz'd
On each | night-cloud | o'er him.


While I | touch the | string,
Wreathe my | brows with | laurel;
For the | tale I | sing,
Has, for | once, a | moral!


So they | came, at | last,
To a | shady | river;
Common | Sense soon |pass'd
Safe, - as | he doth | ever.


While the | boy whose | look
Was in | heav'n that | minute,
Never | saw the | brook, -
_But tum_ | _-bled head_ | _-long in it_."
_Six Stanzas from Twelve_. - MOORE'S MELODIES, p. 271.

This short measure is much oftener used in stanzas, than in couplets. It
is, in many instances, combined with some different order or metre of
verse, as in the following: -

_Example III. - Part of a Song_.

"Go where | glory | waits thee,
But while | fame e | -lates thee,
_Oh! still | remem | -ber me_.
When the | praise thou | meetest,
To thine | ear is | sweetest,
_Oh! then | remem | -ber me_.
Other | arms may | press thee,
Dearer | friends ca | -ress thee,
All the | joys that | bless thee,
Sweeter | far may | be:
But when | friends are | nearest,
And when | joys are | dearest,
_Oh! then | remem | -ber me._

When, at | eve, thou | rovest,
By the | star thou | lovest,
_Oh! then | remem | -ber me_.
Think when | home re | -turning,
Bright we've | seen it | burning;
_Oh! thus | remem | -ber me_.
Oft as | summer | closes,
When thine | eye re | -poses
On its | ling'ring | roses,
Once so | loved by | thee,
Think of | her who | wove them,
Her who | made thee | love them;
_Oh! then | remem | -ber me_."
MOORE'S _Melodies, Songs, and Airs_, p. 107.

_Example IV. - From an Ode to the Thames_.

"On thy | shady | margin,
Care its | load dis | -charging,
_Is lull'd | to gen | -tle rest_:

Britain | thus dis | -arming,
Nothing | her a | -larming,
_Shall sleep on Cæ | -sar's breast_."
See ROWE'S POEMS: _Johnson's British Poets_, Vol. iv, p. 58.

_Example V. - "The True Poet" - First Two of Nine Stanzas_.

"Poet | of the | heart,
Delving | in its | mine,
From man | -kind a | -part,
Yet where | jewels | shine;
Heaving | upward | to the | light,
Precious | wealth that | charms the | sight;


Toil thou | still, deep | down,
For earth's | hidden | gems;
They shall | deck a | crown,
Blaze in | dia | -dems;
_And when | thy hand | shall fall | to rest_,
Brightly | jewel | beauty's | breast."
JANE B. LOCKE: _N. Y. Evening Post; The Examiner, No. 98_.

_Example VI. - "Summer Longings" - First Two of Five Stanzas_.

"Ah! my | heart is | ever | waiting,
Waiting | for the | May, -
Waiting | for the | pleasant | rambles
Where the | fragrant | hawthorn | brambles,
With the | woodbine | alter | -nating,
Scent the | dewy | way.
Ah! my | heart is | weary | waiting,
Waiting | for the | May.

Ah! my | heart is | sick with | longing,
Longing | for the | May, -
Longing | to e | -scape from | study,
To the | young face | fair and | ruddy,
And the | thousand | charms be | -longing
To the | Summer's | day.
Ah! my | heart is | sick with | longing,
Longing | for the | May."
"D. F. M. C.:" _Dublin University Magazine; Liberator, No_. 952.


_Example I. - Three Short Excerpts._


"My flocks | feed not,
My ewes | breed not,
My rams | speed not,
All is | _amiss_:
Love's de | -nying,
Faith's de | -fying,
Heart's re | -nying,
Causer | _of this_."


"In black | mourn I,
All fears | scorn I,
Love hath | lorn me,
Living | _in thrall_:
Heart is | bleeding,
All help | needing.
(Cruel | speeding,)
Fraughted | _with gall_."


"Clear wells | spring not.
Sweet birds | sing not,
Loud bells | ring not
Herds stand | weeping,
Flocks all | sleeping,
Nymphs back | creeping
SHAKSPEARE: _The Passionate Pilgrim_. See Sec. xv.

_Example II. - Specimen with Single Rhyme.

"To Quinbus Flestrin, the Man-Mountain"_



"In a | -maze,
Lost, I | gaze.
Can our | eyes
Reach thy | size?
May my | lays
Swell with | praise,
Worthy | thee,
Worthy | me!
Muse, in | -spire
All thy | fire!
Bards of | old
Of him | told,
When they | said
Atlas' | head
Propp'd the | skies:
See! and | _believe_ | _your eyes!_


"See him | stride
Valleys | wide:
Over | woods,
Over | floods,
When he | treads,
Mountains' | heads
Groan and | shake:
Armies | quake,
Lest his | spurn
Over | -turn
Man and | steed:
Troops, take | heed!
Left and | right
Speed your | flight!
Lest an | host
_Beneath_ | _his foot_ | _be lost_.


"Turn'd a | -side
From his | hide,
Safe from | wound,
Darts re | -bound.
From his | nose,
Clouds he | blows;
When he | speaks,
Thunder | breaks!
When he | eats,
Famine | threats!
When he | drinks,
Neptune | shrinks!
Nigh thy | ear,
In mid | air,
On thy | hand,
Let me | stand.
So shall | I
(Lofty | poet!) touch the sky."
JOHN GAY: _Johnson's British Poets_, Vol. vii, p. 376.

_Example III. - Two Feet with Four._

"Oh, the | pleasing, | pleasing | anguish,
When we | love, and | when we | languish!
Wishes | rising!
Thoughts sur | -prising!
Pleasure | courting!
Charms trans | -porting!
Fancy | viewing
Joys en | -suing!
Oh, the | pleasing, | pleasing | anguish!"
ADDISON'S _Rosamond_, Act i, Scene 6.

_Example IV. - Lines of Three Syllables with Longer Metres_.


"Or we | sometimes | pass an | hour
Under | a green | willow,
That de | -fends us | from the | shower,
Making | earth our | pillow;
Where we | may
Think and | pray,
B=e'fore | death
Stops our | breath:
Other | joys,
Are but | toys,
And to | be la | -mented." [515]


"What sounds | were heard,
What scenes | appear'd,
O'er all | the drear | -y coasts!
Dreadful | gleams,
Dismal | screams,
Fires that | glow,
Shrieks of | wo,
Sullen | moans,
Hollow | groans,
And cries | of tor | -tur'd ghosts!"
POPE: _Johnson's Brit. Poets_, Vol. vi, p. 315.

_Example V. - "The Shower." - In Four Regular Stanzas_.


"In a | valley | that I | know -
Happy | scene!
There are | meadows | sloping | low,
There the | fairest | flowers | blow,
And the | brightest | waters | flow.
All se | -rene;
But the | sweetest | thing to | see,
If you | ask the | dripping | tree,
Or the | harvest | -hoping | swain,
Is the | Rain.


Ah, the | dwellers | of the | town,
How they | sigh, -
How un | -grateful | -ly they | frown,
When the | cloud-king | shakes his | crown,
And the | pearls come | pouring | down
From the | sky!
They de | -scry no | charm at | all
Where the | sparkling | jewels | fall,
And each | moment | of the | shower,
Seems an | hour!


Yet there's | something | very | sweet
In the | sight,
When the | crystal | currents | meet
In the | dry and | dusty | street,
And they | wrestle | with the | heat,
In their | might!
While they | seem to | hold a | talk
With the | stones a | -long the | walk,
And re | -mind them | of the | rule,
To 'keep | cool!'


Ay, but | in that | quiet | dell,
Ever | fair,
Still the | Lord doth | all things | well,
When his | clouds with | blessings | swell,
And they | break a | brimming | shell
On the | air;
There the | shower | hath its | charms,
Sweet and | welcome | to the | farms
As they | listen | to its | voice,
And re | -joice!"
Rev. RALPH HOYT'S _Poems: The Examiner_, Nov. 6, 1847.

_Example VI. - "A Good Name?" - Two Beautiful Little Stanzas_.


"Children, | choose it,
Don't re | -fuse it,
'Tis a | precious | dia | -dem;
Highly | prize it,
Don't de | -spise it,
You will | need it | when you're | men.


Love and | cherish,
Keep and | nourish,
'Tis more | precious | far than | gold;
Watch and | guard it,
Don't dis | -card it,
You will | need it | when you're | old."
_The Family Christian Almanac, for 1850_, p. 20.


OBS. 1. - Trochaics of two feet, like those of three, are, more frequently
than otherwise, found in connexion with longer lines, as in some of the
examples above cited. The trochaic line of three syllables, which our
prosodists in general describe as consisting, not of two feet; but "of one
Trochee and a long syllable," may, when it stands alone, be supposed to
consist of one _amphimac_; but, since this species of foot is not admitted
by all, and is reckoned a secondary one by those who do admit it, the
better practice is, to divide even the three syllables into two feet, as

OBS. 2. - Murray, Hart, Weld, and many others, erroneously affirm, that,
"The _shortest_ Trochaic verse in our language, consists of one Trochee and
a long syllable." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 256; _Hart's, First Edition_, p.
186; _Weld's, Second Edition_, p. 210. The error of this will be shown by
examples below - examples of _true "Trochaic Monometer_," and not of Dimeter
mistaken for it, like Weld's, Hart's, or Murray's.

OBS. 3. - These authors also aver, that, "This measure is _defective in
dignity_, and can seldom be used on serious occasions." - _Same places_.
"Trochaic of _two feet_ - is likewise so _brief_, that," in their opinion,
"it is rarely used for any very serious purpose." - _Same places_. Whether
the expression of love, or of its disappointment, is "any very serious
purpose" or not, I leave to the decision of the reader. What lack of
dignity or seriousness there is, in several of the foregoing examples,
especially the last two, I think it not easy to discover.


_Examples with Longer Metres_.


"Fr~om w=alk | t~o w=alk, | fr~om sh=ade | t~o sh=ade,
From stream to purl | -ing stream | convey'd,
Through all | the ma | -zes of | the grove,
Through all | the ming | -ling tracks | I rove,
F=ull ~of | gri=ef ~and | f=ull ~of | l=ove."
ADDISON'S _Rosamond_, Act I, Sc. 4:
_Everett's Versification_, p. 81.


"T~o l=ove ~and t~o l=angu~ish,
T~o s=igh | ~and c~ompl=ain,
H~ow cr=u~el's th~e =angu~ish!
H~ow t~orm=ent | -~ing th~e p=ain!
O the curse | of disdain!
How torment | -ing's the pain!"
GEO. GRANVILLE: _Br. Poets_, Vol. v, p. 31.


OBS. 1. - The metres acknowledged in our ordinary schemes of prosody,
scarcely amount, with all their "boundless variety," to more than one half,
or three quarters, of what may be found in _actual use_ somewhere. Among
the foregoing examples, are some which are longer, and some which are
shorter, than what are commonly known to our grammarians; and some, also,
which seem easily practicable, though perhaps not so easily quotable. This
last trochaic metre, so far as I know, has not been used alone, - that is,
without longer lines, - except where grammarians so set examples of it in
their prosodies.

OBS. 2. - "Trochaic of One foot," as well as "Iambic of One foot," was, I
believe, first recognized, prosodically, in Brown's Institutes of English
Grammar, a work first published in 1823. Since that time, both have
obtained acknowledgement in sundry schemes of versification, contained in
the new grammars; as in Farnum's, and Hallock's, of 1842; in Pardon
Davis's, of 1845; in S. W. Clark's, and S. S. Greene's, of 1848; in
Professor Fowler's, of 1850. Wells, in his School Grammar, of 1846, and D.
C. Allen, in an other, of 1847, give to the _length of lines_ a laxity
positively absurd: "_Rhymed_ verses," say they, "may consist of _any
number_ of syllables." - _Wells_, 1st Ed., p. 187; late Ed., 204; _Allen_,
p. 88. Everett has recognized "_The line of a single Trochee_," though he
repudiates some long measures that are much more extensively authorized.


In full Anapestic verse, the stress is laid on every third syllable, the
first two syllables of each foot being short. The first foot of an
anapestic line, may be an iambus. This is the most frequent diversification
of the order. But, as a diversification, it is, of course, not _regular_ or
_uniform_. The stated or uniform adoption of the iambus for a part of each
line, and of the anapest for the residue of it, produces verse of the
_Composite Order_. As the anapest ends with a long syllable, its rhymes are
naturally single; and a short syllable after this, producing double rhyme,
is, of course, supernumerary: so are the two, when the rhyme is triple.
Some prosodists suppose, a surplus at the end of a line may compensate for
a deficiency at the beginning of the next line; but this I judge to be an
error, or at least the indulgence of a questionable license. The following
passage has two examples of what may have been _meant_ for such
compensation, the author having used a dash where I have inserted what
seems to be a necessary word: -

"Apol | -lo smil'd shrewd | -ly, and bade | him sit down,
With 'Well, | Mr. Scott, | you have man | -aged the town;
Now pray, | copy less - | have a lit | -tle temer | -_~it~y_ -
[And] Try | if you can't | also man | -age poster | -_ity_.
[For] All | you add now | only les | -sens your cred | -_it_;
And how | could you think, | too, of tak | -ing to ed | -_ite?_'"
LEIGH HUNT'S _Feast of the Poets_, page 20.

The anapestic measures are few; because their feet are long, and no poet
has chosen to set a great many in a line. Possibly lines of five anapests,
or of four and an initial iambus, might be written; for these would
scarcely equal in length some of the iambics and trochaics already
exhibited. But I do not find any examples of such metre. The longest
anapestics that have gained my notice, are of fourteen syllables, being
tetrameters with triple rhyme, or lines of four anapests and two short
surplus syllables. This order consists therefore of measures reducible to
the following heads: -


_Example I. - A "Postscript." - An Example with Hypermeter._

"Lean Tom, | when I saw | him, last week, | on his _horse_ | _awry_,
Threaten'd loud | -ly to turn | me to stone | with his _sor_ | -_cery_.
But, I think, | little Dan, | that, in spite | of what _our_
| _foe says_,
He will find | I read Ov | -id and his | Meta_mor_ | -_phoses_.
For, omit | -ting the first, | (where I make | a com_par_ | -_ison_,
With a sort | of allu | -sion to Put | -land or _Har_ | -_rison_,)
Yet, by | my descrip | -tion, you'll find | he in _short_ | _is_
A pack | and a gar | -ran, a top | and a _tor_ | -_toise_.
So I hope | from hencefor | -ward you ne'er | will ask, _can_
| _I maul_
This teas | -ing, conceit | -ed, rude, in | -solent _an_ | -_imal?_
And, if | this rebuke | might be turn'd | to his _ben_ | -_efit_,
(For I pit | -y the man,) | I should | be glad _then_ | _of it_"
SWIFT'S POEMS: _Johnson's British Poets_, Vol. v, p. 324.

_Example II. - "The Feast of the Poets." - First Twelve Lines._

"T' other day, | as Apol | -lo sat pitch | -ing his darts
Through the clouds | of Novem | -ber, by fits | and by starts,
He began | to consid | -er how long | it had been
Since the bards | of Old Eng | -land had all | been rung in.
'I think,' | said the god, | recollect | -ing, (and then
He fell twid | -dling a sun | -beam as I | may my pen,)
'I think - | let me see - | yes, it is, | I declare,
As long | ago now | as that Buck | -ingham there;
And yet | I can't see | why I've been | so remiss,
Unless | it may be - | and it cer | -tainly is,
That since Dry | -den's fine ver | -ses and Mil | -ton's sublime,
I have fair | -ly been sick | of their sing | -song and rhyme.'"
LEIGH HUNT: _Poems_, New-York Edition, of 1814.

_Example III. - The Crowning of Four Favourites._

"Then, 'Come,' | cried the god | in his el | -egant mirth,
'Let us make | us a heav'n | of our own | upon earth,
And wake, | with the lips | that we dip | in our bowls,
That divin | -est of mu | -sic - conge | -nial souls.'
So say | -ing, he led | through the din | -ing-room door,
And, seat | -ing the po | -ets, cried, 'Lau | -rels for four!'
No soon | -er demand | -ed, than, lo! | they were there,
And each | of the bards | had a wreath | in his hair.
Tom Camp | -bell's with wil | -low and pop | -lar was twin'd,
And South | -ey's, with moun | -tain-ash, pluck'd | in the wind;
And Scott's, | with a heath | from his old | garden stores,
And, with vine | -leaves and jump | -up-and-kiss | -me, Tom Moore's."
LEIGH HUNT: from line 330 to line 342.

_Example IV. - "Glenara." - First Two of Eight Stanzas._

"O heard | ye yon pi | -broch sound sad | in the gale,
Where a band | cometh slow | -ly with weep | -ing and wail!
'Tis the chief | of Glena | -ra laments | for his dear;
And her sire, | and the peo | -ple, are called | to her bier.

Glena | -ra came first | with the mourn | -ers and shroud;
Her kins | -men, they fol | -lowed, but mourned | not aloud;
Their plaids | all their bo | -soms were fold | -ed around;
They marched | all in si | -lence - they looked | on the ground."
T. CAMPBELL'S _Poetical Works_, p. 105.

_Example V. - "Lochiel's Warning." - Ten Lines from Eighty-six._

"'Tis the sun | -set of life | gives me mys | -tical lore,
And com | -ing events | cast their shad | -ows before.
I tell | thee, Cullo | -den's dread ech | -oes shall ring
With the blood | -hounds that bark | for thy fu | -gitive king.
Lo! anoint | -ed by Heav'n | with the vi | -als of wrath,
Behold, | where he flies | on his des | -olate path!
Now, in dark | -ness and bil | -lows he sweeps | from my sight;
Rise! rise! | ye wild tem | -pests, and cov | -er his flight!
'Tis fin | -ished. Their thun | -ders are hushed | on the moors;
Cullo | -den is lost, | and my coun | -try deplores." - _Ib._, p. 89.

_Example VI. - "The Exile of Erin." - The First of Five Stanzas._

"There came | to the beach | a poor Ex | -ile of E | -_r~in_,
The dew | on his thin | robe was heav | -y and chill;
For his coun | -try he sighed, | when at twi | -light repair | -_~ing_
To wan | -der alone | by the wind | -beaten hill.
But the day | -star attract | -ed his eye's | sad devo | -_t~ion_,
For it rose | o'er his own | native isle | of the o | -_c~ean_,
Where once, | in the fire | of his youth | -ful emo | _t~ion_,
He sang | the bold an | -them of E | -rin go bragh." - _Ib._, p. 116.

_Example VII. - "The Poplar Field."_

"_The pop_ | -lars are fell'd, | _farewell_ | to the shade,
And the whis | -pering sound | of the cool | colonnade;
_The winds_ | play no lon | -ger and sing | in the leaves,
_Nor Ouse_ | on his bo | -som their im | -age receives.
_Twelve years_ | have elaps'd, | since I last | took a view
Of my fa | -vourite field, | and the bank | where they grew;
_And now_ | in the grass | _behold_ | they are laid,
And the tree | is my seat | that once lent | me a shade.
_The black_ | -bird has fled | to anoth | -er retreat,
Where the ha | -zels afford | him a screen | from the heat,
And the scene, | where his mel | -ody charm'd | me before,
_Resounds_ | with his sweet | -flowing dit | -ty no more.
_My fu_ | -gitive years | are all hast | -ing away,
_And I_ | must ere long | lie as low | -ly as they,
With a turf | on my breast, | and a stone | at my head,
Ere anoth | -er such grove | shall arise | in its stead.
'Tis a sight | to engage | me, if an | -y thing can,
_To muse_ | on the per | -ishing pleas | -ures of man;
Though his life | be a dream, | his enjoy | -ments, I see,
Have a be | -ing less dur | -able e | -ven than he."
COWPER'S _Poems_, Vol. i, p. 257.


OBS. 1. - Everett avers, that, "The purely Anapestic measure is more easily
constructed than the Trochee, [Trochaic,] and of much more frequent
occurrence." - _English Versification_, p. 97. Both parts of this assertion
are at least very questionable; and so are this author's other suggestions,
that, "The Anapest is [necessarily] the vehicle of _gayety and joy_;" that,
"Whenever this measure is employed in the treating of _sad_ subjects, _the
effect is destroyed_;" that, "Whoever should attempt to write an elegy in
this measure, would be _sure to fail_;" that, "The words might express
grief, but the measure _would express joy_;" that, "The Anapest should
never be employed throughout a _long piece_;" because "buoyancy of spirits
can never be supposed to last," - "sadness _never leaves us_, BUT joy
remains but for a moment;" and, again, because, "the measure is
_exceedingly monotonous_." - _Ibid._, pp. 97 and 98.

Online LibraryGoold BrownThe Grammar of English Grammars → online text (page 182 of 254)