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learnedest of the Greeks." - _Ib._, p. 120. "The learneder thou art, the
humbler be thou." - _Ib._, p. 228. "He is none of the best or honestest." -
_Ib._, p. 274. "The properest methods of communicating it to others." -
_Burn's Gram._, Prof, p. viii. "What heaven's great King hath powerfullest
to send against us." - _Paradise Lost_. "Benedict is not the unhopefullest
husband that I know." - SHAK.: _in Joh. Dict._ "That he should immediately
do all the meanest and triflingest things himself." - RAY: _in Johnson's
Gram._, p. 6. "I shall be named among the famousest of women." - MILTON'S
_Samson Agonistes: ib._ "Those have the inventivest heads for all
purposes." - ASCHAM: _ib._ "The wretcheder are the contemners of all
helps." - BEN JONSON: _ib._ "I will now deliver a few of the properest and
naturallest considerations that belong to this piece." - WOTTON: _ib._ "The
mortalest poisons practised by the West Indians, have some mixture of the
blood, fat, or flesh of man." - BACON: _ib._ "He so won upon him, that he
rendered him one of the faithfulest and most affectionate allies the Medes
ever had." - _Rollin_, ii, 71. "'You see before you,' says he to him, 'the
most devoted servant, and the faithfullest ally, you ever had.'" - _Ib._,
ii, 79. "I chose the flourishing'st tree in all the park." - _Cowley_.
"Which he placed, I think, some centuries backwarder than Julius Africanus
thought fit to place it afterwards." - _Bolingbroke, on History_, p. 53.
"The Tiber, the notedest river of Italy." - _Littleton's Dict._

"To fartherest shores the ambrosial spirit flies."
- _Cutler's Gram._, p. 140.

- - "That what she wills to do or say,
Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best."
- _Milton_, B. viii, l. 550.


LESSON II. - MIXED.

"During the three or four first years of its
existence." - _Taylor's District School_, p. 27.

[FORMULE. - Not proper, because the cardinal numbers, _three_ and _four_ are
put before the ordinal _first_. But, according to the 7th part of Obs. 7th,
page 280th, "In specifying any part of a series, we ought to place the
cardinal number after the ordinal." Therefore the words _three_ and _four_
should be placed after _first_; thus, "During the _first three_ or _four_
years of its existence."]

"To the first of these divisions, my ten last lectures have been
devoted." - _Adams's Rhet._, Vol. i, p. 391. "There are in the twenty-four
states not less than sixty thousand common schools." - _Taylor's District
School_, p. 38. "I know of nothing which gives teachers so much trouble as
this want of firmness." - _Ib._, p. 57. "I know of nothing that throws such
darkness over the line which separates right from wrong." - _Ib._, p. 58.
"None need this purity and simplicity of language and thought so much as
the common school instructor." - _Ib._, p. 64. "I know of no periodical that
is so valuable to the teacher as the Annals of Education." - _Ib._, p. 67.
"Are not these schools of the highest importance? Should not every
individual feel the deepest interest in their character and
condition?" - _Ib._, p. 78. "If instruction were made a profession, teachers
would feel a sympathy for each other." - _Ib._, p. 93. "Nothing is so likely
to interest children as novelty and change." - _Ib._, p. 131. "I know of no
labour which affords so much happiness as that of the teacher's." - _Ib._,
p. 136. "Their school exercises are the most pleasant and agreeable of any
that they engage in." - _Ib._, p. 136. "I know of no exercise so beneficial
to the pupil as that of drawing maps." - _Ib._, p. 176. "I know of nothing
in which our district schools are so defective as they are in the art of
teaching grammar." - _Ib._, p. 196. "I know of nothing so easily acquired as
history." - _Ib._ p. 206. "I know of nothing for which scholars usually have
such an abhorrence, as composition." - _Ib._, p. 210. "There is nothing in
our fellow-men that we should respect with so much sacredness as their good
name." - _Ib._, p. 307. "Sure never any thing was so unbred as that odious
man." - CONGREVE: _in Joh. Dict._ "In the dialogue between the mariner and
the shade of the deceast." - _Philological Museum_, i, 466. "These
master-works would still be less excellent and finisht" - _Ib._, i, 469.
"Every attempt to staylace the language of polisht conversation, renders
our phraseology inelegant and clumsy." - _Ib._, i, 678. "Here are a few of
the unpleasant'st words that ever blotted paper." - SHAK.: _in Joh. Dict._
"With the most easy, undisobliging transitions." - BROOME: _ib._ "Fear is,
of all affections, the unaptest to admit any conference with
reason." - HOOKER: _ib._ "Most chymists think glass a body more
undestroyable than gold itself." - BOYLE: _ib._ "To part with unhackt edges,
and bear back our barge undinted." - SHAK.: _ib._ "Erasmus, who was an
unbigotted Roman Catholic, was transported with this passage." - ADDISON:
_ib._ "There are no less than five words, with any of which the sentence
might have terminated." - _Campbell's Rhet._, p. 397. "The one preach Christ
of contention; but the other, of love." - _Philippians_, i, 16. "Hence we
find less discontent and heart-burnings, than where the subjects are
unequally burdened." - _Art of Thinking_, p. 56.

"The serpent, subtil'st beast of all the field,
I knew; but not with human voice indu'd."
- MILTON: _Joh. Dict., w. Human._

"How much more grievous would our lives appear,
To reach th' eighth hundred, than the eightieth year?"
- DENHAM: B. P., ii, 244.


LESSON III. - MIXED.

"Brutus engaged with Aruns; and so fierce was the attack, that they pierced
one another at the same time." - _Lempriere's Dict._

[FORMULE. - Not proper, because the phrase _one another_ is here applied to
two persons only, the words _an_ and _other_ being needlessly compounded.
But, according to Observation 15th, on the Classes of Adjectives, _each
other_ must be applied to two persons or things, and _one an other_ to more
than two. Therefore _one another_ should here be _each other_; thus,
"Brutus engaged with Aruns; and so fierce was the attack, that they pierced
_each other_ at the same time."]

"Her two brothers were one after another turned into stone." - _Art of
Thinking_, p. 194. "Nouns are often used as adjectives; as, A _gold_-ring,
a _silver_-cup." - _Lennie's Gram._, p. 14. "Fire and water destroy one
another." - _Wanostrocht's Gram._, p. 82. "Two negatives in English destroy
one another, or are equivalent to an affirmative." - _Lowth's Gram._, p. 94;
_E. Devis's_, 111; _Mack's_, 147; _Murray's_, 198; _Churchill's_, 148;
_Putnam's_, 135; _C. Adams's_, 102; _Hamlin's_, 79; _Alger's_, 66;
_Fisk's_, 140; _Ingersoll's_, 207; and _many others_. "Two negatives
destroy one another, and are generally equivalent to an
affirmative." - _Kirkham's Gram._, p. 191; _Felton's_, 85. "Two negatives
destroy one another and make an affirmative." - _J. Flint's Gram._, p. 79.
"Two negatives destroy one another, being equivalent to an
affirmative." - _Frost's El. of E. Gram._, p. 48. "Two objects, resembling
one another, are presented to the imagination." - _Parker's Exercises in
Comp._, p. 47. "Mankind, in order to hold converse with each other, found
it necessary to give names to objects." - _Kirkham's Gram._, p. 42. "Words
are derived from each other[185] in various ways." - _Cooper's Gram._, p.
108. "There are many other ways of deriving words from one
another." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 131. "When several verbs connected by
conjunctions, succeed each other in a sentence, the auxiliary is usually
omitted except with the first." - _Frost's Gram._, p. 91. "Two or more
verbs, having the same nominative case, and immediately following one
another, are also separated by commas." [186] - _Murray's Gram._, p. 270;
_C. Adams's_, 126; _Russell's_, 113; and others. "Two or more adverbs
immediately succeeding each other, must be separated by commas." - _Same
Grammars_. "If, however, the members succeeding each other, are very
closely connected, the comma is unnecessary." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 273;
_Comly's_, 152; _and others_. "Gratitude, when exerted towards one another,
naturally produces a very pleasing sensation in the mind of a grateful
man." - _Mur._, p. 287. "Several verbs in the infinitive mood, having a
common dependence, and succeeding one another, are also divided by
commas." - _Comly's Gram._, p. 153. "The several words of which it consists,
have so near a relation to each other." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 268;
_Comly's_, 144; _Russell's_, 111; _and others_. "When two or more verbs
have the same nominative, and immediately follow one another, or two or
more adverbs immediately succeed one another, they must be separated by
commas." - _Comly's Gram._, p. 145. "Nouns frequently succeed each other,
meaning the same thing." - _Sanborn's Gram._, p. 63. "And these two tenses
may thus answer one another." - _Johnson's Gram._ _Com._, p. 322. "Or some
other relation which two objects bear to one another." - _Jamieson's Rhet._,
p. 149. "That the heathens tolerated each other, is allowed." - _Gospel its
own Witness_, p. 76. "And yet these two persons love one another
tenderly." - _Murray's E. Reader_, p. 112. "In the six hundredth and first
year." - _Gen._, viii, 13. "Nor is this arguing of his but a reiterate
clamour." - _Barclay's Works_, i, 250. "In severals of them the inward life
of Christianity is to be found." - _Ib._, iii, 272. "Though Alvarez,
Despauterius, and other, allow it not to be Plural." - _Johnson's Gram.
Com._, p. 169. "Even the most dissipate and shameless blushed at the
sight." - _Lemp. Dict., w. Antiochus_. "We feel a superior satisfaction in
surveying the life of animals, than that of vegetables." - _Jamieson's
Rhet._, 172. "But this man is so full fraughted with malice." - _Barclay's
Works_, i11, 205. "That I suggest some things concerning the properest
means." - _Blair's Rhet._, p. 337.

"So hand in hand they pass'd, the loveliest pair
That ever since in love's embraces met."
- _Milton_, P. L., B., iv, l. 321.

"Aim at the high'est, without the high'est attain'd
Will be for thee no sitting, or not long."
- _Id._, P. R., B. iv, l. 106.




CHAPTER V. - PRONOUNS.

A Pronoun is a word used in stead of a noun: as, The boy loves _his_ book;
_he_ has long lessons, and _he_ learns _them_ well.

The pronouns in our language are twenty-four; and their variations are
thirty-two: so that the number of _words_ of this class, is fifty-six.

OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1. - The word for which a pronoun stands, is called its _antecedent_,
because it usually precedes the pronoun. But some have limited the term
_antecedent_ to the word represented by a _relative_ pronoun. There can be
no propriety in this, unless we will have every pronoun to be a relative,
when it stands for a noun which precedes it; and, if so, it should be
called something else, when the noun is to be found elsewhere. In the
example above, _his_ and _he_ represent _boy_, and _them_ represents
_lessons_; and these nouns are as truly the antecedents to the pronouns, as
any can be. Yet _his, he_, and _them_, in our most approved grammars, are
not called relative pronouns, but personal.

OBS. 2. - Every pronoun may be explained as standing for the _name_ of
something, for the _thing itself_ unnamed, or for a _former pronoun_; and,
with the noun, pronoun, or thing, for which it stands, every pronoun must
agree in person, number, and gender. The exceptions to this, whether
apparent or real, are very few; and, as their occurrence is unfrequent,
there will be little occasion to notice them till we come to syntax. But if
the student will observe the use and import of pronouns, he may easily see,
that some of them are put _substantively_, for nouns not previously
introduced; some, _relatively_, for nouns or pronouns going before; some,
_adjectively_, for nouns that must follow them in any explanation which can
be made of the sense. These three modes of substitution, are very
different, each from the others. Yet they do not serve for an accurate
division of the pronouns; because it often happens, that a substitute which
commonly represents the noun in one of these ways, will sometimes represent
it in an other.

OBS. 3. - The pronouns _I_ and _thou_, in their different modifications,
stand immediately for persons that are, in general, sufficiently known
without being named; (_I_ meaning _the speaker_, and _thou, the hearer_;)
their antecedents, or nouns, are therefore generally _understood_. The
other personal pronouns, also, are sometimes taken in a general and
demonstrative sense, to denote persons or things not previously mentioned;
as, "_He_ that hath knowledge, spareth his words." - _Bible_. Here _he_ is
equivalent to _the man_, or _the person_. "The care of posterity is most in
_them_ that have no posterity." - _Bacon_. Here _them_ is equivalent to
_those persons_. "How far do you call _it_ to such a place?" - _Priestley's
Gram._, p. 85. Here _it_, according to Priestley, is put for _the
distance_. "For the priest's lips should keep knowledge, and _they_ should
seek the law at his mouth." - _Malachi_, ii, 7. Here _they_ is put
indefinitely for _men_ or _people_. So _who_ and _which_, though called
relatives, do not always relate to a noun or pronoun going before them; for
_who_ may be a direct substitute for _what person_; and _which_ may mean
_which person_, or _which thing_: as, "And he that was healed, wist not
_who_ it was." - _John_, v, 13. That is, "_The man who_ was healed, knew not
_what person_ it was." "I care not _which_ you take; they are so much
alike, one cannot tell _which_ is _which_."

OBS. 4. - A pronoun with which a question is asked, usually stands for some
person or thing unknown to the speaker; the noun, therefore, cannot occur
before it, but may be used after it or in place of it. Examples: "In the
grave, _who_ shall give thee thanks?" - _Ps._, vi, 5. Here the word _who_ is
equivalent to _what person_, taken interrogatively. "Which of you
convinceth me of sin?" - _John_, viii, 46. That is, "_Which man_ of you?"
"Master, _what_ shall we do?" - _Luke_, iii, 12. That is, "_What act_, or
_thing_?" These solutions, however, convert _which_ and _what_ into
_adjectives_: and, in fact, as they have no inflections for the numbers and
cases, there is reason to think them at all times essentially such. We call
them pronouns, to avoid the inconvenience of supposing and supplying an
infinite multitude of ellipses. But _who_, though often equivalent (as
above) to an adjective and a noun, is never itself used adjectively; it is
always a pronoun.

OBS. 5. - In respect to _who_ or _whom_, it sometimes makes little or no
difference to the sense, whether we take it as a demonstrative pronoun
equivalent to _what person_, or suppose it to relate to an antecedent
understood before it: as, "Even so the Son quickeneth _whom_ he
will." - _John_, v, 21. That is - "_what persons_ he will," or, "_those
persons_ whom he will;" for the Greek word for _whom_, is, in this
instance, plural. The former is a shorter explanation of the meaning, but
the latter I take to be the true account of the construction; for, by the
other, we make _whom_ a double relative, and the object of two governing
words at once. So, perhaps, of the following example, which Dr. Johnson
cites under the word _who_, to show what he calls its "_disjunctive_
sense:" -

"There thou tellst _of_ kings, and _who_ aspire;
_Who_ fall, _who_ rise, _who_ triumph, _who_ do moan." - _Daniel_.

OBS. 6. - It sometimes happens that the real antecedent, or the term which
in the order of the sense must stand before the pronoun, is not placed
antecedently to it, in the order given to the words: as, "It is written, To
_whom_ he was not spoken of, _they_ shall see; and they that have not
heard, shall understand." - _Romans_, xv, 21. Here the sense is, "_They_ to
_whom_ he was not spoken of, shall see." Whoever takes the passage
otherwise, totally misunderstands it. And yet the same order of the words
might be used to signify, "They shall see _to whom_ (that is, _to what
persons_) he was not spoken of." Transpositions of this kind, as well as of
every other, occur most frequently in poetry. The following example is from
an Essay on Satire, printed with Pope's Works, but written by one of his
friends: -

"_Whose_ is the crime, the scandal too be _theirs_;
The knave and fool are their own libellers." - _J. Brown._

OBS. 7. - The personal and the interrogative pronouns often stand in
construction as the antecedents to other pronouns: as, "_He_ also _that_ is
slothful in his work, is brother to _him that_ is a great
waster." - _Prov._, xviii. 9. Here _he_ and _him_ are each equivalent to
_the man_, and each is taken as the antecedent to the relative which
follows it. "For both _he that_ sanctifieth, and _they who_ are sanctified,
are all of one: for which cause, _he_ is not ashamed to call _them_
brethren." - _Heb._, ii, 11. Here _he_ and _they_ may be considered the
antecedents to _that_ and _who_, of the first clause, and also to _he_ and
_them_, of the second. So the interrogative _who_ may be the antecedent to
the relative _that_; as, "_Who that_ has any moral sense, dares tell lies?"
Here _who_, being equivalent to _what person_, is the term with which the
other pronoun agrees. Nay, an interrogative pronoun, (or the noun which is
implied in it,) may be the antecedent to a _personal_ pronoun; as, "_Who_
hath first given to Him, and it shall be recompensed to _him_
again?" - _Romans_, xi, 35. Here the idea is, "_What person_ hath first
given _any thing_ to _the Lord_, so that it ought to be repaid _him_?" that
is, "so that _the gift_ ought to be recompensed from Heaven to _the
giver_?" In the following example, the first pronoun is the antecedent to
all the rest: -

"And _he that_ never doubted of _his_ state,
_He_ may perhaps - perhaps _he_ may - too late." - _Cowper_.

OBS. 8. - So the personal pronouns of the _possessive_ case, (which some
call adjectives,) are sometimes represented by relatives, though less
frequently than their primitives: as, "How different, O Ortogrul, is _thy_
condition, _who_ art doomed to the perpetual torments of unsatisfied
desire!" - _Dr. Johnson_. Here _who_ is of the second person, singular,
masculine; and represents the antecedent pronoun _thy_: for _thy_ is a
pronoun, and not (as some writers will have it) an adjective. Examples like
this, disprove the doctrine of those grammarians who say that _my, thy,
his, her, its_, and their plurals, _our, your, their_, are adjectives. For,
if they were mere adjectives, they could not thus be made antecedents.
Examples of this construction are sufficiently common, and sufficiently
clear, to settle that point, unless they can be better explained in some
other way. Take an instance or two more: "And they are written for _our_
admonition, upon _whom_ the ends of the world are come." - _1 Cor._, x, 11.

"Be thou the first true merit to befriend;
_His_ praise is lost, _who_ stays till all commend." - _Pope_.


CLASSES.

Pronouns are divided into three classes; _personal, relative_, and
_interrogative_.

I. A _personal pronoun_ is a pronoun that shows, by its form, of what
person it is; as, "Whether _it_[187] were _I_ or _they_, so _we_ preach,
and so _ye_ believed." - _1 Cor._, xv, 11.

The simple personal pronouns are five: namely, _I_, of the first person;
_thou_, of the second person; _he, she_, and _it_, of the third person.

The compound personal pronouns are also five: namely, _myself_, of the
first person; _thyself_, of the second person; _himself, herself_, and
_itself_, of the third person.

II. A _relative pronoun_ is a pronoun that represents an antecedent word or
phrase, and connects different clauses of a sentence; as, "No people can be
great, _who_ have ceased to be virtuous." - _Dr. Johnson._

The relative pronouns are _who, which, what, that, as_, and the compounds
_whoever_ or _whosoever, whichever_ or _whichsoever, whatever_ or
_whatsoever_.[188]

_What_ is a kind of _double relative_, equivalent to _that which_ or _those
which_; and is to be parsed, first as antecedent, and then as relative: as,
"This is _what_ I wanted; that is to say, _the thing which_ I wanted." - _L.
Murray_. III. An _interrogative pronoun_ is a pronoun with which a question
is asked; as, "_Who_ touched my clothes?" - _Mark_, v, 30.

The interrogative pronouns are _who, which_, and _what_; being the same in
form as relatives.

_Who_ demands a person's name; _which_, that a person or thing be
distinguished from others; _what_, the name of a thing, or a person's
occupation and character.


OBSERVATIONS.

OBS. 1. - The pronouns _I_ and _myself, thou_ and _thyself_, with their
inflections, are literally applicable to persons only; but, _figuratively_,
they represent brutes, or whatever else the human imagination invests with
speech and reason. The latter use of them, though literal perhaps in every
thing _but person_, constitutes the purest kind of personification. For
example: "The _trees_ went forth on a time to anoint a king over them: and
they said unto the _olive-tree_, 'Reign _thou_ over _us_.' But the
_olive-tree_ said unto them, 'Should _I_ leave _my_ fatness, wherewith by
_me_ they honour God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?'" See
_Judges_, ix, from 8 to 16.

OBS. 2. - The pronouns _he_ and _himself, she_ and _herself_, with their
inflections, are literally applicable to persons and to brutes, and to
these only; if applied to lifeless objects, they animate them, and are
figurative _in gender_, though literal perhaps in every other respect. For
example: "A _diamond_ of beauty and lustre, observing at _his_ side in the
same cabinet, not only many other gems, but even a _loadstone_, began to
question the latter how _he_ came there - _he, who_ appeared to be no better
than a mere flint, a sorry rusty-looking pebble, without the least shining
quality to advance _him_ to such honour; and concluded with desiring _him_
to keep _his_ distance, and to pay a proper respect to _his_
superiors." - _Kames's Art of Thinking_, p. 226.

OBS. 3. - The pronoun _it_, as it carries in itself no such idea as that of
personality, or sex, or life, is chiefly used with reference to things
inanimate; yet the word is, in a certain way, applicable to animals, or
even to persons; though it does not, in itself, present them as such. Thus
we say, "_It_ is _I_;" - "_It_ was _they_;" - "_It_ was _you_;" - "_It_ was
your _agent_;" - "_It_ is your _bull_ that has killed one of my oxen." In
examples of this kind, the word _it_ is simply demonstrative; meaning, _the
thing or subject spoken of_. That subject, whatever it be in itself, may be
introduced again after the verb, in any person, number, or gender, that
suits it. But, as the verb agrees with the pronoun _it_, the word which
follows, can in no sense be made, as Dr. Priestley will have it to be, the
_antecedent_ to that pronoun. Besides, it is contrary to the nature of what
is primarily demonstrative, to represent a preceding word of any kind. The
Doctor absurdly says, "Not only things, but persons, may be the
_antecedent_ to this pronoun; as, _Who is it_? _Is it not Thomas_? i. e.
_Who is the person_? _Is not he Thomas?_" - _Priestley's Gram._, p. 85. In
these examples, the terms are transposed by interrogation; but that
circumstance, though it may have helped to deceive this author and his
copiers, affects not my assertion.

OBS. 4. - The pronoun _who_ is usually applied only to persons. Its
application to brutes or to things is improper, unless we mean to personify
them. But _whose_, the possessive case of this relative, is sometimes used
to supply the place of the possessive case, otherwise wanting, to the
relative _which_. Examples: "The mutes are those consonants _whose_ sounds
cannot be protracted." - _Murray's Gram._, p. 9. "Philosophy, _whose_ end
is, to instruct us in the knowledge of nature." - _Ib._, p. 54; _Campbell's
Rhet._, 421. "Those adverbs are compared _whose_ primitives are
obsolete." - _Adam's Latin Gram._, p. 150. "After a sentence _whose_ sense
is complete in itself, a period is used." - _Nutting's Gram._, p. 124. "We
remember best those things _whose_ parts are methodically disposed, and
mutually connected." - _Beattie's Moral Science_, i, 59. "Is there any other
doctrine _whose_ followers are punished?" - ADDISON: _Murray's Gram._, p.
54; _Lowth's_, p. 25.

"The question, _whose_ solution I require,
Is, what the sex of women most desire." - DRYDEN: _Lowth_, p. 25.

OBS. 5. - Buchanan, as well as Lowth, condemns the foregoing use of _whose_,



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